Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Paracorallium japonicum

6 Linkage between Trace Element Distribution and Growth Ring Formation in Japanese Red Coral (Paracorallium japonicum)

Authors: Luan Trong Nguyen, M. Azizur Rahman, Yusuke Tamenori, Toshihiro Yoshimura, Nozomu Iwasaki, Hiroshi Hasegawa

Abstract:

This study investigated the distribution of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and strontium (Sr) using micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) along the annual growth rings in the skeleton of Japanese red coral Paracorallium japonicum. The Mg, P and S distribution in µ-XRF mapping images correspond to the dark and light bands along the annual growth rings observed in microscopic images of the coral skeleton. The µ-XRF mapping data showed a positive correlation (r = 0.6) between P and S distribution in the coral skeleton. A contrasting distribution pattern of S and Mg along the axial skeleton of P. japonicum indicates a weak negative correlation (r = -0.2) between these two trace elements. The distribution pattern of S, P and Mg reveals linkage between their distributions and the formation of dark/light bands along the annual growth rings in the axial skeleton of P. japonicum. Sulfur and P were distributed in the organic matrix rich dark bands, while Mg was distributed in the light bands of the annual growth rings.

Keywords: µ-XRF, trace element, precious coral, Paracorallium japonicum

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5 Anti-Obesity Effects of Pteryxin in Peucedanum japonicum Thunb Leaves through Different Pathways of Adipogenesis In-Vitro

Authors: Ruwani N. Nugara, Masashi Inafuku, Kensaku Takara, Hironori Iwasaki, Hirosuke Oku

Abstract:

Pteryxin from the partially purified hexane phase (HP) of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb (PJT) was identified as the active compound related to anti-obesity. Thus, in this study we investigated the mechanisms related to anti-obesity activity in-vitro. The HP was fractionated, and effect on the triglyceride (TG) content was evaluated in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells. Comprehensive spectroscopic analyses were used to identify the structure of the active compound. The dose dependent effect of active constituent on the TG content, and the gene expressions related to adipogenesis, fatty acid catabolism, energy expenditure, lipolysis and lipogenesis (20 μg/mL) were examined in-vitro. Furthermore, higher dosage of pteryxin (50μg/mL) was tested against 20μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The mRNA were subjected to SOLiD next generation sequencer and the obtained data were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The active constituent was identified as pteryxin, a known compound in PJT. However, its biological activities against obesity have not been reported previously. Pteryxin dose dependently suppressed TG content in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 hepatocytes (P < 0.05). Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1 c), Fatty acid synthase (FASN), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC1) were downregulated in pteryxin-treated adipocytes (by 18.0, 36.1 and 38.2%; P < 0.05, respectively) and hepatocytes (by 72.3, 62.9 and 38.8%, respectively; P < 0.05) indicating its suppressive effects on fatty acid synthesis. The hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), a lipid catabolising gene was upregulated (by 15.1%; P < 0.05) in pteryxin-treated adipocytes suggesting improved lipolysis. Concordantly, the adipocyte size marker gene, paternally expressed gene1/mesoderm specific transcript (MEST) was downregulated (by 42.8%; P < 0.05), further accelerating the lipolytic activity. The upregulated trend of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2; by 77.5%; P < 0.05) reflected the improved energy expenditure due to pteryxin. The 50μg/mL dosage of pteryxin completely suppressed PPARγ, MEST, SREBP 1C, HSL, Adiponectin, Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP) 4, and UCP’s in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The IPA suggested that pteryxin at 20μg/mL and 50μg/mL suppress obesity in two different pathways, whereas the WNT signaling pathway play a key role in the higher dose of pteryxin in preadipocyte stage. Pteryxin in PJT play the key role in regulating lipid metabolism related gene network and improving energy production in vitro. Thus, the results suggests pteryxin as a new natural compound to be used as an anti-obesity drug in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: obesity, peucedanum japonicum thunb, pteryxin, food science

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4 Evaluation of Multi-Sectoral Schistosomiasis Control in Indonesia

