Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: fluorinated oligomer

35 Preparation of Fluoroalkyl End-Capped Oligomers/Silica Nanocomposites Possessing a Nonflammable Characteristic Even After Calcination at 800 oC

Authors: Hideo Sawada


Fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers [RF-(M)n-RF; RF = fluoroalkyl groups; M = radical polymerizable monomers] can form nanometre size-controlled self-assembled oligomeric aggregates through the aggregations of end-capped fluoroalkyl groups. Fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomeric aggregates can also interact with guest molecules to afford fluorinated aggregate/guest molecule nanocomposites; although the corresponding non-fluorinated oligomers cannot form such molecular aggregates to interact with guest molecules. For example, silica nanoparticles should act as guest molecules in fluorinated oligomeric aggregate cores to give new fluorinated oligomer-coated silica nanoparticles (fluorinated oligomer/silica nanocomposites). In these fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers/silica nanocomposites, some fluorinated oligomers/silica nanocomposites were found to exhibit no weight loss behavior corresponding to the contents of oligomers in the silica matrices even after calcination at 800 oC. Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomer-coated silica nanoparticles can be prepared by the sol-gel reaction of the corresponding fluorinated oligomer under alkaline conditions. The modified glass surface treated with this fluorinated oligomeric nanoparticle exhibited a completely super-hydrophobic characteristic. These fluorinated nanoparticles were also applied to the surface modification possessing a super-oleophobic characteristic. Not only fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers but also low molecular weight fluorinated surfactants such as perfluoro-1,3-propanedisulfonic acid (PFPS) were applied to the preparation of fluorinated surfactants/silica nanocomposites to give no weight loss in proportion to the content of the surfactants in the nanocomposites even after calcination at 800 oC.

Keywords: fluorinated oligomer, silica nanocomposite, nonflammable characteristic, superamphiphobic chracteristic

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34 Surface Modification of Polycarbonate Substrates via Direct Fluorination to Promote the Staining with Methylene Blue

Authors: Haruka Kaji, Jae-Ho Kim, Yonezawa Susumu


The surface of polycarbonate (PC) was modified with fluorine gas at 25℃ and 10-380 Torr for one h. The surface roughness of the fluorinated PC samples was approximately five times larger than that (1.2 nm) of the untreated thing. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the bonds (e.g., -C=O and C-Hx) derived from raw PC decreased and were converted into fluorinated bonds (e.g., -CFx) after surface fluorination. These fluorinated bonds showed higher electronegativity according to the zeta potential results. Fluorinated PC could be strained with the methylene blue basic dye because of the increased surface roughness and the negatively charged surface.

Keywords: dyeable layer, polycarbonate, surface fluorination, zeta potential

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33 Surface Modification of Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates via Direct Fluorination to Promote the Ag+ Ions Adsorption

Authors: Kohei Yamamoto, Jae-Ho Kim, Susumu Yonezawa


The surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was modified with fluorine gas at 25 ℃ and 100 Torr for one h. Moreover, the effect of ethanol washing on surface modification was investigated in this study. The surface roughness of the fluorinated and washed PET samples was approximately six times larger than that (0.6 nm) of the untreated thing. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the bonds such as -C=O and -C-Hx derived from raw PET decreased and were converted into fluorinated bonds such as -CFx after surface fluorination. Even after washing with ethanol, the fluorinated bonds stably existed on the surface. These fluorinated bonds showed higher electronegativity according to the zeta potential results. The negative surface charges were increased by washing the ethanol, and it caused to increase in the number of polar groups such as -CHF- and -C-Fx. The fluorinated and washed surface of PET could promote the adsorption of Ag+ ions in AgNO₃ solution because of the increased surface roughness and the negatively charged surface.

Keywords: Ag+ ions adsorption, polyethylene terephthalate, surface fluorination, zeta potential

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32 Identification of Fluorinated Methylsiloxanes in Environmental Matrices Near a Manufacturing Plant in Eastern China

Authors: Liqin Zhi, Lin Xu, Wenxia Wei, Yaqi Cai


Recently, replacing some of the methyl groups in polydimethylsiloxanes with other functional groups has been extensively explored to obtain modified polymethylsiloxanes with special properties that enable new industrial applications. Fluorinated polysiloxanes, one type of these modified polysiloxanes, are based on a siloxane backbone with fluorinated groups attached to the side chains of polysiloxanes. As a commercially significant material, poly[methyl(trifluoropropyl)siloxane] (PMTFPS) has sufficient fluorine content to be useful as a fuel-and oil-resistant elastomer, which combines both the chemical and solvent resistance of fluorocarbons and the wide temperature range applicability of organosilicones. PMTFPS products can be used in many applications in which resistance to fuel, oils and hydrocarbon solvents is required, including use as lubricants in bearings, sealants, and elastomers for aerospace and automotive fuel systems. Fluorinated methylsiloxanes, a type of modified methylsiloxane, include tris(trifluoropropyl)trimethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3F) and tetrakis(trifluoropropyl)tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4F), both of which contain trifluoropropyl groups in the side chains of cyclic methylsiloxanes. D3F, as an important monomer in the manufacture of PMTFPS, is often present as an impurity in PMTFPS. In addition, the synthesis of PMTFPS from D3F could form other fluorinated methylsiloxanes with low molecular weights (such as D4F). The yearly demand and production volumes of D3F increased rapidly all over world. Fluorinated methylsiloxanes might be released into the environment via different pathways during the production and application of PMTFPS. However, there is a lack of data concerning the emission, environmental occurrence and potential environmental impacts of fluorinated methylsiloxanes. Here, we report fluorinated methylsiloxanes (D3F and D4F) in surface water and sediment samples collected near a fluorinated methylsiloxane manufacturing plant in Weihai, China. The concentrations of D3F and D4F in surface water ranged from 3.29 to 291 ng/L and from 7.02 to 168 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations of D3F and D4F in sediment ranged from 11.8 to 5478 ng/g and from 17.2 to 6277 ng/g, respectively. In simulation experiment, the half-lives of D3F and D4F at different pH values (5.2, 6.4, 7.2, 8.3 and 9.2) varied from 80.6 to 154 h and from 267 to 533 h respectively. CF₃(CH₂)₂MeSi(OH)₂ was identified as one of the main hydrolysis products of fluorinated methylsiloxanes. It was also detected in the river samples at concentrations of 72.1-182.9 ng/L. In addition, the slow rearrangement of D3F (spiked concentration = 500 ng/L) to D4F (concentration = 11.0-22.7 ng/L) was also found during 336h hydrolysis experiment.

