Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1561

Search results for: silica nanoparticles

1561 Mechanical and Long Term Ageing Properties of PMMA Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: M. Khlifa, A. Youssef. M. Almakki


The addition of silica nanoparticles to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) can influence its mechanical and aging properties. Dispersed PMMA in colloidal and aggregated silica revealed considerable increase in modulus above the glass transition temperature when aggregated silica nanoparticles were used, whereas colloidally dispersed silica nanoparticles showed only a marginal improvement. In addition, Dispersed PMMA in both aggregated and colloidally silica nanoparticles accelerated physical ageing.

Keywords: nanoparticles, physical aging, PMMA, chemical and molecular engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
1560 Study of Dispersion of Silica and Chitosan Nanoparticles into Gelatin Film

Authors: Mohit Batra, Noel Sarkar, Jayeeta Mitra


In this study silica nanoparticles were synthesized using different methods and different silica sources namely Tetraethyl ortho silicate (TEOS), Sodium Silicate, Rice husk while chitosan nanoparticles were prepared with ionic gelation method using Sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Size and texture of silica nanoparticles were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) along with the effect of change in concentration of various reagents in different synthesis processes. Size and dispersion of Silica nanoparticles prepared from TEOS using stobber’s method were found better than other methods while nanoparticles prepared using rice husk were cheaper than other ones. Catalyst found to play a very significant role in controlling the size of nanoparticles in all methods.

Keywords: silica nanoparticles, gelatin, bio-nanocomposites, SEM, TEM, chitosan

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1559 Fabrication and Characterization of Glass Nanofibers through Electrospinning of Silica Sol-Gel along with in situ Synthesis of Ag Nanoparticles

Authors: Mahsa Kangazian Kangazi, Ali Akbar Ghareh Aghaji, Majid Montazer


Nowadays, silica nanofibers are highly regarded among the inorganic nanofibers due to the high reactivity and availability of silicon compounds in nature. Sol-gel process is required for electrospinning of silica nanofibers in which a metal alkoxide is hydrolyzed, and the viscosity is increased. In this study, silica nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles were synthesized and electrospun from a mixture of silica sol with an easy spinnable polymer (PVA) as an additive. The silica sol contains tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), silver nitrate, distilled water, nitric acid, and ethanol. Nanofibers were formed through electrospinning setup. The nanofibers were calcinated to remove the solvent and additive polymer. Consequently, pure silica nanofibers were produced. FTIR analysis indicated entire removal of polyvinyl alcohol from the structure and formation of silan groups. The presence of silver, silica and oxygen was confirmed by EDX. Also, XRD patterns revealed the presence of silver nanoparticles with a mean crystal size of 18 nm. FESEM images showed that adding silver nitrate into the sol-gel, resulted in lower nanofibers diameter from 286 to 136 nm. Furthermore, the electrospun nanofibers were more resistance in acidic media than alkaline media.

Keywords: in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles, silica nanofibers, sol-gel, tetraethyl orthosilicate

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1558 Improvement of Chemical Demulsifier Performance Using Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: G. E. Gandomkar, E. Bekhradinassab, S. Sabbaghi, M. M. Zerafat


The reduction of water content in crude oil emulsions reduces pipeline corrosion potential and increases the productivity. Chemical emulsification of crude oil emulsions is one of the methods available to reduce the water content. Presence of demulsifier causes the film layer between the crude oil emulsion and water droplets to become unstable leading to the acceleration of water coalescence. This research has been performed to study the improvement performance of a chemical demulsifier by silica nanoparticles. The silica nano-particles have been synthesized by sol-gel technique and precipitation using poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) as surfactants and then nano-particles are added to the demulsifier. The silica nanoparticles were characterized by Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and SEM. Upon the addition of nanoparticles, bottle tests have been carried out to separate and measure the water content. The results show that silica nano-particles increase the demulsifier efficiency by about 40%.

