Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 728

Search results for: silica nanocomposite

728 Development of a Nanocompound Based Fibre to Combat Insects

Authors: Merle Bischoff, Thomas Gries, Gunnar Seide


Pesticides, which harm crop enemies, but can also interfere with the human body, are nowadays mostly used for crop spraying. Silica particles (SiO2) in the nanometer and micrometer scale offer a physical way to combat insects without harming humans and other mammals. Thereby, they allow foregoing pesticides, which can harm the environment. As silica particles are supplied as a powder or in a suspension to farmers, the silica use in large scale agriculture is not sufficient due to erosion through wind and rain. When silica is implemented in a textile’s surface (nanocompound), particles are locally bound and do resist erosion, but can function against bugs. By choosing polypropylene as a matrix polymer, the production of an inexpensive agritextile with an 'anti-bug' effect is made possible. In the Symposium the results of the manufacturing and filament spinning of silica nanocomposites from a polypropylene basis is compared to the fabrication from nanocomposites based on Polybutylene succinate, a biodegradable composite. The investigation focuses on the difference between degradable nanocomposite and stable nanocomposite. Focus will be laid on the filament characteristics as well as the degradation of the nanocompound to underline their potential use and application as an agricultural textile.

Keywords: agriculture, environment, insects, protection, silica, textile, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
727 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO/Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite

Authors: K. Sowri Babu, P. Srinath, N. Rajeswara Rao, K. Venugopal Reddy


The effect of gamma ray irradiation on morphology and optical properties of ZnO/Mesoporous silica (MPS) nanocomposite was studied. The ZnO/MPS nanocomposite was irradiated with gamma rays of doses 30, 60, and 90 kGy and dose-rate of irradiation was 0.15 kGy/hour. Irradiated samples are characterized with FE-SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectrometers. SEM pictures showed that morphology changed from spherical to flake like morphology. UV-vis analysis showed that the band gap increased with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. This enhancement of the band gap is assigned to the depletion of oxygen vacancies with irradiation. The intensity of PL peak decreased gradually with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. The decrease in PL intensity is attributed to the decrease of oxygen vacancies at the interface due to poor interface and improper passivation between ZnO/MPS.

Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, nanocomposites, mesoporous silica, photoluminescence

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726 Green Synthesis of Magnetic, Silica Nanocomposite and Its Adsorptive Performance against Organochlorine Pesticides

Authors: Waleed A. El-Said, Dina M. Fouad, Mohamed H. Aly, Mohamed A. El-Gahami


Green synthesis of nanomaterials has received increasing attention as an eco-friendly technology in materials science. Here, we have used two types of extractions from green tea leaf (i.e. total extraction and tannin extraction) as reducing agents for a rapid, simple and one step synthesis method of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs)/iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanocomposite based on deposition of Fe3O4 onto MSNPs. MSNPs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, vibrating sample magnetometer, N2 adsorption, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The average mesoporous silica particle diameter was found to be around 30 nm with high surface area (818 m2/gm). MSNPs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite was used for removing lindane pesticide (an environmental hazard material) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared, UV-vis, High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography techniques were used to confirm the high ability of MSNPs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite for sensing and capture of lindane molecules with high sorption capacity (more than 89%) that could develop a new eco-friendly strategy for detection and removing of pesticide and as a promising material for water treatment application.

Keywords: green synthesis, mesoporous silica, magnetic iron oxide NPs, adsorption Lindane

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725 Influence of Silica Fume on Ultrahigh Performance Concrete

Authors: Vitoldas Vaitkevičius, Evaldas Šerelis


Silica fume, also known as microsilica (MS) or condensed silica fume is a by-product of the production of silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloys. Silica fume is one of the most effective pozzolanic additives which could be used for ultrahigh performance and other types of concrete. Despite the fact, however is not entirely clear, which amount of silica fume is most optimal for UHPC. Main objective of this experiment was to find optimal amount of silica fume for UHPC with and without thermal treatment, when different amount of quartz powder is substituted by silica fume. In this work were investigated four different composition of UHPC with different amount of silica fume. Silica fume were added 0, 10, 15 and 20% of cement (by weight) to UHPC mixture. Optimal amount of silica fume was determined by slump, viscosity, qualitative and quantitative XRD analysis and compression strength tests methods.

