Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Gunnar Seide

14 Investigation of Dispersion of Carbon Nanoparticles in Polymer Melt for the Fabrication of Functional Filaments

Authors: Merle Bischoff, Thomas Gries, Gunnar Seide

Abstract:

Nanocomposites have become more and more important as the implementation of nanoparticles in polymer allows additional functions in common industrial parts. Especially in the fabrication of filaments or fibres nanomodification is important, as only very small fillers can be added to the very fine fibres (common diameter is 20 µm, fine filament are 1 µm). Discharging fibres, conductive fibres, and many other functional fibres raise in their importance nowadays. Especially the dispersion quality is essential for the final enhancement of the filament propertied. In this paper, the dispersion of carbon nanoparticles in polymer melt is enhanced by a newly developed sonication unit of ITA and BANDELIN electronic GmbH & Co. KG. The first development steps of the unit fabrication, as well as the first experimental results of the modification of the dispersion, are shown. Special focus will be laid on the sealing of the new sonication unit as well as the positioning and equipment size when being implemented in an existing melt spinning unit. Furthermore, the influence on the thereby manufactured nano-modified filaments will be shown.

Keywords: dispersion, sonication, carbon nanoparticles, filaments

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
13 Development of a Nanocompound Based Fibre to Combat Insects

Authors: Merle Bischoff, Thomas Gries, Gunnar Seide

Abstract:

Pesticides, which harm crop enemies, but can also interfere with the human body, are nowadays mostly used for crop spraying. Silica particles (SiO2) in the nanometer and micrometer scale offer a physical way to combat insects without harming humans and other mammals. Thereby, they allow foregoing pesticides, which can harm the environment. As silica particles are supplied as a powder or in a suspension to farmers, the silica use in large scale agriculture is not sufficient due to erosion through wind and rain. When silica is implemented in a textile’s surface (nanocompound), particles are locally bound and do resist erosion, but can function against bugs. By choosing polypropylene as a matrix polymer, the production of an inexpensive agritextile with an 'anti-bug' effect is made possible. In the Symposium the results of the manufacturing and filament spinning of silica nanocomposites from a polypropylene basis is compared to the fabrication from nanocomposites based on Polybutylene succinate, a biodegradable composite. The investigation focuses on the difference between degradable nanocomposite and stable nanocomposite. Focus will be laid on the filament characteristics as well as the degradation of the nanocompound to underline their potential use and application as an agricultural textile.

Keywords: agriculture, environment, insects, protection, silica, textile, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
12 Modelling of Exothermic Reactions during Carbon Fibre Manufacturing and Coupling to Surrounding Airflow

Authors: Musa Akdere, Gunnar Seide, Thomas Gries

Abstract:

Carbon fibres are fibrous materials with a carbon atom amount of more than 90%. They combine excellent mechanicals properties with a very low density. Thus carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are very often used in lightweight design and construction. The precursor material is usually polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based and wet-spun. During the production of carbon fibre, the precursor has to be stabilized thermally to withstand the high temperatures of up to 1500 °C which occur during carbonization. Even though carbon fibre has been used since the late 1970s in aerospace application, there is still no general method available to find the optimal production parameters and the trial-and-error approach is most often the only resolution. To have a much better insight into the process the chemical reactions during stabilization have to be analyzed particularly. Therefore, a model of the chemical reactions (cyclization, dehydration, and oxidation) based on the research of Dunham and Edie has been developed. With the presented model, it is possible to perform a complete simulation of the fibre undergoing all zones of stabilization. The fiber bundle is modeled as several circular fibers with a layer of air in-between. Two thermal mechanisms are considered to be the most important: the exothermic reactions inside the fiber and the convective heat transfer between the fiber and the air. The exothermic reactions inside the fibers are modeled as a heat source. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements have been performed to estimate the amount of heat of the reactions. To shorten the required time of a simulation, the number of fibers is decreased by similitude theory. Experiments were conducted to validate the simulation results of the fibre temperature during stabilization. The experiments for the validation were conducted on a pilot scale stabilization oven. To measure the fibre bundle temperature, a new measuring method is developed. The comparison of the results shows that the developed simulation model gives good approximations for the temperature profile of the fibre bundle during the stabilization process.