Keywords: demulsifier, dehydration, silicon dioxide, nanoparticle

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1557 Preparation and Physical Assessment of Portland Cement Base Composites Containing Nano Particles

Authors: Amir Mahmoudi


In this research the effects of adding silica and alumina nanoparticles on flow ability and compressive strength of cementitious composites based on Portland cement were investigated. In the first stage, the rheological behavior of different samples containing nanosilica, nanoalumina and polypropylene, polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene fibers were evaluated. With increasing of nanoparticles in fresh samples, the slump flow diameter reduced. Fibers reduced the flow ability of the samples and viscosity increased. With increasing of the micro silica particles to cement ratio from 2/1 to 2/2, the slump flow diameter increased. By adding silica and alumina nanoparticles up to 3% and 2% respectively, the compressive strength increased and after decreased. Samples containing silica nanoparticles and fibers had the highest compressive strength.

Keywords: Portland cement, composite, nanoparticles, compressive strength

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1556 Superhydrophobic Coatings Based On Waterborne Polyolefin And Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: Kyuwon Lee, Young-Wook Chang


Superhydrophobic surfaces have been paid great attentions over the years due to their various applications. In this study, superhydrophobic coatings based on the hybrids of hydrophobically modified silica nanoparticles and waterborne polyolefin were fabricated onto a cotton fabric by spraying a mixture of surface dodecylated silica nanoparticles with aqueous dispersion of polyolefin onto the fabric and a subsequent drying at 80℃. The coated fabrics were characterized using water-contact angle measurement, SEM, and AFM analysis. The coated fabrics exhibit superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 155° along with excellent self-cleaning and water/oil separation ability. It was also revealed that such superhydrophobicity was maintained after repeated mechanical abrasion using a sandpaper.

Keywords: superhydrophobic coating, waterborne polyolefin, dodecylated silica nanoparticle, durability

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1555 Preparation of Fluoroalkyl End-Capped Oligomers/Silica Nanocomposites Possessing a Nonflammable Characteristic Even After Calcination at 800 oC

Authors: Hideo Sawada


Fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers [RF-(M)n-RF; RF = fluoroalkyl groups; M = radical polymerizable monomers] can form nanometre size-controlled self-assembled oligomeric aggregates through the aggregations of end-capped fluoroalkyl groups. Fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomeric aggregates can also interact with guest molecules to afford fluorinated aggregate/guest molecule nanocomposites; although the corresponding non-fluorinated oligomers cannot form such molecular aggregates to interact with guest molecules. For example, silica nanoparticles should act as guest molecules in fluorinated oligomeric aggregate cores to give new fluorinated oligomer-coated silica nanoparticles (fluorinated oligomer/silica nanocomposites). In these fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers/silica nanocomposites, some fluorinated oligomers/silica nanocomposites were found to exhibit no weight loss behavior corresponding to the contents of oligomers in the silica matrices even after calcination at 800 oC. Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomer-coated silica nanoparticles can be prepared by the sol-gel reaction of the corresponding fluorinated oligomer under alkaline conditions. The modified glass surface treated with this fluorinated oligomeric nanoparticle exhibited a completely super-hydrophobic characteristic. These fluorinated nanoparticles were also applied to the surface modification possessing a super-oleophobic characteristic. Not only fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers but also low molecular weight fluorinated surfactants such as perfluoro-1,3-propanedisulfonic acid (PFPS) were applied to the preparation of fluorinated surfactants/silica nanocomposites to give no weight loss in proportion to the content of the surfactants in the nanocomposites even after calcination at 800 oC.

Keywords: fluorinated oligomer, silica nanocomposite, nonflammable characteristic, superamphiphobic chracteristic

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1554 Synthesis of Polystyrene Grafted Filler Nanoparticles: Effect of Grafting on Mechanical Reinforcement

Authors: M. Khlifa, A. Youssef, A. F. Zaed, A. Kraft, V. Arrighi


A series of PS-nanoparticles were prepared by grafting PS from both aggregated silica and colloidally silica using atom-transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP). The mechanical behaviour of the nanocomposites have been examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA).