Keywords: compressive strength, silica fume, ultrahigh performance concrete, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
724 Comparison of Silica-Filled Rubber Compound Prepared from Unmodified and Modified Silica

Authors: Thirawudh Pongprayoon, Watcharin Rassamee


Silica-filled natural rubber compounds were prepared from unmodified and surface-modified silica. The modified silica was coated by ultrathin film of polyisoprene by admicellar polymerization. FTIR and SEM were applied to characterize the modified silica. The cure, mechanic, and dynamics properties were investigated with the comparison of the compounds. Cure characterization of modified silica rubber compound was shorter than that of unmodified silica compound. Strength and abrasion resistance of modified silica compound were better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound. Wet grip and rolling resistance analyzed by DMA from tanδ at 0°C and 60°C using 5 Hz were also better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound.

Keywords: silica, admicellar polymerization, rubber compounds, mechanical properties, dynamic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
723 Wear and Fraction Behavior of Porcelain Coated with Polyurethane/SiO2 Coating Layer

Authors: Ching Yern Chee


Various loading of nano silica is added into polyurethane (PU) and then coated on porcelain substrate. The wear and friction properties of the porcelain substrates coated with polyurethane/nano silica nano composite coatings were investigated using the reciprocating wear testing machine. The friction and wear test of polyurethane/nano silica coated porcelain substrate was studied at different sliding speed and applied load. It was found that the optimum composition of nano silica is 3 wt% which gives the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate in all applied load ranges and sliding speeds. For 3 wt% nano silica filled PU coated porcelain substrate, the increment of sliding speed caused higher wear rates but lower frictions coefficient. Besides, the friction coefficient of nano silica filled PU coated porcelain substrate decreased but the wear rate increased with the applied load.

Keywords: porcelain, nanocomposite coating, morphology, friction, wear behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
722 Preparation of Amorphous silica from Algerian Diatomite and Its Properties

Authors: S. Medeghri, S. Hamzaoui, M. Zerdali, S. Masatomo


In this work there is a facile method to produce pure amorphous silica from Algerian diatomite with an economic and ecological method. The sodium silicate is commonly used as precursor in silica gel diatomite preparation. In this study, the preparation of sodium silicate is preceded by acid washing of raw diatomite; the acid is then slowly added to precipitate silica at different pH values to obtain silica gel. The silica gel is characterized by EDX, ICP-MS and XRD. The EDX revels that the purity of silica from diatom is 98% after purification compared to raw diatom.

Keywords: diatomite, acid cleaning, dissolution, amorphous silica, purity

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721 Nano and Micro Silica Cooperating Effect on Ferrocement Mortar

Authors: Aziz Ibrahim Abdulla, Omar Mohanad Mahdi


The objective of this paper is to explore the effect of incorporating Nano-Silica with Silica-fume in ferrocement mortar to enhancing mechanical properties of it. One type of Nano silica with average diameter size 23nm and silica fume have been used with two percentage (1%, 2% Nano silica and 5%, 10% silica fume per weight of cement) and w/c with / without superplasticizer was been calculated by flow test method. Also three sand: cement ratios have been used (1.5, 2.0 and 2.5) with max. Aggregate size 0.6mm in this study for reference and other mixtures. Results reveal adding Nano silica with silica fume to ferrocement mortar enhances its physical and mechanical properties such as compressive strength and flexural strength. The SEM pictures and density with absorption ratio demonstrate that Nano silica with silica fume contributes to enhancement of mortar through yielding denser, more compact and uniform mixtures.

Keywords: nano silica, ferrocement mortar, compresion strength, flexural strength

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720 Preparation of Fluoroalkyl End-Capped Oligomers/Silica Nanocomposites Possessing a Nonflammable Characteristic Even After Calcination at 800 oC