Keywords: carbon fibre, coupled simulation, exothermic reactions, fibre-air-interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
11 Working Children and Adolescents and the Vicious Circle of Poverty from the Perspective of Gunnar Myrdal’s Theory of Circular Cumulative Causation: Analysis and Implementation of a Probit Model to Brazil

Authors: J. Leige Lopes, L. Aparecida Bastos, R. Monteiro da Silva

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to study the work of children and adolescents and the vicious circle of poverty from the perspective of Guinar Myrdal’s Theory of Circular Cumulative Causation. The objective is to show that if a person starts working in the juvenile phase of life they will be classified as poor or extremely poor when they are adult, which can to be observed in the case of Brazil, more specifically in the north and northeast. To do this, the methodology used was statistical and econometric analysis by applying a probit model. The main results show that: if people reside in the northeastern region of Brazil, and if they have a low educational level and if they start their professional life before the age 18, they will increase the likelihood that they will be poor or extremely poor. There is a consensus in the literature that one of the causes of the intergenerational transmission of poverty is related to child labor, this because when one starts their professional life while still in the toddler or adolescence stages of life, they end up sacrificing their studies. Because of their low level of education, children or adolescents are forced to perform low-paid functions and abandon school, becoming in the future, people who will be classified as poor or extremely poor. As a result of poverty, parents may be forced to send their children out to work when they are young, so that in the future they will also become poor adults, a process that is characterized as the "vicious circle of poverty."

Keywords: children, adolescents, Gunnar Myrdal, poverty, vicious circle

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
10 Functionally Modified Melt-Electrospun Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) Mats for Wound-Dressing Applications

Authors: Christoph Hacker, Zeynep Karahaliloglu, Gunnar Seide, Emir Baki Denkbas, Thomas Gries

Abstract:

A wound dressing material is designed to facilitate wound healing and minimize scarring. An ideal wound dressing material should protect the wound from any contaminations of exogeneous microorganism. In addition, the dressing material should provide a moist environment through extraction of body fluid from the wound area. Recently, wound dressing electrospun nanofibrous membranes are produced by electrospinning from a polymer solution or a polymer melt. These materials have a great potential as dressing materials for wound healing because of superior properties such as high surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity with excellent pore interconnectivity. Melt electrospinning is an attractive tissue engineering scaffold manufacturing process which eliminated the health risk posed by organic solvents used in electrospinning process and reduced the production costs. In this study, antibacterial wound dressing materials were prepared from TPU (Elastollan 1185A) by a melt-electrospinning technique. The electrospinning parameters for an efficient melt-electrospinning process of TPU were optimized. The surface of the fibers was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) by radio-frequency glow discharge plasma deposition method and with silver nanoparticles (nAg) to improve their wettability and antimicrobial properties. TPU melt-electrospun mats were characterized using SEM, DSC, TGA and XPS. The cell viability and proliferation on modified melt-electrospun TPU mats were evaluated using a mouse fibroblast cell line (L929). Antibacterial effects of theirs against both Staphylococcus aureus strain and Escherichia coli were investigated by disk-diffusion method. TPU was successfully processed into a porous, fibrous network of beadless fibers in the micrometer range (4.896±0.94 µm) with a voltage of 50 kV, a working distance of 6 cm, a temperature of the thermocouple and hot coil of 225–230ºC, and a flow rate of 0.1 mL/h. The antibacterial test indicated that PEG-modified nAg-loaded TPU melt-electrospun structure had excellent antibacterial effects and cell study results demonstrated that nAg-loaded TPU mats had no cytotoxic effect on the fibroblast cells. In this work, the surface of a melt-electrospun TPU mats was modified via PEG monomer and then nAg. Results showed melt-electrospun TPU mats modified with PEG and nAg have a great potential for use as an antibacterial wound dressing material and thus, requires further investigation.

Keywords: melt electrospinning, nanofiber, silver nanoparticles, wound dressing

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
9 Development of Bicomponent Fibre to Combat Insects

Authors: M. Bischoff, F. Schmidt, J. Herrmann, J. Mattheß, G. Seide, T. Gries

Abstract:

Crop yields have not increased as dramatically as the demand for food. One method to counteract this is to use pesticides to keep away predators, e.g. several forms of insecticide are available to fight insects. These insecticides and pesticides are both controversial as their application and their residue in the food product can also harm humans. In this study an alternative method to combat insects is studied. A physical insect-killing effect of SiO2 particles is used. The particles are applied on fibres to avoid erosion in the fields, which would occur when applied separately. The development of such SiO2 functionalized PP fibres is shown.