Authors: Hayani Anastasia, Junus Widjaja, Anis Nur Widayati

Abstract:

In Indonesia, schistosomiasis is caused by Schistosoma japonicum with Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis as the intermediate host. Schistosomiasis can infect humans and all species of mammals. In order to achieve schistosomiasis elimination by 2020, schistosomiasis control, including environmental management, has been carried out by multi-sector. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018 to evaluate the multi-sectoral schistosomiasis control program. Data were collected by depth interviews of stakeholders, stool surveys, snail surveys, observation, and document reviews. About 53.6% of control programs in the schistosomiasis control roadmap were not achieved. The number of foci area found in 2018 are not significantly different compared to before the control programs. Moreover, the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the human was 0-5.1% and in mammals was the range from 0 to 10%. In order to overcome the problems, a policy about schistosomiasis as a priority program in ministries and agencies other than the Ministry of Health is needed. Innovative health promotion with interactive media also needs to be applied. Also, the schistosomiasis work team needs to be more active with the Agency of Regional Development as the leading sector.

Keywords: evaluation, Indonesia, multi-sector, schistosomiasis

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3 Plant Growth and Yield Enhancement of Soybean by Inoculation with Symbiotic and Nonsymbiotic Bacteria

Authors: Timea I. Hajnal-Jafari, Simonida S. Đurić, Dragana R. Stamenov

Abstract:

Microbial inoculants from the group of symbiotic-nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are well known and widely used in production of legumes. On the other hand, nonsymbiotic plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are not commonly used in practice. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of soybean inoculation with symbiotic and nonsymbiotic bacteria on plant growth and seed yield of soybean. Microbiological activity in rhizospheric soil was also determined. The experiment was set up using a randomized block system in filed conditions with the following treatments: control-no inoculation; treatment 1-Bradyrhizobium japonicum; treatment 2-Azotobacter sp.; treatment 3-Bacillus sp..In the flowering stage of growth (FS) the number of nodules per plant (NPP), root length (RL), plant height (PH) and weight (PW) were measured. The number of pod per plant (PPP), number of seeds per pod (SPP) and seed weight per plant (SWP) were recorded at the end of vegetation period (EV). Microbiological analyses of soil included the determination of total number of bacteria (TNB), number of fungi (FNG), actinomycetes (ACT) and azotobacters (AZB) as well as the activity of the dehydrogenase enzyme (DHA). The results showed that bacterial inoculation led to the formation of root nodules regardless of the treatments with statistically no significant difference. Strong nodulation was also present in control treatment. RL and PH were positively influenced by inoculation with Azotobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively. Statistical analyses of the number of PPP, SPP, and SWP showed no significant differences among investigated treatments. High average number of microorganisms were determined in all treatments. Most abundant were TNB (log No 8,010) and ACT (log No 6,055) than FNG and AZB with log No 4,867 and log No 4,025, respectively. The highest DHA activity was measured in the FS of soybean in treatment 3. The application of nonsymbiotic bacteria in soybean production can alleviate initial plant growth and help the plant to better overcome different stress conditions caused by abiotic and biotic factors.

Keywords: bacteria, inoculation, soybean, microbial activity

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2 The Effects of Inoculation and N Fertilization on Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Seed Yield and Protein Concentration under Drought Stress

Authors: Oqba Basal, Andras Szabo

Abstract:

Using mineral fertilization is increasing worldwide, as it is claimed to be majorly responsible for achieving high yields; however, the negative impacts of mineral fertilization on soil and environment are becoming more obvious, with alternative methods being more necessary and applicable, especially with the current climatic changes which have imposed serious abiotic stresses, such as drought. An experiment was made during 2017 growing season in Debrecen, Hungary to investigate the effects of inoculation and N fertilization on the seed yield and protein concentration of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivar (Panonia Kincse) under three different irrigation regimes: severe drought stress (SD), moderate drought stress (MD) and control with no drought stress (ND). Three N fertilizer rates were applied: no N fertilizer (0 N), 35 kg ha⁻¹ of N fertilizer (35 N) and 105 kg ha⁻¹ of N fertilizer (105 N). Half of the seeds in each treatment was inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant, and the other half was not inoculated. The results showed significant differences in the seed yield associated with inoculation, irrigation and the interaction between them, whereas there were no significant differences in the seed yield associated with fertilization alone or in interaction with inoculation or irrigation or both. When seeds were inoculated, yield was increased when (35 N) was applied compared to (0 N) but not significantly; however, the high rate of N fertilizer (105 N) reduced the yield to a level even less than (0 N). When seeds were not inoculated, the highest rate of N increased the yield the most compared to the other two N fertilizer rates whenever the drought was present (moderate or severe). Under severe drought stress, inoculation was positively and significantly correlated with yield; however, adding N fertilizer increased the yield of uninoculated plants compared to the inoculated ones, regardless of the rate of N fertilizer. Protein concentration in the seeds was significantly affected by irrigation and by fertilization, but not by inoculation. Protein concentration increased as the N fertilization rate increased, regardless of the inoculation or irrigation treatments; moreover, increasing the N rate reduced the correlation coefficient of protein concentration with the irrigation. It was concluded that adding N fertilizer is not always recommended, especially when seeds are inoculated before being sown; however, it is very important under severe drought stress to sustain yield. Enhanced protein concentrations could be achieved by applying N fertilization, whether the seeds were pre-inoculated or not.

Keywords: drought stress, N fertilization, protein concentration, soybean

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1 The Effects of Drought and Nitrogen on Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Physiology and Yield

Authors: Oqba Basal, András Szabó

Abstract:

Legume crops are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic relation with specific bacteria, which allows the use of the mineral nitrogen-fertilizer to be reduced, or even excluded, resulting in more profit for the farmers and less pollution for the environment. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important legumes with its high content of both protein and oil. However, it is recommended to combine the two nitrogen sources under stress conditions in order to overcome its negative effects. Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that increasingly limits soybean yields. A precise rate of mineral nitrogen under drought conditions is not confirmed, as it depends on many factors; soybean yield-potential and soil-nitrogen content to name a few. An experiment was conducted during 2017 growing season in Debrecen, Hungary to investigate the effects of nitrogen source on the physiology and the yield of the soybean cultivar 'Boglár'. Three N-fertilizer rates including no N-fertilizer (0 N), 35 kg ha-1 of N-fertilizer (35 N) and 105 kg ha-1 of N-fertilizer (105 N) were applied under three different irrigation regimes; severe drought stress (SD), moderate drought stress (MD) and control with no drought stress (ND). Half of the seeds in each treatment were pre-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant. The overall results showed significant differences associated with fertilization and irrigation, but not with inoculation. Increasing N rate was mostly accompanied with increased chlorophyll content and leaf area index, whereas it positively affected the plant height only when the drought was waived off. Plant height was the lowest under severe drought, regardless of inoculation and N-fertilizer application and rate. Inoculation increased the yield when there was no drought, and a low rate of N-fertilizer increased the yield furthermore; however, the high rate of N-fertilizer decreased the yield to a level even less than the inoculated control. On the other hand, the yield of non-inoculated plants increased as the N-fertilizer rate increased. Under drought conditions, adding N-fertilizer increased the yield of the non-inoculated plants compared to their inoculated counterparts; moreover, the high rate of N-fertilizer resulted in the best yield. Regardless of inoculation, the mean yield of the three fertilization rates was better when the water amount increased. It was concluded that applying N-fertilizer to provide the nitrogen needed by soybean plants, with the absence of N2-fixation process, is very important. Moreover, adding relatively high rate of N-fertilizer is very important under severe drought stress to alleviate the drought negative effects. Further research to recommend the best N-fertilizer rate to inoculated soybean under drought stress conditions should be executed.

Keywords: drought stress, inoculation, N-fertilizer, soybean physiology, yield

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