Authors: Hideo Sawada


Fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers [RF-(M)n-RF; RF = fluoroalkyl groups; M = radical polymerizable monomers] can form nanometre size-controlled self-assembled oligomeric aggregates through the aggregations of end-capped fluoroalkyl groups. Fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomeric aggregates can also interact with guest molecules to afford fluorinated aggregate/guest molecule nanocomposites; although the corresponding non-fluorinated oligomers cannot form such molecular aggregates to interact with guest molecules. For example, silica nanoparticles should act as guest molecules in fluorinated oligomeric aggregate cores to give new fluorinated oligomer-coated silica nanoparticles (fluorinated oligomer/silica nanocomposites). In these fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers/silica nanocomposites, some fluorinated oligomers/silica nanocomposites were found to exhibit no weight loss behavior corresponding to the contents of oligomers in the silica matrices even after calcination at 800 oC. Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomer-coated silica nanoparticles can be prepared by the sol-gel reaction of the corresponding fluorinated oligomer under alkaline conditions. The modified glass surface treated with this fluorinated oligomeric nanoparticle exhibited a completely super-hydrophobic characteristic. These fluorinated nanoparticles were also applied to the surface modification possessing a super-oleophobic characteristic. Not only fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers but also low molecular weight fluorinated surfactants such as perfluoro-1,3-propanedisulfonic acid (PFPS) were applied to the preparation of fluorinated surfactants/silica nanocomposites to give no weight loss in proportion to the content of the surfactants in the nanocomposites even after calcination at 800 oC.

Keywords: fluorinated oligomer, silica nanocomposite, nonflammable characteristic, superamphiphobic chracteristic

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
719 Effect of the Nature of Silica Precursor in Zeolite ZSM-22 Synthesis

Authors: Nyiko M. Chauke, James Ramontja, Richard M. Moutloali


The zeolite ZSM-22 material demonstrated effective hydrophilic character as a nanoadditive filler in the preparation of nanocomposite membranes. In this study, nanorods ZSM-22 zeolite materials were hydrothermally synthesised from a homogenous gel mixture prepared using different silica precursors: colloidal silica, fumed silica, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), and aluminium precursor: aluminium sulphate octadecahydrate (Al₂(SO₄)₃.18H₂O to Si/Al of 60. This was focused on developing a defect-free zeolite framework for effective use in applications such as membrane separation process, adsorption, and catalysis. The obtained ZSM-22 zeolite materials with 60 Si/Al ratio exhibits high crystallinity, hydrophilicity, and needle-like morphologies, suggesting successful synthesis as shown by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) physicochemical analysis. It was revealed that the use of different nature of silica precursors significantly influenced the properties of the final product and contributed to the development of defect-free zeolite material. As such, the crystalline nanorods of Theta-1 (TON) ZSM-22 obtained from TEOS silica showed high phase purity, defect-free, and narrow particle size distribution. Morphological analysis exhibited that the use of TEOS as silica precursor was effective than its counterparts and produced high crystalline need-like agglomerated particles.

Keywords: silica precursor, hydrothermal synthesis, zeolite material, ZSM-22

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718 Mesoporous Nanocomposites for Sustained Release Applications

Authors: Daniela Istrati, Alina Morosan, Maria Stanca, Bogdan Purcareanu, Adrian Fudulu, Laura Olariu, Alice Buteica, Ion Mindrila, Rodica Cristescu, Dan Eduard Mihaiescu


Our present work is related to the synthesis, characterization and applications of new nanocomposite materials based on silica mesoporous nanocompozites systems. The nanocomposite support was obtained by using a specific step–by–step multilayer structure buildup synthetic route, characterized by XRD (X-Ray Difraction), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectrometry), BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method) and loaded with Salvia officinalis plant extract obtained by a hydro-alcoholic extraction route. The sustained release of the target compounds was studied by a modified LC method, proving low release profiles, as expected for the high specific surface area support. The obtained results were further correlated with the in vitro / in vivo behavior of the nanocomposite material and recommending the silica mesoporous nanocomposites as good candidates for biomedical applications. Acknowledgements: This study has been funded by the Research Project PN-III-P2-2.1-PTE-2016-0160, 49-PTE / 2016 (PROZECHIMED) and Project Number PN-III-P4-ID-PCE-2016-0884 / 2017.

Keywords: biomedical, mesoporous, nanocomposites, natural products, sustained release

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
717 Mechanical and Long Term Ageing Properties of PMMA Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: M. Khlifa, A. Youssef. M. Almakki


The addition of silica nanoparticles to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) can influence its mechanical and aging properties. Dispersed PMMA in colloidal and aggregated silica revealed considerable increase in modulus above the glass transition temperature when aggregated silica nanoparticles were used, whereas colloidally dispersed silica nanoparticles showed only a marginal improvement. In addition, Dispersed PMMA in both aggregated and colloidally silica nanoparticles accelerated physical ageing.

