Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 376

Search results for: skew polynomial rings

376 Jacobson Semisimple Skew Inverse Laurent Series Rings

Authors: Ahmad Moussavi


In this paper, we are concerned with the Jacobson semisimple skew inverse Laurent series rings R((x−1; α, δ)) and the skew Laurent power series rings R[[x, x−1; α]], where R is an associative ring equipped with an automorphism α and an α-derivation δ. Examples to illustrate and delimit the theory are provided.

Keywords: skew polynomial rings, Laurent series, skew inverse Laurent series rings

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
375 Generalized π-Armendariz Authentication Cryptosystem

Authors: Areej M. Abduldaim, Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi


Algebra is one of the important fields of mathematics. It concerns with the study and manipulation of mathematical symbols. It also concerns with the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. Due to the development of these abstractions, it is extended to consider other structures, such as vectors, matrices, and polynomials, which are non-numerical objects. Computer algebra is the implementation of algebraic methods as algorithms and computer programs. Recently, many algebraic cryptosystem protocols are based on non-commutative algebraic structures, such as authentication, key exchange, and encryption-decryption processes are adopted. Cryptography is the science that aimed at sending the information through public channels in such a way that only an authorized recipient can read it. Ring theory is the most attractive category of algebra in the area of cryptography. In this paper, we employ the algebraic structure called skew -Armendariz rings to design a neoteric algorithm for zero knowledge proof. The proposed protocol is established and illustrated through numerical example, and its soundness and completeness are proved.

Keywords: cryptosystem, identification, skew π-Armendariz rings, skew polynomial rings, zero knowledge protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
374 A Characterization of Skew Cyclic Code with Complementary Dual

Authors: Eusebio Jr. Lina, Ederlina Nocon


Cyclic codes are a fundamental subclass of linear codes that enjoy a very interesting algebraic structure. The class of skew cyclic codes (or θ-cyclic codes) is a generalization of the notion of cyclic codes. This a very large class of linear codes which can be used to systematically search for codes with good properties. A linear code with complementary dual (LCD code) is a linear code C satisfying C ∩ C^⊥ = {0}. This subclass of linear codes provides an optimum linear coding solution for a two-user binary adder channel and plays an important role in countermeasures to passive and active side-channel analyses on embedded cryptosystems. This paper aims to identify LCD codes from the class of skew cyclic codes. Let F_q be a finite field of order q, and θ be an automorphism of F_q. Some conditions for a skew cyclic code to be LCD were given. To this end, the properties of a noncommutative skew polynomial ring F_q[x, θ] of automorphism type were revisited, and the algebraic structure of skew cyclic code using its skew polynomial representation was examined. Using the result that skew cyclic codes are left ideals of the ring F_q[x, θ]/〈x^n-1〉, a characterization of a skew cyclic LCD code of length n was derived. A necessary condition for a skew cyclic code to be LCD was also given.

Keywords: LCD cyclic codes, skew cyclic LCD codes, skew cyclic complementary dual codes, theta-cyclic codes with complementary duals

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373 From Convexity in Graphs to Polynomial Rings

Authors: Ladznar S. Laja, Rosalio G. Artes, Jr.


This paper introduced a graph polynomial relating convexity concepts. A graph polynomial is a polynomial representing a graph given some parameters. On the other hand, a subgraph H of a graph G is said to be convex in G if for every pair of vertices in H, every shortest path with these end-vertices lies entirely in H. We define the convex subgraph polynomial of a graph G to be the generating function of the sequence of the numbers of convex subgraphs of G of cardinalities ranging from zero to the order of G. This graph polynomial is monic since G itself is convex. The convex index which counts the number of convex subgraphs of G of all orders is just the evaluation of this polynomial at 1. Relationships relating algebraic properties of convex subgraphs polynomial with graph theoretic concepts are established.

Keywords: convex subgraph, convex index, generating function, polynomial ring

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372 Skew Cyclic Codes over Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq

Authors: Jing Li, Xiuli Li


This paper studies a special class of linear codes, called skew cyclic codes, over the ring R= Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq, where q is a prime power. A Gray map ɸ from R to Fq and a Gray map ɸ' from Rn to Fnq are defined, as well as an automorphism Θ over R. It is proved that the images of skew cyclic codes over R under map ɸ' and Θ are cyclic codes over Fq, and they still keep the dual relation.