Keywords: ATRP, nanocomposites, polystyrene, reinforcement

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1553 Development and Characterization of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles of Quercetin in Skin Cancer

Authors: Khusboo Agrawal, S. Saraf


Quercetin, a flavonol provides a cellular protection against UV induced oxidative damages due to its excellent free radical scavenging activity and direct pro-apoptopic effect on tumor cells. However, its topical use is limited due to its unfavorable physicochemical properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as topical carrier system for quercetin delivery. Complexes of quercetin with mesoporous silica was prepared with different weight ratios and characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, high resolution TEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and differential scanning calorimetry The protective effect of this vehicle on UV-induced degradation of the quercetin was investigated revealing a certain positive influence of the inclusion on the photostability over time. Epidermal accumulation and transdermal permeation of this molecule were ex vivo evaluated by using Franz diffusion cells. The immobilization of Quercetin in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) increased the stability without undermining the antioxidant efficacy.

Keywords: cancer, MSNs, quercetin, topical delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
1552 Useful Effects of Silica Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquid Electrolyte for Energy Storage

Authors: Dong Won Kim, Hye Ji Kim, Hyun Young Jung


Improved energy storage is inevitably needed to improve energy efficiency and to be environmentally friendly to chemical processes. Ionic liquids (ILs) can play a crucial role in addressing these needs due to inherent adjustable properties including low volatility, low flammability, inherent conductivity, wide liquid range, broad electrochemical window, high thermal stability, and recyclability. Here, binary mixtures of ILs were prepared with fumed silica nanoparticles and characterized to obtain ILs with conductivity and electrochemical properties optimized for use in energy storage devices. The solutes were prepared by varying the size and the weight percent concentration of the nanoparticles and made up 10 % of the binary mixture by weight. We report on the physical and electrochemical properties of the individual ILs and their binary mixtures.

Keywords: ionic liquid, silica nanoparticle, energy storage, electrochemical properties

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1551 Synthesis of Double Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticles and Its Application in Paper-Based Chromatography

Authors: Ka Ho Yau, Jan Frederick Engels, Kwok Kei Lai, Reinhard Renneberg


Lateral flow test is a prevalent technology in various sectors such as food, pharmacology and biomedical sciences. Colloidal gold (CG) is widely used as the signalling molecule because of the ease of synthesis, bimolecular conjugation and its red colour due to intrinsic SPRE. However, the production of colloidal gold is costly and requires vigorous conditions. The stability of colloidal gold are easily affected by environmental factors such as pH, high salt content etc. Silica nanoparticles are well known for its ease of production and stability over a wide range of solvents. Using reverse micro-emulsion (w/o), silica nanoparticles with different sizes can be produced precisely by controlling the amount of water. By incorporating different water-soluble dyes, a rainbow colour of the silica nanoparticles could be produced. Conjugation with biomolecules such as antibodies can be achieved after surface modification of the silica nanoparticles with organosilane. The optimum amount of the antibodies to be labelled was determined by Bradford Assay. In this work, we have demonstrated the ability of the dye-doped silica nanoparticles as a signalling molecule in lateral flow test, which showed a semi-quantitative measurement of the analyte. The image was further analysed for the LOD=10 ng of the analyte. The working range and the linear range of the test were from 0 to 2.15μg/mL and from 0 to 1.07 μg/mL (R2=0.988) respectively. The performance of the tests was comparable to those using colloidal gold with the advantages of lower cost, enhanced stability and having a wide spectrum of colours. The positives lines can be imaged by naked eye or by using a mobile phone camera for a better quantification. Further research has been carried out in multicolour detection of different biomarkers simultaneously. The preliminary results were promising as there was little cross-reactivity being observed for an optimized system. This approach provides a platform for multicolour detection for a set of biomarkers that enhances the accuracy of diseases diagnostics.

Keywords: colorimetric detection, immunosensor, paper-based biosensor, silica

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1550 Study of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Locally Developed Carbon Fibers-Silica Sand Nanoparticles Aluminium Based Hybrid Composites

Authors: Tahir Ahmad, M. Kamran, R. Ahmad, M. T. Z. Butt


Hybrid aluminum metal matrix composites with 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt. % of silica sand nanoparticles and electro-less nickel coated carbon fibers were successfully developed using sand casting technique. Epoxy coating of carbon fibers was removed and phosphorous-nickel coating was successfully applied via electro-less route. The developed hybrid composites were characterized using micro hardness tester, tensile testing, and optical microscopy. The gradual increase of reinforcing phases yielded improved mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength. The increase in hardness was attributed to the presence of silica sand nanoparticles whereas electro-less nickel coated carbon fibers enhanced the tensile properties of developed hybrid composites. The microstructure of the developed hybrid composites revealed the homogeneous distribution of both carbon fibers and silica sand nanoparticles in aluminum based hybrid composites. The formation of dendrite microstructure is the main cause of improving mechanical properties.