Keywords: fluorinated methylsiloxanes, environmental matrices, hydrolysis, sediment

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31 An Investigation of Anticancer Fluorinated Aza-Heterocycles

Authors: Darya O. Prima, Elena V. Vorontsova, Yuri G. Slizhov, Andrey V. Zibarev


A broad family of carbocycle-fluorinated aza-heterocycles including 1,3-benzodiazoles (benzimidazoles), 1,2,3-benzotriazoles, 2,1,3-benzothia/selenadiazoles and 1,4-benzodiazines (quinoxalines) was synthesized in the unified way and assessed for cytotoxicity towards the Hep2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma, a kind of oral cancer) cells. The diazoles, triazoles and selenadiazoles revealed low medium inhibitory concentrations IC50 = 2.2-26.4 µМ and induced the cells’ apoptosis at low concentrations C = 1-25 µМ. For selenadiazoles, cell death dynamics was observed already in the first hours after the treatment. Replacement of one atom F by group Me2N in some cases enlarged apoptotic activity of the compounds towards the Hep2 cells. In contrast, the archetypal (i.e. non-fluorinated) 1,3-benzodiazole, 1,2,3-benzotriazole and 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole were low toxic (IC50 > 100 µM) and induced apoptosis only at high concentrations. The chlorinated congeners of the heterocycles under discussion were highly toxic towards the Hep2 cells but revealed insignificant ability to induce their apoptosis. Overall, the findings above suggest that fluorinated 1,3-benzodiazole, 1,2,3-benzotriazole and 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole derivatives can be considered as potential anticancer drugs. For the laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (for which, according to available statistics, the five-year survival rate remained ~50% during the past 30 years), it is especially important since surgical treatment is seriously complicated here thus encouraging medicament one.

Keywords: Apoptosis, aza-heterocycles, cytotoxicity, fluorinated, Hep2 cells, synthesis

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30 Ecofriendly Multi-Layer Polymer Treatment for Hydrophobic and Water Repellent Porous Cotton Fabrics

Authors: Muhammad Zahid, Ilker S. Bayer, Athanassia Athanassiou


Fluorinated polymers having C8 chemistry (chemicals with 8 fluorinated carbon atoms) are well renowned for their excellent low surface tension and water repelling properties. However, these polymers degrade into highly toxic heavy perfluoro acids in the environment. When the C8 chemistry is reduced to C6 chemistry, this environmental concern is eliminated at the expense of reduced liquid repellent performance. In order to circumvent this, in this study, we demonstrate pre-treatment of woven cotton fabrics with a fluorinated acrylic copolymer with C6 chemistry and subsequently with a silicone polymer to render them hydrophobic. A commercial fluorinated acrylic copolymer was blended with silica nanoparticles to form hydrophobic nano-roughness on cotton fibers and a second coating layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was applied on the fabric. A static water contact angle (for 5µl) and rolling angle (for 12.5µl) of 147°±2° and 31° were observed, respectively. Hydrostatic head measurements were also performed to better understand the performance with 26±1 cm and 2.56kPa column height and static pressure respectively. Fabrication methods (with rod coater etc.) were kept simple, reproducible, and scalable and cost efficient. Moreover, the robustness of applied coatings was also evaluated by sonication cleaning and abrasion methods. Water contact angle (WCA), water shedding angle (WSA), hydrostatic head, droplet bouncing-rolling off and prolonged staining tests were used to characterize hydrophobicity of materials. For chemical and morphological analysis, various characterization methods were used such as attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: fluorinated polymer, hydrophobic, polydimethylsiloxane, water contact angle

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29 Phosphorus Reduction in Plain and Fully Formulated Oils Using Fluorinated Additives

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme


The reduction of phosphorus and sulfur in engine oil are the main topics of this paper. Very reproducible boundary lubrication tests were conducted as part of Design of Experiment software (DOE) to study the behavior of fluorinated catalyst iron fluoride (FeF3), and polutetrafluoroethylene or Teflon (PTFE) in developing environmentally friendly (reduced P and S) anti-wear additives for future engine oil formulations. Multi-component Chevron fully formulated oil (GF3) and Chevron plain oil were used with the addition of PTFE and catalyst to characterize and analyze their performance. Lower phosphorus blends were the goal of the model solution. Experiments indicated that new sub-micron FeF3 catalyst played an important role in preventing breakdown of the tribofilm.

Keywords: wear, SEM, EDS, friction, lubricants

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28 Preparation and Evaluation of Calcium Fluorosilicate (CaSiF₆) as a Fluorinating Agent

Authors: Natsumi Murakami, Jae-Ho Kim, Susumu Yonezawa


The calcium fluorosilicate (CaSiF₆) was prepared from calcium silicate (CaSiO₃) with fluorine gas at 25 ~ 200 ℃ and 760 Torr for 1~24 h. Especially, the pure CaSiF₆ could be prepared at 25 ℃ for 24 h with F₂ gas from the results of X-ray diffraction. Increasing temperature to higher than 100 ℃, the prepared CaSiF₆ was decomposed into CaF₂ and SiF₄. The release of SiF₄ gas was confirmed by the results of gas-phase infrared spectroscopy. In this study, we tried to modify the surface of polycarbonate (PC) resin using the SiF₄ gas released from CaSiF₆ particles. By using the prepared CaSiF₆, the surface roughness of fluorinated PC samples was approximately four times larger than that (1.4 nm) of the untreated sample. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated the formation of fluorinated bonds (e.g., -CFx) on the surface of PC after surface fluorination. Consequently, the CaSiF₆ particles can be useful for a new fluorinating agent.