Keywords: skew cyclic code, gray map, automorphism, cyclic code

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
371 Some Properties in Jordan Ideal on 3-Prime Near-Rings

Authors: Abdelkarim Boua, Abdelhakim Chillali


The study of non-associative structures in algebraic structures has become a separate entity; for, in the case of groups, their corresponding non-associative structure i.e. loops is dealt with separately. Similarly there is vast amount of research on the nonassociative structures of semigroups i.e. groupoids and that of rings i.e. nonassociative rings. However it is unfortunate that we do not have a parallel notions or study of non-associative near-rings. In this work we shall attempt to generalize a few known results and study the commutativity of Jordan ideal in 3-prime near-rings satisfying certain identities involving the Jordan ideal. We study the derivations satisfying certain differential identities on Jordan ideals of 3-prime near-rings. Moreover, we provide examples to show that hypothesis of our results are necessary. We give some new results and examples concerning the existence of Jordan ideal and derivations in near-rings. These near-rings can be used to build a new codes.

Keywords: 3-prime near-rings, near-rings, Jordan ideal, derivations

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370 Chebyshev Polynomials Relad with Fibonacci and Lucas Polynomials

Authors: Vandana N. Purav


Fibonacci and Lucas polynomials are special cases of Chebyshev polynomial. There are two types of Chebyshev polynomials, a Chebyshev polynomial of first kind and a Chebyshev polynomial of second kind. Chebyshev polynomial of second kind can be derived from the Chebyshev polynomial of first kind. Chebyshev polynomial is a polynomial of degree n and satisfies a second order homogenous differential equation. We consider the difference equations which are related with Chebyshev, Fibonacci and Lucas polynomias. Thus Chebyshev polynomial of second kind play an important role in finding the recurrence relations with Fibonacci and Lucas polynomials.


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369 The Modality of Multivariate Skew Normal Mixture

Authors: Bader Alruwaili, Surajit Ray


Finite mixtures are a flexible and powerful tool that can be used for univariate and multivariate distributions, and a wide range of research analysis has been conducted based on the multivariate normal mixture and multivariate of a t-mixture. Determining the number of modes is an important activity that, in turn, allows one to determine the number of homogeneous groups in a population. Our work currently being carried out relates to the study of the modality of the skew normal distribution in the univariate and multivariate cases. For the skew normal distribution, the aims are associated with studying the modality of the skew normal distribution and providing the ridgeline, the ridgeline elevation function, the $\Pi$ function, and the curvature function, and this will be conducive to an exploration of the number and location of mode when mixing the two components of skew normal distribution. The subsequent objective is to apply these results to the application of real world data sets, such as flow cytometry data.

Keywords: mode, modality, multivariate skew normal, finite mixture, number of mode

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368 Transformations between Bivariate Polynomial Bases

Authors: Dimitris Varsamis, Nicholas Karampetakis


It is well known that any interpolating polynomial P(x,y) on the vector space Pn,m of two-variable polynomials with degree less than n in terms of x and less than m in terms of y has various representations that depends on the basis of Pn,m that we select i.e. monomial, Newton and Lagrange basis etc. The aim of this paper is twofold: a) to present transformations between the coordinates of the polynomial P(x,y) in the aforementioned basis and b) to present transformations between these bases.

Keywords: bivariate interpolation polynomial, polynomial basis, transformations, interpolating polynomial

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367 Introduction to Paired Domination Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: Puttaswamy, Anwar Alwardi, Nayaka S. R.


One of the algebraic representation of a graph is the graph polynomial. In this article, we introduce the paired-domination polynomial of a graph G. The paired-domination polynomial of a graph G of order n is the polynomial Dp(G, x) with the coefficients dp(G, i) where dp(G, i) denotes the number of paired dominating sets of G of cardinality i and γpd(G) denotes the paired-domination number of G. We obtain some properties of Dp(G, x) and its coefficients. Further, we compute this polynomial for some families of standard graphs. Further, we obtain some characterization for some specific graphs.