Keywords: aluminum based hybrid composites, mechanical properties, microstructure, microstructure and mechanical properties relationship

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1549 Cytotoxic and Biocompatible Evaluation of Silica Coated Silver Nanoparticle Against Nih-3t3 Cells

Authors: Chen-En Lin, Lih-Rou Rau, Jiunn-Woei Liaw, Shiao-Wen Tsai


The unique optical properties of plasmon resonance metallic particles have attracted considerable applications in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF) effect is one of the useful applications. MEF effect stated that fluorescence intensity can be quenched or be enhanced depending on the distance between fluorophores and the metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles have used widely in antibacterial studies. However, the major limitation for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in biomedical application is well-known cytotoxicity on cells. There were numerous literatures have been devoted to overcome the disadvantage. The aim of the study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of silica coated AgNPs against NIH-3T3 cells. The results were shown that NIH-3T3 cells started to detach, shrink, become rounded and finally be irregular in shape after 24 h of exposure at 10 µg/ml AgNPs. Besides, compared with untreated cells, the cell viability significantly decreased to 60% and 40% which were exposed to 10 µg/ml and 20 µg/ml AgNPs respectively. The result was consistent with previously reported findings that AgNPs induced cytotoxicity was concentration dependent. However, the morphology and cell viability of cells appeared similar to the control group when exposed to 20 µg/ml of silica coated AgNPs. We further utilized the dark-field hyperspectral imaging system to analysis the optical properties of the intracellular nanoparticles. The image displayed that the red shift of the surface plasmonic resonances band of the enclosed AgNPs further confirms the agglomerate of the AgNPs rather than their distribution in cytoplasm. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the silica coated of AgNPs showed well biocompatibility and significant lower cytotoxicity compared with bare AgNPs.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, silica, cell viability, morphology

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1548 Influence of Silica Fume on Ultrahigh Performance Concrete

Authors: Vitoldas Vaitkevičius, Evaldas Šerelis


Silica fume, also known as microsilica (MS) or condensed silica fume is a by-product of the production of silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloys. Silica fume is one of the most effective pozzolanic additives which could be used for ultrahigh performance and other types of concrete. Despite the fact, however is not entirely clear, which amount of silica fume is most optimal for UHPC. Main objective of this experiment was to find optimal amount of silica fume for UHPC with and without thermal treatment, when different amount of quartz powder is substituted by silica fume. In this work were investigated four different composition of UHPC with different amount of silica fume. Silica fume were added 0, 10, 15 and 20% of cement (by weight) to UHPC mixture. Optimal amount of silica fume was determined by slump, viscosity, qualitative and quantitative XRD analysis and compression strength tests methods.

Keywords: compressive strength, silica fume, ultrahigh performance concrete, XRD

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1547 Comparison of Silica-Filled Rubber Compound Prepared from Unmodified and Modified Silica

Authors: Thirawudh Pongprayoon, Watcharin Rassamee


Silica-filled natural rubber compounds were prepared from unmodified and surface-modified silica. The modified silica was coated by ultrathin film of polyisoprene by admicellar polymerization. FTIR and SEM were applied to characterize the modified silica. The cure, mechanic, and dynamics properties were investigated with the comparison of the compounds. Cure characterization of modified silica rubber compound was shorter than that of unmodified silica compound. Strength and abrasion resistance of modified silica compound were better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound. Wet grip and rolling resistance analyzed by DMA from tanδ at 0°C and 60°C using 5 Hz were also better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound.

Keywords: silica, admicellar polymerization, rubber compounds, mechanical properties, dynamic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
1546 The Effect of Type of Nanoparticles on the Quenching Process

Authors: Dogan Ciloglu, Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Harun Cifci


In this study, the experiments were carried out to determine the best coolant for the quenching process among water-based silica, alumina, titania and copper oxide nanofluids (0.1 vol%). A sphere made up off brass material was used in the experiments. After the spherical test specimen was heated at high temperatures, it was suddenly plunged into the nanofluid suspensions. All experiments were performed at saturated conditions and under atmospheric pressure. Using the temperature-time data of the specimen, the cooling curves were obtained. The experimental results showed that the cooling performance of test specimen depended on the type of nanofluids. The silica nanoparticles enhanced the performance of boiling heat transfer and it is the best coolant for the quenching among other nanoparticles.