Keywords: calcium fluorosilicate, fluorinating agent, polycarbonate, surface fluorination

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27 Tripeptide Inhibitor: The Simplest Aminogenic PEGylated Drug against Amyloid Beta Peptide Fibrillation

Authors: Sutapa Som Chaudhury, Chitrangada Das Mukhopadhyay


Alzheimer’s disease is a well-known form of dementia since its discovery in 1906. Current Food and Drug Administration approved medications e.g. cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine offer modest symptomatic relief but do not play any role in disease modification or recovery. In last three decades many small molecules, chaperons, synthetic peptides, partial β-secretase enzyme blocker have been tested for the development of a drug against Alzheimer though did not pass the 3rd clinical phase trials. Here in this study, we designed a PEGylated, aminogenic, tripeptidic polymer with two different molecular weights based on the aggregation prone amino acid sequence 17-20 in amyloid beta (Aβ) 1-42. Being conjugated with poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) which self-assembles into hydrophilic nanoparticles, these PEGylated tripeptides constitute a very good drug delivery system crossing the blood brain barrier while the peptide remains protected from proteolytic degradation and non-specific protein interactions. Moreover, being completely aminogenic they would not raise any side effects. These peptide inhibitors were evaluated for their effectiveness against Aβ42 fibrillation at an early stage of oligomer to fibril formation as well as preformed fibril clearance via Thioflavin T (ThT) assay, dynamic light scattering analyses, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The inhibitors were proved to be safe at a higher concentration of 20µM by the reduction assay of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye. Moreover, SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells have shown a greater survivability when treated with the inhibitors following Aβ42 fibril and oligomer treatment as compared with the control Aβ42 fibril and/or oligomer treated neuroblastoma cells. These make the peptidic inhibitors a promising compound in the aspect of the discovery of alternative medication for Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, alternative medication, amyloid beta, PEGylated peptide

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26 In situ One-Step Synthesis of Graphene Quantum Dots-Metal Free and Zinc Phthalocyanines Conjugates: Investigation of Photophysicochemical Properties

Authors: G. Fomo, O. J. Achadu, T. Nyokong


Nanoconjugates of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and 4-(tetrakis-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-mercaptopyridinephthalocyanine (H₂Pc(OPyF₃)₄) or 4-(tetrakis-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-mercaptopyridinephthalocyaninato) zinc (II) (ZnPc(OPyF₃)₄) were synthesized via a novel in situ one-step route. The bottom-up approach for the prepared conjugates could ensure the intercalation of the phthalocyanines (Pcs) directly onto the edges or surface of the GQDs and or non-covalent coordination using the π-electron systems of both materials. The as-synthesized GQDs and their Pcs conjugates were characterized using different spectroscopic techniques and their photophysicochemical properties evaluated. The singlet oxygen quantum yields of the Pcs in the presence of GQDs were enhanced due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurrence within the conjugated hybrids. Hence, these nanoconjugates are potential materials for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photocatalysis applications.

Keywords: graphene quantum dots, metal free fluorinated phthalocyanine, zinc fluorinated phthalocyanine, photophysicochemical properties

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25 Optical Characterization of Anisotropic Thiophene-Phenylene Co-Oligomer Micro Crystals by Spectroscopic Imaging Ellipsometry

Authors: Christian Röling, Elena Y. Poimanova, Vladimir V. Bruevich


Here we demonstrate a non-destructive optical technique to localize and characterize single crystals of semiconductive organic materials – Spectroscopic Imaging Ellipsometry. With a combination of microscopy and ellipsometry, it is possible to characterize even micro-sized thin film crystals on plane surface regarding anisotropy, optical properties, crystalline domains and thickness. The semiconducting thiophene-phenylene co-oligomer 1,4-bis(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophen]-5-yl)benzene (dHex-TTPTT) crystals were grown by solvent based self-assembly technique on silicon substrate with 300 nm thermally silicon dioxide. The ellipsometric measurements were performed with an Ep4-SE (Accurion). In an ellipsometric high-contrast image of the complete sample, we have localized high-quality single crystals. After demonstrating the uniaxial anisotropy of the crystal by using Müller-Matrix imaging ellipsometry, we determined the optical axes by rotating the sample and performed spectroscopic measurements (λ = 400-700 nm) in 5 nm intervals. The optical properties were described by using a Lorentz term in the Ep4-Model. After determining the dispersion of the crystals, we converted a recorded Delta and Psi-map into a 2D thickness image. Based on a quantitative analysis of the resulting thickness map, we have calculated the height of a molecular layer (3.49 nm).

Keywords: anisotropy, ellipsometry, SCFET, thin film

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24 Development and Evaluation of Economical Self-cleaning Cement

Authors: Anil Saini, Jatinder Kumar Ratan


Now a day, the key issue for the scientific community is to devise the innovative technologies for sustainable control of urban pollution. In urban cities, a large surface area of the masonry structures, buildings, and pavements is exposed to the open environment, which may be utilized for the control of air pollution, if it is built from the photocatalytically active cement-based constructional materials such as concrete, mortars, paints, and blocks, etc. The photocatalytically active cement is formulated by incorporating a photocatalyst in the cement matrix, and such cement is generally known as self-cleaning cement In the literature, self-cleaning cement has been synthesized by incorporating nanosized-TiO₂ (n-TiO₂) as a photocatalyst in the formulation of the cement. However, the utilization of n-TiO₂ for the formulation of self-cleaning cement has the drawbacks of nano-toxicity, higher cost, and agglomeration as far as the commercial production and applications are concerned. The use of microsized-TiO₂ (m-TiO₂) in place of n-TiO₂ for the commercial manufacture of self-cleaning cement could avoid the above-mentioned problems. However, m-TiO₂ is less photocatalytically active as compared to n- TiO₂ due to smaller surface area, higher band gap, and increased recombination rate. As such, the use of m-TiO₂ in the formulation of self-cleaning cement may lead to a reduction in photocatalytic activity, thus, reducing the self-cleaning, depolluting, and antimicrobial abilities of the resultant cement material. So improvement in the photoactivity of m-TiO₂ based self-cleaning cement is the key issue for its practical applications in the present scenario. The current work proposes the use of surface-fluorinated m-TiO₂ for the formulation of self-cleaning cement to enhance its photocatalytic activity. The calcined dolomite, a constructional material, has also been utilized as co-adsorbent along with the surface-fluorinated m-TiO₂ in the formulation of self-cleaning cement to enhance the photocatalytic performance. The surface-fluorinated m-TiO₂, calcined dolomite, and the formulated self-cleaning cement were characterized using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) surface area, and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). The self-cleaning property of the as-prepared self-cleaning cement was evaluated using the methylene blue (MB) test. The depolluting ability of the formulated self-cleaning cement was assessed through a continuous NOX removal test. The antimicrobial activity of the self-cleaning cement was appraised using the method of the zone of inhibition. The as-prepared self-cleaning cement obtained by uniform mixing of 87% clinker, 10% calcined dolomite, and 3% surface-fluorinated m-TiO₂ showed a remarkable self-cleaning property by providing 53.9% degradation of the coated MB dye. The self-cleaning cement also depicted a noteworthy depolluting ability by removing 5.5% of NOx from the air. The inactivation of B. subtiltis bacteria in the presence of light confirmed the significant antimicrobial property of the formulated self-cleaning cement. The self-cleaning, depolluting, and antimicrobial results are attributed to the synergetic effect of surface-fluorinated m-TiO₂ and calcined dolomite in the cement matrix. The present study opens an idea and route for further research for acile and economical formulation of self-cleaning cement.