Keywords: nanoparticles, physical aging, PMMA, chemical and molecular engineering

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716 Synthesis and Analytical Characterisation of Polymer-Silica Nanoparticles Composite for the Protection and Preservation of Stone Monuments

Authors: Sayed M. Ahmed, Sawsan S. Darwish, Nagib A. Elmarzugi, Mohammad A. Al-Dosari, Mahmoud A. Adam, Nadia A. Al-Mouallimi


Historical stone surfaces and architectural heritage may undergo unwanted changes due to the exposure to many physical and chemical deterioration factors, the innovative properties of the nano - materials can have advantageous application in the restoration and conservation of the cultural heritage with relation to the tailoring of new products for protection and consolidation of stone. The current work evaluates the effectiveness of inorganic compatible treatments; based on nanosized particles of silica (SiO2) dispersed in silicon based product, commonly used as a water-repellent/ consolidation for the construction materials affected by different kinds of decay. The nanocomposites obtained by dispersing the silica nanoparticles in polymeric matrices SILRES® BS OH 100 (solventless mixtures of ethyl silicates), in order to obtain a new nanocomposite, with hydrophobic and consolidation properties, to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the stone material. The nanocomposites obtained and pure SILRES® BS OH 100 were applied by brush Experimental stone blocks. The efficacy of the treatments has been evaluated after consolidation and artificial Thermal aging, through capillary water absorption measurements, Ultraviolet-light exposure to evaluate photo-induced and the hydrophobic effects of the treated surface, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination is performed to evaluate penetration depth, re-aggregating effects of the deposited phase and the surface morphology before and after artificialaging. Sterio microscopy investigation is performed to evaluate the resistant to the effects of the erosion, acids and salts. Improving of stone mechanical properties were evaluated by compressive strength tests, colorimetric measurements were used to evaluate the optical appearance. All the results get together with the apparent effect that, silica/polymer nanocomposite is efficient material for the consolidation of artistic and architectural sandstone monuments, completely compatible, enhanced the durability of sandstone toward thermal and UV aging. In addition, the obtained nanocomposite improved the stone mechanical properties and the resistant to the effects of the erosion, acids and salts compared to the samples treated with pure SILRES® BS OH 100 without silica nanoparticles.

Keywords: colorimetric measurements, compressive strength, nanocomposites, porous stone consolidation, silica nanoparticles, sandstone

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715 Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Nanocomposite from Nanofibrillated Cellulose

Authors: M. Z. Shazana, R. Rosazley, M. A. Izzati, A. W. Fareezal, I. Rushdan, A. B. Suriani, S. Zakaria


There is an increasing interest in the development of flexible energy storage for application of Carbon Nanotubes and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). In this study, nanocomposite is consisting of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) mixed with suspension of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB). The use of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) as additive nanocomposite was improved the conductivity and mechanical properties of nanocomposite from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). The nanocomposite were characterized for electrical conductivity and mechanical properties in uniaxial tension, which were tensile to measure the bond of fibers in nanocomposite. The processing route is environmental friendly which leads to well-mixed structures and good results as well.

Keywords: carbon nanotube (CNT), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), mechanical properties, electrical conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
714 Properties of Epoxy Composite Reinforced with Amorphous and Crystalline Silica from Rice Husk

Authors: Norul Hisham Hamid, Amir Affan, Ummi Hani Abdullah, Paridah Md. Tahir, Khairul Akmal Azhar, Rahmat Nawai, W. B. H. Wan Sulwani Izzati


The dimensional stability and static bending properties of epoxy composite reinforced with amorphous and crystalline silica were investigated. The amorphous and crystalline silica was obtained by the precipitation method from carbonisation process of the rice husk at a temperature of 600 °C and 1000 °C for 7 hours respectively. The epoxy resin was mixed with 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations of amorphous and crystalline silica. The mixture was stirred for 10 minutes and cured at 28 °C for 72 hours and oven dried at 80 °C for 72 hours. The scanning electron microscope image showed the silica sized of 10-30nm was obtained. The water absorption and thickness swelling of epoxy/amorphous silica composite was not significantly different with silica concentration ranged from 0.08% to 0.09% and 0.17% to 0.20% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (85 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (3284 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. For epoxy/crystalline silica composite; the water absorption and thickness swelling were also not significantly different with silica concentration, ranged from 0.08% to 0.11% and 0.16% to 0.18% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (47.9 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (2760 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. Overall, the water absorption and thickness swelling were almost identical for epoxy composite made from either amorphous or crystalline silica. The epoxy composite made from amorphous silica was stronger than crystalline silica.