Keywords: quenching, nanofluid, pool boiling, heat transfer

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1545 Preparation of Amorphous silica from Algerian Diatomite and Its Properties

Authors: S. Medeghri, S. Hamzaoui, M. Zerdali, S. Masatomo


In this work there is a facile method to produce pure amorphous silica from Algerian diatomite with an economic and ecological method. The sodium silicate is commonly used as precursor in silica gel diatomite preparation. In this study, the preparation of sodium silicate is preceded by acid washing of raw diatomite; the acid is then slowly added to precipitate silica at different pH values to obtain silica gel. The silica gel is characterized by EDX, ICP-MS and XRD. The EDX revels that the purity of silica from diatom is 98% after purification compared to raw diatom.

Keywords: diatomite, acid cleaning, dissolution, amorphous silica, purity

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1544 Foslip Loaded and CEA-Affimer Functionalised Silica Nanoparticles for Fluorescent Imaging of Colorectal Cancer Cells

Authors: Yazan S. Khaled, Shazana Shamsuddin, Jim Tiernan, Mike McPherson, Thomas Hughes, Paul Millner, David G. Jayne


Introduction: There is a need for real-time imaging of colorectal cancer (CRC) to allow tailored surgery to the disease stage. Fluorescence guided laparoscopic imaging of primary colorectal cancer and the draining lymphatics would potentially bring stratified surgery into clinical practice and realign future CRC management to the needs of patients. Fluorescent nanoparticles can offer many advantages in terms of intra-operative imaging and therapy (theranostic) in comparison with traditional soluble reagents. Nanoparticles can be functionalised with diverse reagents and then targeted to the correct tissue using an antibody or Affimer (artificial binding protein). We aimed to develop and test fluorescent silica nanoparticles and targeted against CRC using an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) Affimer (Aff). Methods: Anti-CEA and control Myoglobin Affimer binders were subcloned into the expressing vector pET11 followed by transformation into BL21 Star™ (DE3) E.coli. The expression of Affimer binders was induced using 0.1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Cells were harvested, lysed and purified using nickle chelating affinity chromatography. The photosensitiser Foslip (soluble analogue of 5,10,15,20-Tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl) chlorin) was incorporated into the core of silica nanoparticles using water-in-oil microemulsion technique. Anti-CEA or control Affs were conjugated to silica nanoparticles surface using sulfosuccinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo SMCC) chemical linker. Binding of CEA-Aff or control nanoparticles to colorectal cancer cells (LoVo, LS174T and HC116) was quantified in vitro using confocal microscopy. Results: The molecular weights of the obtained band of Affimers were ~12.5KDa while the diameter of functionalised silica nanoparticles was ~80nm. CEA-Affimer targeted nanoparticles demonstrated 9.4, 5.8 and 2.5 fold greater fluorescence than control in, LoVo, LS174T and HCT116 cells respectively (p < 0.002) for the single slice analysis. A similar pattern of successful CEA-targeted fluorescence was observed in the maximum image projection analysis, with CEA-targeted nanoparticles demonstrating 4.1, 2.9 and 2.4 fold greater fluorescence than control particles in LoVo, LS174T, and HCT116 cells respectively (p < 0.0002). There was no significant difference in fluorescence for CEA-Affimer vs. CEA-Antibody targeted nanoparticles. Conclusion: We are the first to demonstrate that Foslip-doped silica nanoparticles conjugated to anti-CEA Affimers via SMCC allowed tumour cell-specific fluorescent targeting in vitro, and had shown sufficient promise to justify testing in an animal model of colorectal cancer. CEA-Affimer appears to be a suitable targeting molecule to replace CEA-Antibody. Targeted silica nanoparticles loaded with Foslip photosensitiser is now being optimised to drive photodynamic killing, via reactive oxygen generation.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, silica nanoparticles, Affimers, antibodies, imaging