Keywords: microsized-titanium dioxide (m-TiO₂), self-cleaning cement, photocatalysis, surface-fluorination

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23 Development and Characterization of a Fluorinated-Ethylene-Propylene (FEP) Polymer Coating on Brass Faucets

Authors: S. Zouari, H. Ghorbel, H. Liao, R. Elleuch


Research is increasingly moving towards the use of surface treatment processes to limit environmental effects. Electrolytic plating has traditionally been seen as a way to protect brass products, especially faucets, from mechanical and chemical damage. However, this method was not effective industrially, economically and ecologically. The aim of this work is to develop non-usual polymer coatings for brass faucets in order to improve the performance of brass and to replace electrolytic chromium coatings, thereby reducing environmental impact. Fluorinated-Ethylene-Propylene polymer (FEP) was chosen for its excellent mechanical and chemical properties and its good environmental performance. This coating was developed by spraying (painting) process onto brass substrates. The coatings obtained were characterized using a scanning electron microscope to evaluate the morphology of the deposits and their porosity rate. Grid adhesion, surface energy and corrosion tests (salt spray) were also performed to evaluate the mechanical and chemical behavior of these coatings properly. The results show that the deposits obtained have a homogeneous microstructure with a very low porosity rate. The results of the grid adhesion test prove the conformity of the test according to the NF077 standard. The coatings have a hydrophobic character following the low values of surface energy obtained and a very good resistance to corrosion. These results are interesting and may represent real technological issues in the industrial field.

Keywords: FEP coatings, spraying process, brass, adhesion, surface energy, corrosion resistance

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22 Synthesis and Gas Transport Properties of Polynorbornene Dicarboximides Bearing Trifluoromethyl Isomer Moieties

Authors: Jorge A. Cruz-Morales, Joel Vargas, Arlette A. Santiago, Mikhail A. Tlenkopatchev


In industrial processes such as oil extraction and refining, products are handled or generated in the gas phase, which represents a challenge in terms of treatment and purification. During the past three decades, new scientific findings and technological advances in separation based on the use of membranes have led to simpler and more efficient gas separation processes, optimizing the use of energy and generating less pollution. This work reports the synthesis and ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of new structural isomers based on norbornene dicarboximides bearing trifluoromethyl moieties, specifically N-2-trifluoromethylphenyl-exo,endo-norbornene-5,6-dicarboximide (2a) and N-3-trifluoromethylphenyl-exo,endo-norbornene-5,6-dicarboximide (2b), using tricyclohexylphosphine [1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene][benzylidene] ruthenium dichloride (I), bis(tricyclohexylphosphine) benzylidene ruthenium (IV) dichloride (II), and bis(tricyclohexylphosphine) p-fluorophenylvinylidene ruthenium (II) dichloride (III). It was observed that the -CF3 moiety attached at the ortho position of the aromatic ring increases thermal and mechanical properties of the polymer, whereas meta substitution has the opposite effect. A comparative study of gas transportation in membranes, based on these fluorinated polynorbornenes, showed that -CF3 ortho substitution increases permeability of the polymer membrane as a consequence of the increase in both gas solubility and gas diffusion. In contrast, gas permeability coefficients of the meta-substituted polymer membrane are rather similar to those of that which is non-fluorinated; this can be attributed to a lower fractional free volume. The meta-substituted polymer membrane, besides showing the largest permselectivity coefficients of all the isomers studied here, was also found to have one of the largest permselectivity coefficients for separating H2/C3H6 into glassy polynorbornene dicarboximides.

Keywords: gas transport membranes, polynorbornene dicarboximide, ROMP, structural isomers

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21 Revealing Thermal Degradation Characteristics of Distinctive Oligo-and Polisaccharides of Prebiotic Relevance

Authors: Attila Kiss, Erzsébet Némedi, Zoltán Naár


As natural prebiotic (non-digestible) carbohydrates stimulate the growth of colon microflora and contribute to maintain the health of the host, analytical studies aiming at revealing the chemical behavior of these beneficial food components came to the forefront of interest. Food processing (especially baking) may lead to a significant conversion of the parent compounds, hence it is of utmost importance to characterize the transformation patterns and the plausible decomposition products formed by thermal degradation. The relevance of this work is confirmed by the wide-spread use of these carbohydrates (fructo-oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, raffinose and resistant starch) in the food industry. More and more functional foodstuffs are being developed based on prebiotics as bioactive components. 12 different types of oligosaccharides have been investigated in order to reveal their thermal degradation characteristics. Different carbohydrate derivatives (D-fructose and D-glucose oligomers and polymers) have been exposed to elevated temperatures (150 °C 170 °C, 190 °C, 210 °C, and 220 °C) for 10 min. An advanced HPLC method was developed and used to identify the decomposition products of carbohydrates formed as a consequence of thermal treatment. Gradient elution was applied with binary solvent elution (acetonitrile, water) through amine based carbohydrate column. Evaporative light scattering (ELS) proved to be suitable for the reliable detection of the UV/VIS inactive carbohydrate degradation products. These experimental conditions and applied advanced techniques made it possible to survey all the formed intermediers. Change in oligomer distribution was established in cases of all studied prebiotics throughout the thermal treatments. The obtained results indicate increased extent of chain degradation of the carbohydrate moiety at elevated temperatures. Prevalence of oligomers with shorter chain length and even the formation of monomer sugars (D-glucose and D-fructose) might be observed at higher temperatures. Unique oligomer distributions, which have not been described previously are revealed in the case of each studied, specific carbohydrate, which might result in various prebiotic activities. Resistant starches exhibited high stability when being thermal treated. The degradation process has been modeled by a plausible reaction mechanism, in which proton catalyzed degradation and chain cleavage take place.