Keywords: agriculture, environment, insects, protection, silica, textile

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
8 On Algebraic Structure of Improved Gauss-Seide Iteration

Authors: O. M. Bamigbola, A. A. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Analysis of real life problems often results in linear systems of equations for which solutions are sought. The method to employ depends, to some extent, on the properties of the coefficient matrix. It is not always feasible to solve linear systems of equations by direct methods, as such the need to use an iterative method becomes imperative. Before an iterative method can be employed to solve a linear system of equations there must be a guaranty that the process of solution will converge. This guaranty, which must be determined a priori, involve the use of some criterion expressible in terms of the entries of the coefficient matrix. It is, therefore, logical that the convergence criterion should depend implicitly on the algebraic structure of such a method. However, in deference to this view is the practice of conducting convergence analysis for Gauss-Seidel iteration on a criterion formulated based on the algebraic structure of Jacobi iteration. To remedy this anomaly, the Gauss-Seidel iteration was studied for its algebraic structure and contrary to the usual assumption, it was discovered that some property of the iteration matrix of Gauss-Seidel method is only diagonally dominant in its first row while the other rows do not satisfy diagonal dominance. With the aid of this structure we herein fashion out an improved version of Gauss-Seidel iteration with the prospect of enhancing convergence and robustness of the method. A numerical section is included to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results obtained for the improved Gauss-Seidel method.

Keywords: linear algebraic system, Gauss-Seidel iteration, algebraic structure, convergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
7 Heat Waves and Hospital Admissions for Mental Disorders in Hanoi Vietnam

Authors: Phan Minh Trang, Joacim Rocklöv, Kim Bao Giang, Gunnar Kullgren, Maria Nilsson

Abstract:

There are recent studies from high income countries reporting an association between heat waves and hospital admissions for mental health disorders. It is not previously studied if such relations exist in sub-tropical and tropical low- and middle-income countries. In this study from Vietnam, the assumption was that hospital admissions for mental disorders may be triggered, or exacerbated, by heat exposure and heat waves. A database from Hanoi Mental Hospital with mental disorders diagnosed by the International Classification of Diseases 10, spanning over five years, was used to estimate the heatwave-related impacts on admissions for mental disorders. The relationship was analysed by a Negative Binomial regression model accounting for year, month, and days of week. The focus of the study was heat-wave events with periods of three or seven consecutive days above the threshold of 35oC daily maximum temperature. The preliminary study results indicated that heat-waves increased the risks for hospital admission for mental disorders (F00-79) from heat-waves of three and seven days with relative risks (RRs) of 1.16 (1.01–1.33) and 1.42 (1.02–1.99) respectively, when compared with non-heat-wave periods. Heatwave-related admissions for mental disorders increased statistically significantly among men, among residents in rural communities and in elderly. Moreover, cases for organic mental disorders including symptomatic illnesses (F0-9) and mental retardation (F70-79) raised in high risks during heat waves. The findings are novel studying a sub-tropical middle-income city, facing rapid urbanisation and epidemiological and demographic transitions.

Keywords: mental disorders, admissions for F0-9 or F70-79, maximum temperature, heat waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
6 Support for and Participation in 'Spontaneous' Mass Protest in Iceland: The Moderating Effects of Biographical Availability, Critical Mass, and Social Embeddedness

Authors: Jon Gunnar Bernburg

Abstract:

The present study addresses a topic that is fundamental to social movement theory, namely, the contingent link between movement support and movement participation. Usually, only a small fraction of those who agree with the cause of a social movement is mobilized into participating in it (a pattern sometimes referred to as 'the collective action problem'). However, historical moments sometimes emerge when many supporters become mobilized to participate in the movement, greatly enhancing the chance of movement success. By studying a case in point, this paper addresses the limited work on how support and participation are related at such critical moments. Specifically, the paper examines the association between supporting and participating in a huge 'pro-democracy' protest in Iceland in April 2016, in the wake of the global Panama Papers scandal. Organized via social media by only a handful of activists, but supported by a majority of Icelanders, the protest attracted about a fourth of the urban population, leading to a snap election and government change. Surveying Iceland’s urban population, this paper tests hypotheses about the processes mobilizing supporters to participate in the protest. The findings reveal how variables derived from the theories of biographical availability (males vs. females, working class vs. professionals), critical mass (expectations, prior protest success), and social embeddedness (close ties with protesters) moderate the association between protest support and participation. The study helps to account for one of the largest protests in Iceland’s history while contributing to the theory about how historical contexts shape the behavior of movement supporters.