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1543 Nano and Micro Silica Cooperating Effect on Ferrocement Mortar

Authors: Aziz Ibrahim Abdulla, Omar Mohanad Mahdi


The objective of this paper is to explore the effect of incorporating Nano-Silica with Silica-fume in ferrocement mortar to enhancing mechanical properties of it. One type of Nano silica with average diameter size 23nm and silica fume have been used with two percentage (1%, 2% Nano silica and 5%, 10% silica fume per weight of cement) and w/c with / without superplasticizer was been calculated by flow test method. Also three sand: cement ratios have been used (1.5, 2.0 and 2.5) with max. Aggregate size 0.6mm in this study for reference and other mixtures. Results reveal adding Nano silica with silica fume to ferrocement mortar enhances its physical and mechanical properties such as compressive strength and flexural strength. The SEM pictures and density with absorption ratio demonstrate that Nano silica with silica fume contributes to enhancement of mortar through yielding denser, more compact and uniform mixtures.

Keywords: nano silica, ferrocement mortar, compresion strength, flexural strength

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1542 In-Vitro and Antibacterial Studies for Silicate-Phosphate Glasses Formed with Biosynthesized Silica

Authors: Damandeep Kaur, O.P. Pandey, M.S. Reddy


In the present research, bio-synthesisation of silica particles has been carried out successfully. For this purpose, agriculture waste rice husk (RH) has been utilized. Among several types of agriculture waste, RH is considered to be cost-effective and easily accessible. In the present investigation, a chemical approach has been followed to extract silica nanoparticles. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated the amorphous nature of silica at lower temperature range. Silica and other mineral contents have been found using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Morphological and structural studies have been carried out with the use of Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Transmission (FTIR) spectroscopy. Further, extracted silica from RH has been used for preparation of the glasses. The appearance of broad humps in XRD patterns confirmed the amorphous nature of prepared glasses. These glasses exhibited enhanced antibacterial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The as-synthesized glass samples can be further used for physical and structural studies for drug loading applications.

Keywords: rice husk, biosynthesized silica, bioactive glasses, antibacterial studies

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1541 Surpassing Antibiotic Resistance through Synergistic Effects of Polyethyleneimine-Silver Nanoparticle Complex Coated Mesoporous Silica Trio-Nanoconstructs

Authors: Ranjith Kumar Kankala, Wei-Zhi Lin, Chia-Hung Lee


Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has become an emergency situation clinically. To improve the efficacy of antibiotics in resistant strains, advancement of nanoparticles is inevitable than ever. Herewith, we demonstrate a design by immobilizing tetracycline (TET) in copper substituted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Cu-MSNs) through a pH-sensitive coordination link, enabling its release in the acidic environment. Subsequently, MSNs are coated with silver nanoparticles stabilized polyethyleneimine (PEI-SNP) to act against drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. Silver ions released from SNP are capable of sensitizing the resistant strains and facilitate the generation of free radicals capable of damaging the cell components. In addition, copper ions in the framework are also capable of generating free radicals through Fenton-like reaction. Furthermore, the nanoparticles are well-characterized physically, and various antibacterial efficacious tests against isolated multidrug resistant bacterial strain were highly commendable. However, this formulation has no significant toxic effect on normal mammalian fibroblast cells accounting its high biocompatibility. These MSN trio-hybrids, i.e., SNP, tetracycline, and copper ions result in synergistic effects, and their advancement could bypass resistance and allow synergism for effective treatment of antibiotic clinically.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, copper, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Ph-sensitive release, polyethyleneimine, silver, tetracycline

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1540 Development of Highly Repellent Silica Nanoparticles Treatment for Protection of Bio-Based Insulation Composite Material