Keywords: epoxy, composite, dimensional stability, static bending, silica

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713 Influence of Silica Fume on the Hydration of Cement Pastes Studied by Simultaneous TG-DSC Analysis

Authors: Anton Trník, Lenka Scheinherrová, Robert Černý


Silica fume is a by-product of the ferro-silicon and silicon metal industries. It is mainly in the form of amorphous silica. Silica fume belongs to pozzolanic active materials which can be used in concrete to improve its final properties. In this paper, the influence of silica fume on hydration of cement pastes is studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) at various curing times (2, 7, 28, and 90 days) in the temperature range from 25 to 1000 °C in an argon atmosphere. Samples are prepared from Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R which is partially replaced with the silica fume of 4, 8, and 12 wt.%. The water/binder ratio is chosen as 0.5. It is identified and described the liberation of physically bound water, calcium–silicate–hydrates dehydration, portlandite and calcite decomposition in studied samples. Also, it is found out that an exothermic peak at 950 °C is observed without a significant mass change for samples with 12 wt.% of silica fume after two days of hydration. This peak is probably caused by the pozzolanic reaction between silica fume and Portland cement. Its size corresponds to the degree of crystallization between Ca and Si. The portlandite content is lower for the samples with a higher amount of silica fume.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, hydration, silica fume, thermogravimetry

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712 Investigation Edge Coverage of Automotive Electrocoats Filled by Nano Silica Particles

Authors: Marzieh Bakhtiary Noodeh, Mahla Zabet


Attempts have been carried out to enhance the anticorrosion properties as well as edge coverage of an automotive electrocoating using the nano silica particles. To this end, the automotive electrocoating was reinforced with the nano silica particles at various weight fractions. The electrocoats were applied on the surface of punched edge followed by curing at 160⁰C for 20 min. The effects of nano silica particles on the rheological properties, influencing edge coverage were studied by a RMS (Rheometric Mechanical Spectrometer) technique. The anticorrosion properties were studied by a salt-spray test. The results obtained revealed that nano silica particles can significantly enhance the edge coverage by increasing minimum melt viscosity of electrocoats. It was shown that using 4 wt% nano silica particles, both anticorrosion properties and edge coverage of the electrocoats were significantly improved.

Keywords: nano silica, electrocoat, edge coverage, anticorrosion

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711 Starch Incorporated Hydroxyapatite/Chitin Nanocomposite as a Novel Bone Construct

Authors: Reshma Jolly, Mohammad Shakir, Mohammad Shoeb Khan, Noor E. Iram


A nanocomposite system integrating hydroxyapatite, chitin and starch (n-HA/CT/ST) has been synthesized via co-precipitation approach at room temperature, addressing the issues of biocompatibility, mechanical strength and cytotoxicity required for Bone tissue engineering. The interactions, crystallite size and surface morphology against n-HA/CT (nano-hydroxyapatite/chitin) nanocomposite have been obtained by correlating and comparing the results of FTIR, SEM, TEM and XRD. The comparative study of the bioactivity of n-HA/CT and n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposites revealed that the incorporation of starch as templating agent improved these properties in n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite. The rise in thermal stability in n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite as compared to n-HA/CT has been observed by comparing the TGA results. The comparison of SEM images of both the scaffolds indicated that the addition of ST influenced the surface morphology of n-HA/CT scaffold which appeared to be rougher and porous. The MTT assay on murine fibroblast L929 cells and in-vitro bioactivity of n-HA/CT/ST matrix referred superior non-toxic property of n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite and higher possibility of osteo-integration in-vivo, respectively.