Keywords: prebiotics, thermal degradation, fructo-oligosaccharide, HPLC, ELS detection

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20 High Level Expression of Fluorinase in Escherichia Coli and Pichia Pastoris

Authors: Lee A. Browne, K. Rumbold


The first fluorinating enzyme, 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyadenosine synthase (fluorinase) was isolated from the soil bacterium Streptomyces cattleya. Such an enzyme, with the ability to catalyze a C-F bond, presents great potential as a biocatalyst. Naturally fluorinated compounds are extremely rare in nature. As a result, the number of fluorinases identified remains relatively few. The field of fluorination is almost completely synthetic. However, with the increasing demand for fluorinated organic compounds of commercial value in the agrochemical, pharmaceutical and materials industries, it has become necessary to utilize biologically based methods such as biocatalysts. A key step in this crucial process is the large-scale production of the fluorinase enzyme in considerable quantities for industrial applications. Thus, this study aimed to optimize expression of the fluorinase enzyme in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems in order to obtain high protein yields. The fluorinase gene was cloned into the pET 41b(+) and pPinkα-HC vectors and used to transform the expression hosts, E.coli BL21(DE3) and Pichia pastoris (PichiaPink™ strains) respectively. Expression trials were conducted to select optimal conditions for expression in both expression systems. Fluorinase catalyses a reaction between S-adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAM) and fluoride ion to produce 5'-fluorodeoxyadenosine (5'FDA) and L-Methionine. The activity of the enzyme was determined using HPLC by measuring the product of the reaction 5'FDA. A gradient mobile phase of 95:5 v/v 50mM potassium phosphate buffer to a final mobile phase containing 80:20 v/v 50mM potassium phosphate buffer and acetonitrile were used. This resulted in the complete separation of SAM and 5’-FDA which eluted at 1.3 minutes and 3.4 minutes respectively. This proved that the fluorinase enzyme was active. Optimising expression of the fluorinase enzyme was successful in both E.coli and PichiaPink™ where high expression levels in both expression systems were achieved. Protein production will be scaled up in PichiaPink™ using fermentation to achieve large-scale protein production. High level expression of protein is essential in biocatalysis for the availability of enzymes for industrial applications.

Keywords: biocatalyst, expression, fluorinase, PichiaPink™

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19 Pet Bearing Bio-Based Moities

Authors: Majdi Abid


During the last few decades, great efforts have been made for the development of innovative materials using vegetal biomass. This strategy is understandable for different reasons including the predictable dwindling of the petrochemical feedstock and their price increase as well as the counterbalancing of the environmental problems. As novel bio-based monomers used in polyesters synthesis, two families, namely 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitols and furanics were prepared for saccharidic renewable resources. The present work deals with a detail investigation on the synthesis of poly(ethylene-co-isosorbide terephthalate-co-furoate) (PEITF) by melt polycondensation of dimethylterephtalate (DMT), 5,5’-isopropylidene-bis (ethyl 2-furoate) (DEF) ethan-1,2-diol (ED) and isosorbide (IS). Polycondensationwas achieved in two steps: (i) the formation of a hydroxyethylterminated oligomer by reaction of starting diester mixture with excess ED and, (ii) a polycondensation step with elimination of ED was used to obtain high molar mass copolyesters. Copolymers of various compositions were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, SEC, DSC and TGA. The resulting materials are amorphous polymers (Tg = 104–127 °C) with good thermal stability.

Keywords: bio-based monomers, furan, isosrbide, polycondensation

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18 Injectable Polysaccharide-based Gel for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Abdullah Baawad, Dong-Shik Kim


Biomaterials are increasingly used in tissue engineering for their desired properties such as, biocompatibility, biodegradability, porosity and injectability. Low-acyl gellan gum (LA-GAGR) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were ionically crosslinked by tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and an injectable gel composite that slowly decomposes over time was fabricated. The gel offers the advantage of combining shear thinning property and a primarily solid phase under static or small deformation oscillatory conditions. Additionally, the diffusion of LA-GAGR and mini-GAGR (a fragment oligomer of gellan gum) through bone was studied to obtain diffusion coefficients. To investigate how LA-GAGR and mini-GAGR interact with bone marrow stem cells after diffusion, the osteodifferentiation of bone marrow stem cells was investigated, as well as collagen type I production. LA-GAGR/HA gel shows great potential as an injectable low-cost biomaterial for bone regeneration strategies.

Keywords: bone, gellan gum, hyaluronic acid, tissue engineering, polysaccharides

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17 De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome from the Fluoroacetate Producing Plant, Dichapetalum Cymosum

Authors: Selisha A. Sooklal, Phelelani Mpangase, Shaun Aron, Karl Rumbold


Organically bound fluorine (C-F bond) is extremely rare in nature. Despite this, the first fluorinated secondary metabolite, fluoroacetate, was isolated from the plant Dichapetalum cymosum (commonly known as Gifblaar). However, the enzyme responsible for fluorination (fluorinase) in Gifblaar was never isolated and very little progress has been achieved in understanding this process in higher plants. Fluorinated compounds have vast applications in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and fine chemicals industries. Consequently, an enzyme capable of catalysing a C-F bond has great potential as a biocatalyst in the industry considering that the field of fluorination is virtually synthetic. As with any biocatalyst, a range of these enzymes are required. Therefore, it is imperative to expand the exploration for novel fluorinases. This study aimed to gain molecular insights into secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Gifblaar using a high-throughput sequencing-based approach. Mechanical wounding studies were performed using Gifblaar leaf tissue in order to induce expression of the fluorinase. The transcriptome of the wounded and unwounded plant was then sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq platform. A total of 26.4 million short sequence reads were assembled into 77 845 transcripts using Trinity. Overall, 68.6 % of transcripts were annotated with gene identities using public databases (SwissProt, TrEMBL, GO, COG, Pfam, EC) with an E-value threshold of 1E-05. Sequences exhibited the greatest homology to the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana (27 %). A total of 244 annotated transcripts were found to be differentially expressed between the wounded and unwounded plant. In addition, secondary metabolic pathways present in Gifblaar were successfully reconstructed using Pathway tools. Due to lack of genetic information for plant fluorinases, a transcript failed to be annotated as a fluorinating enzyme. Thus, a local database containing the 5 existing bacterial fluorinases was created. Fifteen transcripts having homology to partial regions of existing fluorinases were found. In efforts to obtain the full coding sequence of the Gifblaar fluorinase, primers were designed targeting the regions of homology and genome walking will be performed to amplify the unknown regions. This is the first genetic data available for Gifblaar. It has provided novel insights into the mechanisms of metabolite biosynthesis and will allow for the discovery of the first eukaryotic fluorinase.