Authors: Nadia Sid, Alan Taylor, Marion Bourebrab


The construction sector is on the critical path to decarbonise the European economy by 2050. In order to achieve this objective it must enable reducing its CO2 emission by 90% and its energy consumption by as much as 50%. For this reason, a new class of low environmental impact construction materials named “eco-material” are becoming increasingly important in the struggle against climate change. A European funded collaborative project ISOBIO coordinated by TWI is aimed at taking a radical approach to the use of bio-based aggregates to create novel construction materials that are usable in high volume in using traditional methods, as well as developing markets such as exterior insulation of existing house stocks. The approach taken for this project is to use finely chopped material protected from bio-degradation through the use of functionalized silica nanoparticles. TWI is exploring the development of novel inorganic-organic hybrid nano-materials, to be applied as a surface treatment onto bio-based aggregates. These nanoparticles are synthesized by sol-gel processing and then functionalised with silanes to impart multifunctionality e.g. hydrophobicity, fire resistance and chemical bonding between the silica nanoparticles and the bio-based aggregates. This talk will illustrate the approach taken by TWI to design the functionalized silica nanoparticles by using a material-by-design approach. The formulation and synthesize process will be presented together with the challenges addressed by those hybrid nano-materials. The results obtained with regards to the water repellence and fire resistance will be displayed together with preliminary public results of the ISOBIO project. (This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 641927).

Keywords: bio-sourced material, composite material, durable insulation panel, water repellent material

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1539 The Study of Wetting Properties of Silica-Poly (Acrylic Acid) Thin Film Coatings

Authors: Sevil Kaynar Turkoglu, Jinde Zhang, Jo Ann Ratto, Hanna Dodiuk, Samuel Kenig, Joey Mead


Superhydrophilic, crack-free thin film coatings based on silica nanoparticles were fabricated by dip-coating method. Both thermodynamic and dynamic effects on the wetting properties of the thin films were investigated by modifying the coating formulation via changing the particle-to-binder ratio and weight % of silica in solution. The formulated coatings were characterized by a number of analyses. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements were conducted for all coatings to characterize the surface wetting properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken to examine the morphology of the coating surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis was done to study surface topography. The presence of hydrophilic functional groups and nano-scale roughness were found to be responsible for the superhydrophilic behavior of the films. In addition, surface chemistry, compared to surface roughness, was found to be a primary factor affecting the wetting properties of the thin film coatings.

Keywords: poly (acrylic acid), silica nanoparticles, superhydrophilic coatings, surface wetting

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1538 Preparation of Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Composite by Wet Chemical Process for Phycobiliproteins Adsorption

Authors: Shu-Jen Chen, Yi-Chien Wan, Ruey-Chi Wang


Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp) can be applied to the fabrication of bone replacement materials, the composite of dental filling, and the adsorption of biomolecules and dyes. The integration of HAp and magnetic materials would offer several advantages for bio-separation process because the magnetic adsorbents is capable of recovered by applied magnetic field. C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and Allophycocyanin (APC), isolated from Spirulina platensis, can be used in fluorescent labeling probes, health care foods and clinical diagnostic reagents. Although the purification of C-PC and APC are reported by HAp adsorption, the adsorption of C-PC and APC by magnetic HAp composites was not reported yet. Therefore, the fabrication of HAp with magnetic silica nanoparticles for proteins adsorption was investigated in this work. First, the magnetic silica particles were prepared by covering silica layer on Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a reverse micelle method. Then, the [email protected] nanoparticles were mixed with calcium carbonate to obtain magnetic silica/calcium carbonate composites ([email protected]/CaCO3). The [email protected]/CaCO3 was further reacted with K2HPO4 for preparing the magnetic silica/hydroxyapatite composites ([email protected]/HAp). The adsorption experiments indicated that the adsorption capacity of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC were highest at pH 6. The adsorption of C-PC and APC by [email protected]/HAp could be correlated by the pseudo-second-order model, indicating chemical adsorption dominating the adsorption process. Furthermore, the adsorption data showed that the adsorption of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC followed the Langmuir isotherm. The isoelectric points of C-PC and APC were around 5.0. Additionally, the zeta potential data showed the [email protected]/HAp composite was negative charged at pH 6. Accordingly, the adsorption mechanism of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC should be governed by hydrogen bonding rather than electrostatic interaction. On the other hand, as compared to C-PC, the [email protected]/HAp shows higher adsorption affinity toward APC. Although the [email protected]/HAp cannot recover C-PC and APC from Spirulina platensis homogenate, the [email protected]/HAp can be applied to separate C-PC and APC.