Keywords: domination polynomial, paired dominating set, paired domination number, paired domination polynomial

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366 On the Zeros of the Degree Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: S. R. Nayaka, Putta Swamy


Graph polynomial is one of the algebraic representations of the Graph. The degree polynomial is one of the simple algebraic representations of graphs. The degree polynomial of a graph G of order n is the polynomial Deg(G, x) with the coefficients deg(G,i) where deg(G,i) denotes the number of vertices of degree i in G. In this article, we investigate the behavior of the roots of some families of Graphs in the complex field. We investigate for the graphs having only integral roots. Further, we characterize the graphs having single roots or having real roots and behavior of the polynomial at the particular value is also obtained.

Keywords: degree polynomial, regular graph, minimum and maximum degree, graph operations

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365 A Study on Weddernburn – Artin Theorem for Rings

Authors: Fahad Suleiman, Sammani Abdullahi


The study depicts that a Wedderburn Artin – theorem for rings is considered to be a semisimple ring R which is isomorphic to a product of finitely many mi by mi matrix rings over division rings Di, for some integers n_i, both of which are uniquely determined up to permutation of the index i. It has been concluded that when R is simple the Wedderburn – Artin theorem is known as Wedderburn’s theorem.

Keywords: Commutativity, Wedderburn theorem, Semisimple ring, R module

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364 Contribution of Intermediate Diaphragms on LDFs of Straight and Skew Concrete Multicell Box-Girder Bridges

Authors: Iman Mohseni


Current studies indicate that neglecting the effect of intermediate diaphragms might lead to highly conservative values for bending moment distribution factors and result in non-economic designs for skew bridges. This paper reports on a parametric study performed on 160 prototypes of straight and skew concrete multicell box-girder bridges. The obtained results were used to develop practical expressions to account for the diaphragm effects on American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials formulas for live load distribution factors. It was observed that decks with internal transverse diaphragms perpendicular to the longitudinal webs are the best arrangement for load distribution in skew bridges.

Keywords: box bridges, truck, distribution factor, diaphragm

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363 Modelling of Induction Motor Including Skew Effect Using MWFA for Performance Improvement

Authors: M. Harir, A. Bendiabdellah, A. Chaouch, N. Benouzza


This paper deals with the modelling and simulation of the squirrel cage induction motor by taking into account all space harmonic components, as well as the introduction of the bars skew, in the calculation of the linear evolution of the magnetomotive force (MMF) between the slots extremities. The model used is based on multiple coupled circuits and the modified winding function approach (MWFA). The effect of skewing is included in the calculation of motors inductances with an axial asymmetry in the rotor. The simulation results in both time and spectral domains show the effectiveness and merits of the model and the error that may be caused if the skew of the bars is neglected.

Keywords: modeling, MWFA, skew effect, squirrel cage induction motor, spectral domain

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362 Application of Soft Sets to Non-Associative Rings

Authors: Inayatur Rehman


Molodtstove developed the theory of soft sets which can be seen as an effective tool to deal with uncertainties. Since the introduction of this concept, the application of soft sets has been restricted to associative algebraic structures (groups, semi groups, associative rings, semi-rings etc.). Acceptably, though the study of soft sets, where the base set of parameters is a commutative structure, has attracted the attention of many researchers for more than one decade. But on the other hand there are many sets which are naturally endowed by two compatible binary operations forming a non-associative ring and we may dig out examples which investigate a non-associative structure in the context of soft sets. Thus it seems natural to apply the concept of soft sets to non-commutative and non-associative structures. In present paper, we make a new approach to apply Molodtsoves notion of soft sets to LA-ring (a class of non-associative ring). We extend the study of soft commutative rings from theoretical aspect.