Keywords: biocatalyst, fluorinase, gifblaar, transcriptome

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16 Organic Light Emitting Devices Based on Low Symmetry Coordination Structured Lanthanide Complexes

Authors: Zubair Ahmed, Andrea Barbieri


The need to reduce energy consumption has prompted a considerable research effort for developing alternative energy-efficient lighting systems to replace conventional light sources (i.e., incandescent and fluorescent lamps). Organic light emitting device (OLED) technology offers the distinctive possibility to fabricate large area flat devices by vacuum or solution processing. Lanthanide β-diketonates complexes, due to unique photophysical properties of Ln(III) ions, have been explored as emitting layers in OLED displays and in solid-state lighting (SSL) in order to achieve high efficiency and color purity. For such applications, the excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and stability are the two key points that can be achieved simply by selecting the proper organic ligands around the Ln ion in a coordination sphere. Regarding the strategies to enhance the PLQY, the most common is the suppression of the radiationless deactivation pathways due to the presence of high-frequency oscillators (e.g., OH, –CH groups) around the Ln centre. Recently, a different approach to maximize the PLQY of Ln(β-DKs) has been proposed (named 'Escalate Coordination Anisotropy', ECA). It is based on the assumption that coordinating the Ln ion with different ligands will break the centrosymmetry of the molecule leading to less forbidden transitions (loosening the constraints of the Laporte rule). The OLEDs based on such complexes are available, but with low efficiency and stability. In order to get efficient devices, there is a need to develop some new Ln complexes with enhanced PLQYs and stabilities. For this purpose, the Ln complexes, both visible and (NIR) emitting, of variant coordination structures based on the various fluorinated/non-fluorinated β-diketones and O/N-donor neutral ligands were synthesized using a one step in situ method. In this method, the β-diketones, base, LnCl₃.nH₂O and neutral ligands were mixed in a 3:3:1:1 M ratio in ethanol that gave air and moisture stable complexes. Further, they were characterized by means of elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Thereafter, their photophysical properties were studied to select the best complexes for the fabrication of stable and efficient OLEDs. Finally, the OLEDs were fabricated and investigated using these complexes as emitting layers along with other organic layers like NPB,N,N′-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (hole-transporting layer), BCP, 2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (hole-blocker) and Alq3 (electron-transporting layer). The layers were sequentially deposited under high vacuum environment by thermal evaporation onto ITO glass substrates. Moreover, co-deposition techniques were used to improve charge transport in the devices and to avoid quenching phenomena. The devices show strong electroluminescence at 612, 998, 1064 and 1534 nm corresponding to ⁵D₀ →⁷F₂(Eu), ²F₅/₂ → ²F₇/₂ (Yb), ⁴F₃/₂→ ⁴I₉/₂ (Nd) and ⁴I1₃/₂→ ⁴I1₅/₂ (Er). All the devices fabricated show good efficiency as well as stability.

Keywords: electroluminescence, lanthanides, paramagnetic NMR, photoluminescence

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15 Preparation and Characterization of TiO₂-SiO₂ Composite Films on Plastics Using Aqueous Peroxotitanium Acid Solution

Authors: Ayu Minamizawa, Jae-Ho Kim, Susumu Yonezawa


Aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution was prepared by the reaction between H₂O₂ solution and TiO₂ fluorinated using F₂ gas. The coating of TiO₂/SiO₂ multilayer on the surface of polycarbonate (PC) resin was carried out step by step using the TEOS solution and aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution. We confirmed each formation of SiO₂ and TiO₂ layer by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. The formation of a TiO₂ thin layer on SiO₂ coated on polycarbonate (PC) was carried out at 120 ℃ and for 15 min ~ 3 h with aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution using a hydrothermal synthesis autoclave reactor. The morphology TiO₂ coating layer largely depended on the reaction time, as shown in the results of SEM-EDS analysis. Increasing the reaction times, the TiO₂ layer expanded uniformly. Moreover, the surface fluorination of the SiO₂ layer can promote the formation of the TiO₂ layer on the surface.

Keywords: aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution, photocatalytic activity, polycarbonate, surface fluorination

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14 Functionalized Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles for Targeting and Disrupting Amyloid Fibrils

Authors: Elad Arad, Raz Jelinek, Hanna Rapaport


Amyloidoses are a family of diseases characterized by abnormal protein folding that leads to aggregation. They accumulate to form fibrillar plaques which are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer, prion, diabetes type II and other diseases. To the best of our knowledge, despite extensive research efforts devoted to plaque aggregates inhibition, there is yet no cure for this phenomenon. Titanium and its alloys are found in growing interest for biomedical applications. Variety of surface modifications enable porous, adhesive, bioactive coatings for its surface. Titanium oxides (titania) are also being developed for photothermal and photodynamic treatments. Inspired by this, we set to explore the effect of functionalized titania nanoparticles in combination with external stimuli, as potential photothermal ablating agents against amyloids. Titania nanoparticles were coated with bi-functional catechol derivatives (dihydroxy-phenylalanine propanoic acid, noted DPA) to gain targeting properties. In conjunction with UV-radiation, these nanoparticles may selectively destroy the vicinity of their target. Titania modified 5 nm nanoparticles coated with DPA were further conjugated to the amyloid-targeting Congo Red (CR). These Titania-DPA-CR nanoparticles were found to target mature amyloid fibril of both amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42 a.a). Moreover, irradiation of the peptides in presence of the modified nanoparticles decreased the aggregate content and oligomer fraction. This work provides insights into the use of modified titania nanoparticles for amyloid plaque targeting and photothermal destruction. It may shed light on future modifications and functionalization of titania nanoparticles for different applications.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, amyloids, photothermal treatment, catechol, Congo-red

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13 Enhancing the Oxidation Resistance of Copper at High Temperature by Surface Fluorination

Authors: Jae-Ho Kim, Ryosuke Yokochi, Miho Fuzihashi, Susumu Yonezawa


The use of silver nanoparticles in conductive inks and their printing by injecting technology has been known for years. However, the very high cost of silver limits wide industrial applications. Since copper is much cheaper but possesses a very high conductivity (only 6% less than that of Ag), Cu nanoparticles can be considered as a replacement for silver nanoparticles. However, a major problem in utilizing their copper nanoparticles is their inherent tendency to oxidize in ambient conditions. In conductive printing applications, the presence of copper oxide on the surface of nanoparticles has two negative consequences: it increases the required sintering temperature and reduces the electrical conductivity. Only a limited number of reports have attempted to address the oxidation problem, which in general is based on minimizing the exposure of the copper nanoparticles to oxygen by a protective layer composed of a second material at the surface of the particles. To form the protective layer on the surface, carbon-based materials, surfactants, metals, and so on. In this study, we tried to modify the oxide on Cu particles using fluorine gas. And the creation effects of oxyfluorides or fluorides on the oxidation resistance of Cu particles were investigated. Compared with untreated sample (a), the fluorinated samples can restrain the weight increase even at 200℃ from the TG-DTA results. It might be considered that the substantial oxyfluorides on the surface play a role in protecting metal oxidation.