Keywords: Iceland, crisis, protest support vs. participation, theories of mass mobilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
5 A Simple Olfactometer for Odour and Lateralization Thresholds of Chemical Vapours

Authors: Lena Ernstgård, Aishwarya M. Dwivedi, Johan Lundström, Gunnar Johanson

Abstract:

A simple inexpensive olfactometer was constructed to enable valid measures of detection threshold of low concentrations of vapours of chemicals. The delivery system consists of seven syringe pumps, each connected to a Tedlar bag containing a predefined concentration of the test chemical in the air. The seven pumps are connected to a 8-way mixing valve which in turn connects to a birhinal nose piece. Chemical vapor of known concentration is generated by injection of an appropriate amount of the test chemical into a Tedlar bag with a known volume of clean air. Complete vaporization is assured by gentle heating of the bag from the outside with a heat flow. The six test concentrations are obtained by adding different volumes from the starting bag to six new Tedlar bags with known volumes of clean air. One bag contains clean air only. Thus, six different test concentrations and clean air can easily be tested in series by shifting the valve to new positions. Initial in-line measurement with a photoionization detector showed that the delivery system quickly responded to a shift in valve position. Thus 90% of the desired concentration was reached within 15 seconds. The concentrations in the bags are verified daily by gas chromatography. The stability of the system in terms of chemical concentration is monitored in real time by means of a photo-ionization detector. To determine lateralization thresholds, an additional pump supplying clean air is added to the delivery system in a way so that the nostrils can be separately and interchangeably be exposed to clean air and test chemical. Odor and lateralization thresholds were determined for three aldehydes; acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and hexanal in 20 healthy naïve individuals. Aldehydes generally have a strong odour, and the selected aldehydes are also considered to be irritating to mucous membranes. The median odor thresholds of the three aldehydes were 0.017, 0.0008, and 0.097 ppm, respectively. No lateralization threshold could be identified for acrolein, whereas the medians for crotonaldehyde and hexanal were 0.003 and 0.39 ppm, respectively. In conclusion, we constructed a simple, inexpensive olfactometer that allows for stable and easily measurable concentrations of vapors of the test chemical. Our test with aldehydes demonstrates that the system produces valid detection among volunteers in terms of odour and lateralization thresholds.

Keywords: irritation, odour delivery, olfactometer, smell

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
4 Decision-Making in the Internationalization Process of Small and Medium Sized Companies: Experience from Managers in a Small Economy

Authors: Gunnar Oskarsson, Gudjon Helgi Egilsson

Abstract:

Due to globalization, small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) increasingly offer their products and services in foreign markets. The main reasons are either to compensate for a decreased market share in their home market or to exploit opportunities in foreign markets, which are becoming less distant and better accessible than before. International markets are particularly important for companies located in a small economy and offering specialized products. Although more accessible, entering international markets is both expensive and difficult. In order to select the most appropriate markets, it is, therefore, important to gain an insight into the factors that have an impact on success, or potential failure. Although there has been a reasonable volume of research into the theory of internationalization, there is still a need to gain further understanding of the decision-making process of SMEs in small economies and the most important characteristics that distinguish between success and failure. The main objective of this research is to enhance knowledge on the internationalization of SMEs, including the drivers for the decision to internationalize, and the most important factors contributing to success in their internationalization activities. A qualitative approach was found to be most appropriate for this kind of research, with the objective of gaining a deeper understanding and discovering factors which impact a company’s decision-making and potential success. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 companies in different industries located in Iceland, a country extensively dependent on export revenues. The interviews revealed several factors as drivers of internationalization and, not surprisingly, the most frequently mentioned source of motivation was that the local market is inadequate to maintain a sustainable operation. Good networking relationships were seen as a particular priority for potential success, searching for new markets was mainly carried out through the internet, although sales exhibitions and sales trips were also considered important. When it comes to the final decision as to whether a market should be considered for further analysis, economy, labor cost, legal environment, and cultural barriers were the most common factors to be weighted. The ultimate answer to successful internationalization, however, is largely dependent on a coordinated and experienced management team. The main contribution of this research is offering an insight into factors affecting decision-making in the internationalization process of SMEs, based on the opinion and experience of managers of SMEs in a small economy.