Keywords: soft sets, LA-rings, soft LA-rings, soft ideals, soft prime ideals, idealistic soft LA-rings, LA-ring homomorphism

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361 Extension and Closure of a Field for Engineering Purpose

Authors: Shouji Yujiro, Memei Dukovic, Mist Yakubu


Fields are important objects of study in algebra since they provide a useful generalization of many number systems, such as the rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers. In particular, the usual rules of associativity, commutativity and distributivity hold. Fields also appear in many other areas of mathematics; see the examples below. When abstract algebra was first being developed, the definition of a field usually did not include commutativity of multiplication, and what we today call a field would have been called either a commutative field or a rational domain. In contemporary usage, a field is always commutative. A structure which satisfies all the properties of a field except possibly for commutativity, is today called a division ring ordivision algebra or sometimes a skew field. Also non-commutative field is still widely used. In French, fields are called corps (literally, body), generally regardless of their commutativity. When necessary, a (commutative) field is called corps commutative and a skew field-corps gauche. The German word for body is Körper and this word is used to denote fields; hence the use of the blackboard bold to denote a field. The concept of fields was first (implicitly) used to prove that there is no general formula expressing in terms of radicals the roots of a polynomial with rational coefficients of degree 5 or higher. An extension of a field k is just a field K containing k as a subfield. One distinguishes between extensions having various qualities. For example, an extension K of a field k is called algebraic, if every element of K is a root of some polynomial with coefficients in k. Otherwise, the extension is called transcendental. The aim of Galois Theory is the study of algebraic extensions of a field. Given a field k, various kinds of closures of k may be introduced. For example, the algebraic closure, the separable closure, the cyclic closure et cetera. The idea is always the same: If P is a property of fields, then a P-closure of k is a field K containing k, having property, and which is minimal in the sense that no proper subfield of K that contains k has property P. For example if we take P (K) to be the property ‘every non-constant polynomial f in K[t] has a root in K’, then a P-closure of k is just an algebraic closure of k. In general, if P-closures exist for some property P and field k, they are all isomorphic. However, there is in general no preferable isomorphism between two closures.

Keywords: field theory, mechanic maths, supertech, rolltech

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360 Generic Polynomial of Integers and Applications

Authors: Nidal Ali


Consider an algebraic number field K of degree n, A0 K is its ring of integers and a prime number p inert in K. Let F(u1, . . . , un, x) be the generic polynomial of integers of K. We will study in advance the stability of this polynomial and then, we will apply it in order to obtain all the monic irreducible polynomials in Fp[x] of degree d dividing n.

Keywords: generic polynomial, irreducibility, iteration, stability, inert prime, totally ramified

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359 Solution for Rider Ring Wear Problem in Boil off Gas Reciprocating Compressor: A Case Study

Authors: Hessam Mortezaei, Saeid Joudakian


In this paper, the wear problem on rider rings of boil off gas compressor has been studied. This kind of oil free double acting compressor has free floating piston (FFP) technology and as a result of that it should have the lowest possible wear on its rider rings. But a design problem had caused a complete wear of rider rings after one month of continuous operation. In this case study, the source of this problem was recognized and solved.

Keywords: piston rider, rings, gas distribution, pressure wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
358 On Modules over Dedekind Prime Rings

Authors: Elvira Kusniyanti, Hanni Garminia, Pudji Astuti


This research studies an interconnection between finitely generated uniform modules and Dedekind prime rings. The characterization of modules over Dedekind prime rings that will be investigated is an adoption of Noetherian and hereditary concept. Dedekind prime rings are Noetherian and hereditary rings. This property of Dedekind prime rings is a background of the idea of adopting arises. In Noetherian area, it was known that a ring R is Noetherian ring if and only if every finitely generated R-module is a Noetherian module. Similar to that result, a characterization of the hereditary ring is related to its projective modules. That is, a ring R is hereditary ring if and only if every projective R-module is a hereditary module. Due to the above two results, we suppose that characterization of a Dedekind prime ring can be analyzed from finitely generated modules over it. We propose a conjecture: a ring R is a Dedekind prime ring if and only if every finitely generated uniform R-module is a Dedekind module. In this article, we will generalize a concept of the Dedekind module for non-commutative ring case and present a part of the above conjecture.