Keywords: copper metal, electrical conductivity, oxidation resistance, surface fluorination

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12 Investigation of the Properties of Epoxy Modified Binders Based on Epoxy Oligomer with Improved Deformation and Strength Properties

Authors: Hlaing Zaw Oo, N. Kostromina, V. Osipchik, T. Kravchenko, K. Yakovleva


The process of modification of ed-20 epoxy resin synthesized by vinyl-containing compounds is considered. It is shown that the introduction of vinyl-containing compounds into the composition based on epoxy resin ED-20 allows adjusting the technological and operational characteristics of the binder. For improvement of the properties of epoxy resin, following modifiers were selected: polyvinylformalethyl, polyvinyl butyral and composition of linear and aromatic amines (Аramine) as a hardener. Now the big range of hardeners of epoxy resins exists that allows varying technological properties of compositions, and also thermophysical and strength indicators. The nature of the aramin type hardener has a significant impact on the spatial parameters of the mesh, glass transition temperature, and strength characteristics. Epoxy composite materials based on ED-20 modified with polyvinyl butyral were obtained and investigated. It is shown that the composition of resins based on derivatives of polyvinyl butyral and ED-20 allows obtaining composite materials with a higher complex of deformation-strength, adhesion and thermal properties, better water resistance, frost resistance, chemical resistance, and impact strength. The magnitude of the effect depends on the chemical structure, temperature and curing time. In the area of concentrations, where the effect of composite synergy is appearing, the values of strength and stiffness significantly exceed the similar parameters of the individual components of the mixture. The polymer-polymer compositions form their class of materials with diverse specific properties that ensure their competitive application. Coatings with high performance under cyclic loading have been obtained based on epoxy oligomers modified with vinyl-containing compounds.

Keywords: epoxy resins, modification, vinyl-containing compounds, deformation, strength properties

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11 Use of Polymeric Materials in the Architectural Preservation

Authors: F. Z. Benabid, F. Zouai, A. Douibi, D. Benachour


These Fluorinated polymers and polyacrylics have known a wide use in the field of historical monuments. PVDF provides a great easiness to processing, a good UV resistance and good chemical inertia. Although the quality of physical characteristics of the PMMA and its low price with a respect to PVDF, its deterioration against UV radiations limits its use as protector agent for the stones. On the other hand, PVDF/PMMA blend is a compromise of a great development in the field of architectural restoration, since it is the best method in term of quality and price to make new polymeric materials having enhanced properties. Films of different compositions based on the two polymers within an adequate solvent (DMF) were obtained to perform an exposition to artificial ageing and to the salted fog, a spectroscopic analysis (FTIR and UV) and optical analysis (refractive index). Based on its great interest in the field of building, a variety of standard tests has been elaborated for the first time at the central laboratory of ENAP (Souk-Ahras) in order to evaluate our blend performance. The obtained results have allowed observing the behavior of the different compositions of the blend under various tests. The addition of PVDF to PMMA enhances the properties of this last to know the exhibition to the natural and artificial ageing and to the saline fog. On the other hand, PMMA enhances the optical properties of the blend. Finally, 70/30 composition of the blend is in concordance with results of previous works and it is the adequate proportion for an eventual application.

Keywords: blend, PVDF, PMMA, preservation, historic monuments

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10 Dehalogenation of Aromatic Compounds in Wastewater by Bacterial Cultures

Authors: Anne Elain, Magali Le Fellic


Halogenated Aromatic Compounds (HAC) are major organic pollutants that are detected in several environmental compartments as a result of their widespread use as solvents, pesticides and other industrial chemicals. The degradation of HAC simultaneously at low temperature and under saline conditions would be useful for remediation of polluted sites. Hence, microbial processes based on the metabolic activities of anaerobic bacteria are especially attractive from an economic and environmental point of view. Metabolites are generally less toxic, less likely to bioaccumulate and more susceptible for further degradation. Studies on biological reductive dehalogenation have largely been restricted to chlorinated compounds while relatively few have focussed on other HAC i.e., fluorinated, brominated or iodinated compounds. The objectives of the present work were to investigate the biodegradation of a mixture of triiodoaromatic molecules in industrial wastewater by an enriched bacterial consortium. Biodegradation of the mixture was studied during batch experiments in an anaerobic reactor. The degree of mineralization and recovery of halogen were monitored by HPLC-UV, TOC analysis and potentiometric titration. Providing ethanol as an electron donor was found to stimulate anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of HAC with a deiodination rate up to 12.4 mg.L-1 per day. Sodium chloride even at high concentration (10 mM) was found to have no influence on the degradation rates nor on the microbial viability. An analysis of the 16S rDNA (MicroSeq®) revealed that at least 6 bacteria were predominant in the enrichment, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas monteilii, Kocuria rhizophila, Ochrobacterium anthropi, Ralstonia pickettii and Rhizobium rhizogenes.

Keywords: halogenated aromatics, anaerobic biodegradation, deiodination, bacterial consortium

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9 Evaluation of Developmental Toxicity and Teratogenicity of Perfluoroalkyl Compounds Using FETAX

Authors: Hyun-Kyung Lee, Jehyung Oh, Young Eun Jeong, Hyun-Shik Lee


Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are environmental toxicants that persistently accumulate in the human blood. Their widespread detection and accumulation in the environment raise concerns about whether these chemicals might be developmental toxicants and teratogens in the ecosystem. We evaluated and compared the toxicity of PFCs of containing various numbers of carbon atoms (C8-11 carbons) on vertebrate embryogenesis. We assessed the developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of various PFCs. The toxic effects on Xenopus embryos were evaluated using different methods. We measured teratogenic indices (TIs) and investigated the mechanisms underlying developmental toxicity and teratogenicity by measuring the expression of organ-specific biomarkers such as xPTB (liver), Nkx2.5 (heart), and Cyl18 (intestine). All PFCs that we tested were found to be developmental toxicants and teratogens. Their toxic effects were strengthened with increasing length of the fluorinated carbon chain. Furthermore, we produced evidence showing that perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFuDA) are more potent developmental toxicants and teratogens in an animal model compared to the other PFCs we evaluated [perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)]. In particular, severe defects resulting from PFDA and PFuDA exposure were observed in the liver and heart, respectively, using the whole mount in situ hybridization, real-time PCR, pathologic analysis of the heart, and dissection of the liver. Our studies suggest that most PFCs are developmental toxicants and teratogens, however, compounds that have higher numbers of carbons (i.e., PFDA and PFuDA) exert more potent effects.