Keywords: internationalization, success factors, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), drivers, decision making

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
3 Melt–Electrospun Polyprophylene Fabrics Functionalized with TiO2 Nanoparticles for Effective Photocatalytic Decolorization

Authors: Z. Karahaliloğlu, C. Hacker, M. Demirbilek, G. Seide, E. B. Denkbaş, T. Gries

Abstract:

Currently, textile industry has played an important role in world’s economy, especially in developing countries. Dyes and pigments used in textile industry are significant pollutants. Most of theirs are azo dyes that have chromophore (-N=N-) in their structure. There are many methods for removal of the dyes from wastewater such as chemical coagulation, flocculation, precipitation and ozonation. But these methods have numerous disadvantages and alternative methods are needed for wastewater decolorization. Titanium-mediated photodegradation has been used generally due to non-toxic, insoluble, inexpensive, and highly reactive properties of titanium dioxide semiconductor (TiO2). Melt electrospinning is an attractive manufacturing process for thin fiber production through electrospinning from PP (Polyprophylene). PP fibers have been widely used in the filtration due to theirs unique properties such as hydrophobicity, good mechanical strength, chemical resistance and low-cost production. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of titanium nanoparticle localization and amine modification on the dye degradation. The applicability of the prepared chemical activated composite and pristine fabrics for a novel treatment of dyeing wastewater were evaluated.In this study, a photocatalyzer material was prepared from nTi (titanium dioxide nanoparticles) and PP by a melt-electrospinning technique. The electrospinning parameters of pristine PP and PP/nTi nanocomposite fabrics were optimized. Before functionalization with nTi, the surface of fabrics was activated by a technique using glutaraldehyde (GA) and polyethyleneimine to promote the dye degredation. Pristine PP and PP/nTi nanocomposite melt-electrospun fabrics were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Photon Spectroscopy (XPS). Methyl orange (MO) was used as a model compound for the decolorization experiments. Photocatalytic performance of nTi-loaded pristine and nanocomposite melt-electrospun filters was investigated by varying initial dye concentration 10, 20, 40 mg/L). nTi-PP composite fabrics were successfully processed into a uniform, fibrous network of beadless fibers with diameters of 800±0.4 nm. The process parameters were determined as a voltage of 30 kV, a working distance of 5 cm, a temperature of the thermocouple and hotcoil of 260–300 ºC and a flow rate of 0.07 mL/h. SEM results indicated that TiO2 nanoparticles were deposited uniformly on the nanofibers and XPS results confirmed the presence of titanium nanoparticles and generation of amine groups after modification. According to photocatalytic decolarization test results, nTi-loaded GA-treated pristine or nTi-PP nanocomposite fabric filtern have superior properties, especially over 90% decolorization efficiency at GA-treated pristine and nTi-PP composite PP fabrics. In this work, as a photocatalyzer for wastewater treatment, surface functionalized with nTi melt-electrospun fabrics from PP were prepared. Results showed melt-electrospun nTi-loaded GA-tretaed composite or pristine PP fabrics have a great potential for use as a photocatalytic filter to decolorization of wastewater and thus, requires further investigation.