Keywords: bioactive, chitin, hyroxyapatite, nanocomposite

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710 Fabrication and Characterization of Glass Nanofibers through Electrospinning of Silica Sol-Gel along with in situ Synthesis of Ag Nanoparticles

Authors: Mahsa Kangazian Kangazi, Ali Akbar Ghareh Aghaji, Majid Montazer


Nowadays, silica nanofibers are highly regarded among the inorganic nanofibers due to the high reactivity and availability of silicon compounds in nature. Sol-gel process is required for electrospinning of silica nanofibers in which a metal alkoxide is hydrolyzed, and the viscosity is increased. In this study, silica nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles were synthesized and electrospun from a mixture of silica sol with an easy spinnable polymer (PVA) as an additive. The silica sol contains tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), silver nitrate, distilled water, nitric acid, and ethanol. Nanofibers were formed through electrospinning setup. The nanofibers were calcinated to remove the solvent and additive polymer. Consequently, pure silica nanofibers were produced. FTIR analysis indicated entire removal of polyvinyl alcohol from the structure and formation of silan groups. The presence of silver, silica and oxygen was confirmed by EDX. Also, XRD patterns revealed the presence of silver nanoparticles with a mean crystal size of 18 nm. FESEM images showed that adding silver nitrate into the sol-gel, resulted in lower nanofibers diameter from 286 to 136 nm. Furthermore, the electrospun nanofibers were more resistance in acidic media than alkaline media.

Keywords: in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles, silica nanofibers, sol-gel, tetraethyl orthosilicate

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709 Thermal Properties of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes/Polyimide Nanocomposite

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbas, Hatice Birtane, Memet Vezir Kahraman


In this study, we aimed to synthesize and characterize polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite. Polyimide nanocomposites widely have been used in membranes in fuel cell, solar cell, gas filtration, sensors, aerospace components, printed circuit boards. Firstly, polyamic acid was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared. Then, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite was prepared with thermal imidization method. The obtained polyimide nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscope, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Thermal stability of polyimide nanocomposite was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface morphology of composite samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The obtained results prove that successfully prepared polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes are containing polyimide nanocomposite. The obtained nanocomposite can be used in many industries such as electronics, automotive, aerospace, etc.

Keywords: polyimide, nanocomposite, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes

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708 Biodegradability and Thermal Properties of Polycaprolactone/Starch Nanocomposite as a Biopolymer

Authors: Emad A. Jaffar Al-Mulla


In this study, a biopolymer-based nanocomposite was successfully prepared through melt blending technique. Two biodegradable polymers, polycaprolactone and starch, environmental friendly and obtained from renewable, easily available raw materials, have been chosen. Fatty hydrazide, synthesized from palm oil, has been used as a surfactant to modify montmorillonite (natural clay) for preparation of polycaprolactone/starch nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize nanocomposite formation. Compatibility of the blend was improved by adding 3% weight modified clay. Higher biodegradability and thermal stability of nanocomopeite were also observed compared to those of the polycaprolactone/starch blend. This product will solve the problem of plastic waste, especially disposable packaging, and reduce the dependence on petroleum-based polymers and surfactants.

Keywords: polycaprolactone, starch, biodegradable, nanocomposite

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707 Study of Dispersion of Silica and Chitosan Nanoparticles into Gelatin Film

Authors: Mohit Batra, Noel Sarkar, Jayeeta Mitra


In this study silica nanoparticles were synthesized using different methods and different silica sources namely Tetraethyl ortho silicate (TEOS), Sodium Silicate, Rice husk while chitosan nanoparticles were prepared with ionic gelation method using Sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Size and texture of silica nanoparticles were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) along with the effect of change in concentration of various reagents in different synthesis processes. Size and dispersion of Silica nanoparticles prepared from TEOS using stobber’s method were found better than other methods while nanoparticles prepared using rice husk were cheaper than other ones. Catalyst found to play a very significant role in controlling the size of nanoparticles in all methods.

Keywords: silica nanoparticles, gelatin, bio-nanocomposites, SEM, TEM, chitosan

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706 Graphene/ZnO/Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Film for Separation of Oil-Water Mixture

Authors: Suboohi Shervani, Jingjing Ling, Jiabin Liu, Tahir Husain


Offshore oil-spill has become the most emerging problem in the world. In the current paper, a graphene/ZnO/polymer nanocomposite thin film is coated on stainless steel mesh via layer by layer deposition method. The structural characterization of materials is determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and separation efficiency have been measured via gas chromatography – flame ionization detector (GC-FID). TPHs are reduced to 2 ppm and separation efficiency of the nanocomposite coated mesh is reached ≥ 99% for the final sample. The nanocomposite coated mesh acts as a promising candidate for the separation of oil- water mixture.