Keywords: dedekind domains, dedekind prime rings, dedekind modules, uniform modules

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357 Adaptation of Hough Transform Algorithm for Text Document Skew Angle Detection

Authors: Kayode A. Olaniyi, Olabanji F. Omotoye, Adeola A. Ogunleye


The skew detection and correction form an important part of digital document analysis. This is because uncompensated skew can deteriorate document features and can complicate further document image processing steps. Efficient text document analysis and digitization can rarely be achieved when a document is skewed even at a small angle. Once the documents have been digitized through the scanning system and binarization also achieved, document skew correction is required before further image analysis. Research efforts have been put in this area with algorithms developed to eliminate document skew. Skew angle correction algorithms can be compared based on performance criteria. Most important performance criteria are accuracy of skew angle detection, range of skew angle for detection, speed of processing the image, computational complexity and consequently memory space used. The standard Hough Transform has successfully been implemented for text documentation skew angle estimation application. However, the standard Hough Transform algorithm level of accuracy depends largely on how much fine the step size for the angle used. This consequently consumes more time and memory space for increase accuracy and, especially where number of pixels is considerable large. Whenever the Hough transform is used, there is always a tradeoff between accuracy and speed. So a more efficient solution is needed that optimizes space as well as time. In this paper, an improved Hough transform (HT) technique that optimizes space as well as time to robustly detect document skew is presented. The modified algorithm of Hough Transform presents solution to the contradiction between the memory space, running time and accuracy. Our algorithm starts with the first step of angle estimation accurate up to zero decimal place using the standard Hough Transform algorithm achieving minimal running time and space but lacks relative accuracy. Then to increase accuracy, suppose estimated angle found using the basic Hough algorithm is x degree, we then run again basic algorithm from range between ±x degrees with accuracy of one decimal place. Same process is iterated till level of desired accuracy is achieved. The procedure of our skew estimation and correction algorithm of text images is implemented using MATLAB. The memory space estimation and process time are also tabulated with skew angle assumption of within 00 and 450. The simulation results which is demonstrated in Matlab show the high performance of our algorithms with less computational time and memory space used in detecting document skew for a variety of documents with different levels of complexity.

Keywords: hough-transform, skew-detection, skew-angle, skew-correction, text-document

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
356 The K-Distance Neighborhood Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: Soner Nandappa D., Ahmed Mohammed Naji


In a graph G = (V, E), the distance from a vertex v to a vertex u is the length of shortest v to u path. The eccentricity e(v) of v is the distance to a farthest vertex from v. The diameter diam(G) is the maximum eccentricity. The k-distance neighborhood of v, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is Nk(v) = {u ϵ V (G) : d(v, u) = k}. In this paper, we introduce a new distance degree based topological polynomial of a graph G is called a k- distance neighborhood polynomial, denoted Nk(G, x). It is a polynomial with the coefficient of the term k, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is the sum of the cardinalities of Nk(v) for every v ϵ V (G). Some properties of k- distance neighborhood polynomials are obtained. Exact formulas of the k- distance neighborhood polynomial for some well-known graphs, Cartesian product and join of graphs are presented.

Keywords: vertex degrees, distance in graphs, graph operation, Nk-polynomials

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355 The Extended Skew Gaussian Process for Regression

Authors: M. T. Alodat


In this paper, we propose a generalization to the Gaussian process regression(GPR) model called the extended skew Gaussian process for regression(ESGPr) model. The ESGPR model works better than the GPR model when the errors are skewed. We derive the predictive distribution for the ESGPR model at a new input. Also we apply the ESGPR model to FOREX data and we find that it fits the Forex data better than the GPR model.

Keywords: extended skew normal distribution, Gaussian process for regression, predictive distribution, ESGPr model

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354 Interaction between Unsteady Supersonic Jet and Vortex Rings

Authors: Kazumasa Kitazono, Hiroshi Fukuoka, Nao Kuniyoshi, Minoru Yaga, Eri Ueno, Naoaki Fukuda, Toshio Takiya