Keywords: titanium oxide nanoparticles, polyprophylene, melt-electrospinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
2 Market Segmentation of Cruise Ship Passengers: Implications for Marketing of Local Products and Services at Destination Points

Authors: Gunnar Oskarsson, Irena Georgsdottir

Abstract:

Tourism has been growing incredibly fast during the past years, including the cruise industry, which is gaining increasing popularity among various groups of travelers. It is a challenging task for companies serving cruise ship passengers with local products and services at the point of destination to reach them in due time with information about their offerings, as well learning how to adapt their offerings and messages to the type of customers arriving on each particular occasion. Although some research has been conducted in this sphere, there is still limited knowledge about many specifics within this sector of the tourist industry. The objective of this research is to examine one of these, with the main goal of studying the segmentation of cruise passengers and to learn about marketing practices directed towards them. A qualitative research method, based on in-depth interviews, was used, as this provides an opportunity to gain insight into the participants’ perspectives. Interviews were conducted with 10 respondents from different companies in the tourist industry in Iceland, who interact with cruise passengers on a regular basis in their work environment. The main objective was to gain an understanding of what distinguishes different customer groups, or segments, in this industry, and of the marketing approaches directed towards them. The main findings reveal that participants note the strongest difference between cruise passengers of different nationalities, passengers coming on different ships (size and type), and passengers arriving at different times of the year. A drastic difference was noticed between nationalities in four main segments, American, British, Other European, and Asian customers, although some of these segments could be divided into even further sub-segments. Other important differencing factors were size and type of ships, quality or number of stars on the ship, and travelling time of the year. Companies serving cruise ship passengers, as well as the customers themselves, could benefit if the offerings of services were designed specifically for particular segments within the industry. Concerning marketing towards cruise passengers, the results indicate that it is carried out almost exclusively through the Internet using; a reliable website and, search engine optimization. Marketing is also by word-of-mouth. This research can assist practitioners by offering a deeper understanding of the approaches that may be effective in marketing local products and services to cruise ship passengers, based on their segmentation and by identifying effective ways to reach them. The research, furthermore, provides a valuable contribution to marketing knowledge for the benefit of an increasingly important market segment in a fast growing tourist industry.

Keywords: capabilities, global integration, internationalisation, SMEs

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
1 Effects of the Exit from Budget Support on Good Governance: Findings from Four Sub-Saharan Countries

Authors: Magdalena Orth, Gunnar Gotz

Abstract:

Background: Domestic accountability, budget transparency and public financial management (PFM) are considered vital components of good governance in developing countries. The aid modality budget support (BS) promotes these governance functions in developing countries. BS engages in political decision-making and provides financial and technical support to poverty reduction strategies of the partner countries. Nevertheless, many donors have withdrawn their support from this modality due to cases of corruption, fraud or human rights violations. This exit from BS is leaving a finance and governance vacuum in the countries. The evaluation team analyzed the consequences of terminating the use of this modality and found particularly negative effects for good governance outcomes. Methodology: The evaluation uses a qualitative (theory-based) approach consisting of a comparative case study design, which is complemented by a process-tracing approach. For the case studies, the team conducted over 100 semi-structured interviews in Malawi, Uganda, Rwanda and Zambia and used four country-specific, tailor-made budget analysis. In combination with a previous DEval evaluation synthesis on the effects of BS, the team was able to create a before-and-after comparison that yields causal effects. Main Findings: In all four countries domestic accountability and budget transparency declined if other forms of pressure are not replacing BS´s mutual accountability mechanisms. In Malawi a fraud scandal created pressure from the society and from donors so that accountability was improved. In the other countries, these pressure mechanisms were absent so that domestic accountability declined. BS enables donors to actively participate in political processes of the partner country as donors transfer funds into the treasury of the partner country and conduct a high-level political dialogue. The results confirm that the exit from BS created a governance vacuum that, if not compensated through external/internal pressure, leads to a deterioration of good governance. For example, in the case of highly aid dependent Malawi did the possibility of a relaunch of BS provide sufficient incentives to push for governance reforms. Overall the results show that the three good governance areas are negatively affected by the exit from BS. This stands in contrast to positive effects found before the exit. The team concludes that the relationship is causal, because the before-and-after comparison coherently shows that the presence of BS correlates with positive effects and the absence with negative effects. Conclusion: These findings strongly suggest that BS is an effective modality to promote governance and its abolishment is likely to cause governance disruptions. Donors and partner governments should find ways to re-engage in closely coordinated policy-based aid modalities. In addition, a coordinated and carefully managed exit-strategy should be in place before an exit from similar modalities is considered. Particularly a continued framework of mutual accountability and a high-level political dialogue should be aspired to maintain pressure and oversight that is required to achieve good governance.

Keywords: budget support, domestic accountability, public financial management and budget transparency, Sub-Sahara Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 56