Keywords: oil spill, graphene, oil-water separation, nanocomposite

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705 Rare Earth Metal Ion-Doped SiO2 Nanocomposite Membranes for Gas Separation in Steam Atmosphere

Authors: Md. Hasan Zahir


Y2O3-doped silica membranes were synthesized with the sol-gel method by using a tetraethyl orthosilicate-derived sol mixed with yttrium nitrate hexahydrate. These solutions were used to fabricate hydrogen separation microporous membranes with a sandwich-type structure on γ-Al2O3 supported by tubular α-Al2O3. Pore size distribution measurements were conducted directly on the membranes before and after hydrothermal treatment with a nano-permporometer. The gas permeance properties of the membranes were measured in the temperature range 100–500°C. The Y-doped SiO2 membrane (Si/Y = 3/1) was found to exhibit asymptotically stable permeances of 2.39×10-7 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 for He and 6.19 ×10-10 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 for CO2, with a high selectivity of 386 (He/CO2) at 500°C for 20 h in the presence of steam. The Y-doped silica membranes exhibit very high gas permeances for molecules with smaller kinetic diameters. The apparent activation energies of the H2 permeance at 400°C were 24.2±0.2 and 21.3±0.7 kJ mol−1 for SiO2 and Si/Y, respectively. Very high permeances were obtained for N2 and O2, 2.2 and 5 × 10-8 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 respectively, which demonstrates that these materials are promising air purification and/or separation systems that block larger impurity molecules by molecular sieving effects. Y-doped SiO2 exhibits greater hydrothermal stability at high temperatures and higher selectivity than SiO2 membranes.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, gas separation, hydrothermal stability, rare earth doped-Silica

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704 Effect of Temperature and Time on the Yield of Silica from Rice Husk Ash

Authors: Mohammed Adamu Musa, Shehu Saminu Babba


The technological trend towards waste utilization and cost reduction in industrial processing has attracted use of Rice Husk as a value added material. Both rice husk (RH) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) has been found suitable for wide range of domestic as well as industrial applications. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to produce high grade sodium silicate from rice husk ash by considering the effect of temperature and time of heating as the process variables. The experiment was performed by heating the rice husk at temperatures 500 °C, 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C and time 60min, 90min, 120min and 150min were used to obtain the ash. 1.0M of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was used to dissolve the silicate from the ash, which contained crude sodium silicate. In addition, the ash was neutralized by adding 5M of HCL until the pH reached 3.5 to give silica gel. At 6000C and 120mins, 94.23% silica was obtained from the RHA. At higher temperatures (700 °C and 800 °C) the percentage yield of silica reduced due to surface melting and carbon fixation in the lattice caused by presence of potassium. For this research, 600 °C is considered to be the optimum temperature for silica production from RHA. Silica produced from RHA can generate aggregate value and can be used in areas such as pulp and paper, plastic and rubber reinforcement industries.

Keywords: burning, rice husk, rice husk ash, silica, silica gel, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
703 Fabrication of Cellulose Acetate/Polyethylene Glycol Membranes Blended with Silica and Carbon Nanotube for Desalination Process

Authors: Siti Nurkhamidah, Yeni Rahmawati, Fadlilatul Taufany, Eamor M. Woo, I Made P. A. Merta, Deffry D. A. Putra, Pitsyah Alifiyanti, Krisna D. Priambodo


Cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol (CA/PEG) membrane was modified with varying amount of silica and carbon nanotube (CNT) to enhance its separation performance in the desalination process. These composite membranes were characterized for their hydrophilicity, morphology and permeation properties. The experiment results show that hydrophilicity of CA/PEG/Silica membranes increases with the increasing of silica concentration and the decreasing particle size of silica. From Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image, it shows that pore structure of CA/PEG membranes increases with the addition of silica. Membrane performance analysis shows that permeate flux, salt rejection, and permeability of membranes increase with the increasing of silica concentrations. The effect of CNT on the hydrophylicity, morphology, and permeation properties was also discussed.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, cellulose acetate, desalination, membrane, PEG

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702 The Influence of Mineraliser Granulometry on Dense Silica Brick Microstructure

Authors: L. Nevrivova, K. Lang, M. Kotoucek, D. Vsiansky


This entry concerned with dense silica microstructure was produced as a part of a project within the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic which is being implemented in cooperation of the biggest producer of refractories the P-D Refractories CZ company with the research organisation Brno University of Technology. The paper is focused on the influence of mixture homogenisation and the influence of grain size of the mineraliser on the resulting utility properties of the material as well as its microstructure. It has a decisive influence on the durability of the material in a building structure. This paper is a continuation of a previously published study dealing with the suitability of various types of mineralising agents in terms of density, strength and mineral composition of silica. The entry describes the influence of the method of mixture homogenisation and the influence of granulometry of the applied Fe-mineralising agent on the resulting silica microstructure. Porosity, density, phase composition and microstructure of the experimentally prepared silica samples were examined and the results were discussed in context with the technology of homogenisation and firing temperature used. The properties of silica brick samples were compared to the sample without any Fe-mineraliser.