The unsteady supersonic jet formed by a shock tube with a small high-pressure chamber was used as a simple alternative model for pulsed laser ablation. Understanding the vortex ring formed by the shock wave is crucial in clarifying the behavior of unsteady supersonic jet discharged from an elliptical cell. Therefore, this study investigated the behavior of vortex rings and a jet. The experiment and numerical calculation were conducted using the schlieren method and by solving the axisymmetric two-dimensional compressible Navier–Stokes equations, respectively. In both, the calculation and the experiment, laser ablation is conducted for a certain duration, followed by discharge through the exit. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to demonstrate the effect of pressure ratio on the interaction among vortex rings and the supersonic jet. The interaction between the supersonic jet and the vortex rings increased the velocity of the supersonic jet up to the magnitude of the velocity at the center of the vortex rings. The interaction between the vortex rings increased the velocity at the center of the vortex ring.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, shock-wave, unsteady jet, vortex ring

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353 Skew Planar Wheel Antenna for First Person View of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Raymond Yudhi Purba, Levy Olivia Nur, Radial Anwar


This research presents the design and measurement of a skew planar wheel antenna that is used to visualize the first person view perspective of unmanned aerial vehicles. The antenna has been designed using CST Studio Suite 2019 to have voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) ≤ 2, return loss ≤ -10 dB, bandwidth ≥ 100 MHz to covering outdoor access point band from 5.725 to 5.825 GHz, omnidirectional radiation pattern, and elliptical polarization. Dimensions of skew planar wheel antenna have been modified using parameter sweep technique to provide good performances. The simulation results provide VSWR 1.231, return loss -19.693 dB, bandwidth 828.8 MHz, gain 3.292 dB, and axial ratio 9.229 dB. Meanwhile, the measurement results provide VSWR 1.237, return loss -19.476 dB, bandwidth 790.5 MHz, gain 3.2034 dB, and axial ratio 4.12 dB.

Keywords: skew planar wheel, cloverleaf, first-person view, unmanned aerial vehicle, parameter sweep

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352 Hosoya Polynomials of Zero-Divisor Graphs

Authors: Abdul Jalil M. Khalaf, Esraa M. Kadhim


The Hosoya polynomial of a graph G is a graphical invariant polynomial that its first derivative at x= 1 is equal to the Wiener index and second derivative at x=1 is equal to the Hyper-Wiener index. In this paper we study the Hosoya polynomial of zero-divisor graphs.

Keywords: Hosoya polynomial, wiener index, Hyper-Wiener index, zero-divisor graphs

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351 Segmentation of Piecewise Polynomial Regression Model by Using Reversible Jump MCMC Algorithm

Authors: Suparman


Piecewise polynomial regression model is very flexible model for modeling the data. If the piecewise polynomial regression model is matched against the data, its parameters are not generally known. This paper studies the parameter estimation problem of piecewise polynomial regression model. The method which is used to estimate the parameters of the piecewise polynomial regression model is Bayesian method. Unfortunately, the Bayes estimator cannot be found analytically. Reversible jump MCMC algorithm is proposed to solve this problem. Reversible jump MCMC algorithm generates the Markov chain that converges to the limit distribution of the posterior distribution of piecewise polynomial regression model parameter. The resulting Markov chain is used to calculate the Bayes estimator for the parameters of piecewise polynomial regression model.

Keywords: piecewise regression, bayesian, reversible jump MCMC, segmentation

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350 Modeling and Simulation of a CMOS-Based Analog Function Generator

Authors: Madina Hamiane


Modelling and simulation of an analogy function generator is presented based on a polynomial expansion model. The proposed function generator model is based on a 10th order polynomial approximation of any of the required functions. The polynomial approximations of these functions can then be implemented using basic CMOS circuit blocks. In this paper, a circuit model is proposed that can simultaneously generate many different mathematical functions. The circuit model is designed and simulated with HSPICE and its performance is demonstrated through the simulation of a number of non-linear functions.