Keywords: PFC, xenopus, fetax, development

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8 Salinity Reduction from Saharan Brackish Water by Fluoride Removal on Activated Natural Materials: A Comparative Study

Authors: Amina Ramadni, Safia Taleb, André Dératani


The present study presents, firstly, to characterize the physicochemical quality of brackish groundwater of the Terminal Complex (TC) from the region of Eloued-souf and to investigate the presence of fluoride, and secondly, to study the comparison of adsorbing power of three materials, such as (activated alumina AA, sodium clay SC and hydroxyapatite HAP) against the groundwater in the region of Eloued-souf. To do this, a sampling campaign over 16 wells and consumer taps was undertaken. The results show that the groundwater can be characterized by very high fluoride content and excessive mineralization that require in some cases, specific treatment before supply. The study of adsorption revealed removal efficiencies fluoride by three adsorbents, maximum adsorption is achieved after 45 minutes at 90%, 83.4% and 73.95%, and with an adsorbed fluoride content of 0.22 mg/L, 0.318 mg/L and 0.52 mg/L for AA, HAP and SC, respectively. The acidity of the medium significantly affects the removal fluoride. Results deducted from the adsorption isotherms also showed that the retention follows the Langmuir model. The adsorption tests by adsorbent materials show that the physicochemical characteristics of brackish water are changed after treatment. The adsorption mechanism is an exchange between the OH- ions and fluoride ions. Three materials are proving to be effective adsorbents for fluoride removal that could be developed into a viable technology to help reduce the salinity of the Saharan hyper-fluorinated waters. Finally, a comparison between the results obtained from the different adsorbents allowed us to conclude that the defluoridation by AA is the process of choice for many waters of the region of Eloued-souf, because it was shown to be a very interesting and promising technique.

Keywords: fluoride removal, hydrochemical characterization of groundwater, natural materials, nanofiltration

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7 Metal Extraction into Ionic Liquids and Hydrophobic Deep Eutectic Mixtures

Authors: E. E. Tereshatov, M. Yu. Boltoeva, V. Mazan, M. F. Volia, C. M. Folden III


Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a class of liquid organic salts with melting points below 20 °C that are considered to be environmentally friendly ‘designers’ solvents. Pure hydrophobic ILs are known to extract metallic species from aqueous solutions. The closest analogues of ionic liquids are deep eutectic solvents (DESs), which are a eutectic mixture of at least two compounds with a melting point lower than that of each individual component. DESs are acknowledged to be attractive for organic synthesis and metal processing. Thus, these non-volatile and less toxic compounds are of interest for critical metal extraction. The US Department of Energy and the European Commission consider indium as a key metal. Its chemical homologue, thallium, is also an important material for some applications and environmental safety. The aim of this work is to systematically investigate In and Tl extraction from aqueous solutions into pure fluorinated ILs and hydrophobic DESs. The dependence of the Tl extraction efficiency on the structure and composition of the ionic liquid ions, metal oxidation state, and initial metal and aqueous acid concentrations have been studied. The extraction efficiency of the TlXz3–z anionic species (where X = Cl– and/or Br–) is greater for ionic liquids with more hydrophobic cations. Unexpectedly high distribution ratios (> 103) of Tl(III) were determined even by applying a pure ionic liquid as receiving phase. An improved mathematical model based on ion exchange and ion pair formation mechanisms has been developed to describe the co-extraction of two different anionic species, and the relative contributions of each mechanism have been determined. The first evidence of indium extraction into new quaternary ammonium- and menthol-based hydrophobic DESs from hydrochloric and oxalic acid solutions with distribution ratios up to 103 will be provided. Data obtained allow us to interpret the mechanism of thallium and indium extraction into ILs and DESs media. The understanding of Tl and In chemical behavior in these new media is imperative for the further improvement of separation and purification of these elements.

Keywords: deep eutectic solvents, indium, ionic liquids, thallium

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6 Clathrate Hydrate Measurements and Thermodynamic Modelling for Refrigerants with Electrolytes Solution in the Presence of Cyclopentane

Authors: Peterson Thokozani Ngema, Paramespri Naidoo, Amir H. Mohammadi, Deresh Ramjugernath


Phase equilibrium data (dissociation data) for clathrate hydrate (gas hydrate) were undertaken for systems involving fluorinated refrigerants with a single and mixed electrolytes (NaCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂, and Na₂SO₄) aqueous solution at various salt concentrations in the absence and presence of cyclopentane (CP). The ternary systems for (R410a or R507) with the water system in the presence of CP were performed in the temperature and pressures ranges of (279.8 to 294.4) K and (0.158 to 1.385) MPa, respectively. Measurements for R410a with single electrolyte {NaCl or CaCl₂} solution in the presence of CP were undertaken at salt concentrations of (0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) mass fractions in the temperature and pressure ranges of (278.4 to 293.7) K and (0.214 to1.179) MPa, respectively. The temperature and pressure conditions for R410a with Na₂SO₄ aqueous solution system were investigated at a salt concentration of 0.10 mass fraction in the range of (283.3 to 291.6) K and (0.483 to 1.373) MPa respectively. Measurements for {R410a or R507} with mixed electrolytes {NaCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂} aqueous solution was undertaken at various salt concentrations of (0.002 to 0.15) mass fractions in the temperature and pressure ranges of (274.5 to 292.9) K and (0.149 to1.119) MPa in the absence and presence of CP, in which there is no published data related to mixed salt and a promoter. The phase equilibrium measurements were performed using a non-visual isochoric equilibrium cell that co-operates the pressure-search technique. This study is focused on obtaining equilibrium data that can be utilized to design and optimize industrial wastewater, desalination process and the development of Hydrate Electrolyte–Cubic Plus Association (HE–CPA) Equation of State. The results show an impressive improvement in the presence of promoter (CP) on hydrate formation because it increases the dissociation temperatures near ambient conditions. The results obtained were modeled using a developed HE–CPA equation of state. The model results strongly agree with the measured hydrate dissociation data.

Keywords: association, desalination, electrolytes, promoter

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