Keywords: silica bricks, Fe-mineraliser, mineralogical composition, new developed silica material

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701 Development of Water-Based Thermal Insulation Paints Using Silica Aerogel

Authors: Lu Yanru, Handojo Djati Utomo, Yin Xi Jiang, Li Xiaodong


Insulation plays a key role in the sustainable building due to the contribution of energy consumption reduction. Without sufficient insulation, a great amount of the energy used to heat or cool a building will be lost to the outdoors. In this study, we developed a highly efficient thermal insulation paint with the incorporation of silica aerogel. Silica aerogel, with a low thermal conductivity of 0.01 W/mK, has been successfully prepared from the solid waste from the incineration plants. It has been added into water-based paints to increase its thermal insulation properties. To investigate the thermal insulation performance of silica aerogel additive, the paint samples were mixed with silica aerogel at different sizes and with various portions. The thermal conductivity, water resistance, thermal stability and adhesion strength of the samples were tested and evaluated. The thermal diffusivity measurements proved that adding silica aerogel additive could improve the thermal insulation properties of the paint significantly. Up to 5 ˚C reductions were observed after applying paints with silica aerogel additive compare to the one without it. The results showed that the developed thermal insulation paints have great potential for an application in green and sustainable building.

Keywords: silica aerogel, thermal insulation, water-based paints, water resistant

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700 Effectiveness of Natural Zeolite in Mitigating Alkali Silica Reaction Expansions

Authors: Esma Gizem Daskiran, Mehmet Mustafa Daskiran


This paper investigates the effectiveness of two natural zeolites in reducing expansion of concrete due to alkali-silica reaction. These natural zeolites have different reactive silica content. Three aggregates; two natural sand and one crushed stone aggregate were used while preparing mortar bars in accordance with accelerated mortar bar test method, ASTM C1260. Performance of natural zeolites are compared by examining the expansions due to alkali silica reaction. Natural zeolites added to the mixtures at %10 and %20 replacement levels by weight of cement. Natural zeolite with high reactive silica content had better performance on reducing expansions due to ASR. In this research, using high reactive zeolite at %20 replacement level was effective in mitigating expansions.

Keywords: alkali silica reaction, natural zeolite, durability, expansion

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699 High Catalytic Activity and Stability of Ginger Peroxidase Immobilized on Amino Functionalized Silica Coated Titanium Dioxide Nanocomposite: A Promising Tool for Bioremediation

Authors: Misha Ali, Qayyum Husain, Nida Alam, Masood Ahmad


Improving the activity and stability of the enzyme is an important aspect in bioremediation processes. Immobilization of enzyme is an efficient approach to amend the properties of biocatalyst required during wastewater treatment. The present study was done to immobilize partially purified ginger peroxidase on amino functionalized silica coated titanium dioxide nanocomposite. Interestingly there was an enhancement in enzyme activity after immobilization on nanosupport which was evident from effectiveness factor (η) value of 1.76. Immobilized enzyme was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Immobilized peroxidase exhibited higher activity in a broad range of pH and temperature as compared to free enzyme. Also, the thermostability of peroxidase was strikingly improved upon immobilization. After six repeated uses, the immobilized peroxidase retained around 62% of its dye decolorization activity. There was a 4 fold increase in Vmax of immobilized peroxidase as compared to free enzyme. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated conformational changes in the secondary structure of enzyme, a possible reason for the enhanced enzyme activity after immobilization. Immobilized peroxidase was highly efficient in the removal of acid yellow 42 dye in a stirred batch process. Our study shows that this bio-remediating system has remarkable potential for treatment of aromatic pollutants present in wastewater.

Keywords: acid yellow 42, decolorization, ginger peroxidase, immobilization

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