Keywords: modelling and simulation, analog function generator, polynomial approximation, CMOS transistors

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349 Stabilization Control of the Nonlinear AIDS Model Based on the Theory of Polynomial Fuzzy Control Systems

Authors: Shahrokh Barati


In this paper, we introduced AIDS disease at first, then proposed dynamic model illustrate its progress, after expression of a short history of nonlinear modeling by polynomial phasing systems, we considered the stability conditions of the systems, which contained a huge amount of researches in order to modeling and control of AIDS in dynamic nonlinear form, in this approach using a frame work of control any polynomial phasing modeling system which have been generalized by part of phasing model of T-S, in order to control the system in better way, the stability conditions were achieved based on polynomial functions, then we focused to design the appropriate controller, firstly we considered the equilibrium points of system and their conditions and in order to examine changes in the parameters, we presented polynomial phase model that was the generalized approach rather than previous Takagi Sugeno models, then with using case we evaluated the equations in both open loop and close loop and with helping the controlling feedback, the close loop equations of system were calculated, to simulate nonlinear model of AIDS disease, we used polynomial phasing controller output that was capable to make the parameters of a nonlinear system to follow a sustainable reference model properly.

Keywords: polynomial fuzzy, AIDS, nonlinear AIDS model, fuzzy control systems

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348 Powered Two-Wheeler Rider’s Comfort over Road Sections with Skew Superelevation

Authors: Panagiotis Lemonakis, Nikolaos Moisiadis, Andromachi Gkoutzini, George Kaliabetsos, Nikos Eliou


The proper surface water drainage not only affects vehicle movement dynamics but also increases the likelihood of an accident due to the fact that inadequate drainage is associated with potential hydroplaning and splash and spray driving conditions. Nine solutions have been proposed to address hydroplaning in sections with inadequate drainage, e.g., augmented superelevation and longitudinal rates, reduction of runoff length, and skew superelevation. The latter has been extensively implemented in highways recently, enhancing the safety level in the applied road segments in regards to the effective drainage of the rainwater. However, the concept of the skew superelevation has raised concerns regarding the driver’s comfort when traveling over skew superelevation sections, particularly at high speeds. These concerns alleviated through the concept of the round-up skew superelevation, which reduces both the lateral and the vertical acceleration imposed to the drivers and hence, improves comfort and traffic safety. Various research studies aimed at investigating driving comfort by evaluating the lateral and vertical accelerations sustained by the road users and vehicles. These studies focused on the influence of the skew superelevation to passenger cars, buses and trucks, and the drivers themselves, traveling at a certain range of speeds either below or above the design speed. The outcome of these investigations which based on the use of simulations, revealed that the imposed accelerations did not exceed the statutory thresholds even when the travelling speed was significantly greater than the design speed. Nevertheless, the effect of the skew superelevation to other vehicle types for instance, motorcycles, has not been investigated so far. The present research study aims to bridge this gap by investigating the impact of skew superelevation on the motorcycle rider’s comfort. Power two-wheeler riders are susceptible to any changes on the pavement surface and therefore a comparison between the traditional superelevation practice and the skew superelevation concept is of paramount importance. The methodology based on the utilization of sophisticated software in order to design the model of the road for several values of the longitudinal slope. Based on the values of the slopes and the use of a mathematical equation, the accelerations imposed on the wheel of the motorcycle were calculated. Due to the fact that the final aim of the study is the influence of the skew superelevation to the rider, it was deemed necessary to convey the calculated accelerations from the wheel to the rider. That was accomplished by implementing the quarter car suspension model adjusted to the features of two-wheeler vehicles. Finally, the accelerations derived from this process evaluated according to specific thresholds originated from the International Organization for Standardization, which correspond to certain levels of comfort. The most important conclusion drawn is that the comfort of the riders is not dependent on the form of road gradient to a great extent due to the fact that the vertical acceleration imposed to the riders took similar values regardless of the value of the longitudinal slope.

Keywords: acceleration, comfort, motorcycle, safety, skew superelevation

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347 Effect of Fabrication Errors on High Frequency Filter Circuits

Authors: Wesam Ali


This paper provides useful guidelines to the circuit designers on the magnitude of fabrication errors in multilayer millimeter-wave components that are acceptable and presents data not previously reported in the literature. A particularly significant error that was quantified was that of skew between conductors on different layers, where it was found that a skew angle of only 0.1° resulted in very significant changes in bandwidth and insertion loss. The work was supported by a detailed investigation on a 35GHz, multilayer edge-coupled band-pass filter, which was fabricated on alumina substrates using photoimageable thick film process.

Keywords: fabrication errors, multilayer, high frequency band, photoimagable technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 347