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, magnetic, C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin

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1537 Silymarin Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Preparation, Optimization, Pharmacodynamic and Oral Multi-Dose Safety Assessment

Authors: Sarah Nasr, Maha M. A. Nasra, Ossama Y. Abdallah


The present work aimed to prepare Silymarin loaded MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and to assess the system’s solubility enhancement ability on the pharmacodynamic performance of Silymarin as a hepatoprotective agent. MSNs prepared by soft-templating technique, were loaded with Silymarin, characterized for particle size, zeta potential, surface properties, DSC and XRPD. DSC and specific surface area data confirmed deposition of Silymarin in an amorphous state in MSNs’ pores. In-vitro drug dissolution testing displayed enhanced dissolution rate of Silymarin upon loading on MSNs. High dose Acetaminophen was then used to inflict hepatic injury upon albino male Wistar rats simultaneously receiving either free Silymarin, Silymarin loaded MSNs or blank MSNs. Plasma AST, ALT, albumin and total protein and liver homogenate content of TBARs or LDH as measures of antioxidant drug action were assessed for all animal groups. Results showed a significant superiority of Silymarin loaded MSNs to free drug in almost all parameters. Meanwhile prolonged administration of blank MSNs had no evident toxicity on rats.

Keywords: mesoporous silica nanoparticles, safety, solubility enhancement, silymarin

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1536 Using 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane Functionalized Silica Nanoparticles to Improve Flexural Properties of E-Glass/Epoxy Grid-Stiffened Composite Panels

Authors: Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hamed Khosravi, Saba Fayazzadeh


Lightweight and efficient structures have the aim to enhance the efficiency of the components in various industries. Toward this end, composites are one of the most widely used materials because of durability, high strength and modulus, and low weight. One type of the advanced composites is grid-stiffened composite (GSC) structures which have been extensively considered in aerospace, automotive, and aircraft industries. They are one of the top candidates for replacing some of the traditional components which are used here. Although there are a good number of published surveys on the design aspects and fabrication of GSC structures, little systematic work has been reported on their material modification to improve their properties, to our knowledge. Matrix modification using nanoparticles is an effective method to enhance the flexural properties of the fibrous composites. In the present study, a silane coupling agent (3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane/3-GPTS) was introduced onto the silica (SiO2) nanoparticle surface and its effects on the three-point flexural response of isogrid E-glass/epoxy composites were assessed. Based on the fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectra, it was inferred that the 3-GPTS coupling agent was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO2 nanoparticles after modification. Flexural test revealed an improvement of 16%, 14%, and 36% in stiffness, maximum load and energy absorption of the isogrid specimen filled with 3 wt.% 3-GPTS/SiO2 compared to the neat one. It would be worth mentioning that in these structures, a considerable energy absorption was observed after the primary failure related to the load peak. Also, 3-GPTMS functionalization had a positive effect on the flexural behavior of the multiscale isogrid composites. In conclusion, this study suggests that the addition of modified silica nanoparticles is a promising method to improve the flexural properties of the grid-stiffened fibrous composite structures.

Keywords: isogrid-stiffened composite panels, silica nanoparticles, surface modification, flexural properties, energy absorption

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1535 Preparation, Characterisation, and Measurement of the in vitro Cytotoxicity of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Cytotoxic Pt(II) Oxadiazoline Complexes

Authors: G. Wagner, R. Herrmann


Cytotoxic platinum compounds play a major role in the chemotherapy of a large number of human cancers. However, due to the severe side effects for the patient and other problems associated with their use, there is a need for the development of more efficient drugs and new methods for their selective delivery to the tumours. One way to achieve the latter could be in the use of nanoparticular substrates that can adsorb or chemically bind the drug. In the cell, the drug is supposed to be slowly released, either by physical desorption or by dissolution of the particle framework. Ideally, the cytotoxic properties of the platinum drug unfold only then, in the cancer cell and over a longer period of time due to the gradual release. In this paper, we report on our first steps in this direction. The binding properties of a series of cytotoxic Pt(II) oxadiazoline compounds to mesoporous silica particles has been studied by NMR and UV/vis spectroscopy. High loadings were achieved when the Pt(II) compound was relatively polar, and has been dissolved in a relatively nonpolar solvent before the silica was added. Typically, 6-10 hours were required for complete equilibration, suggesting the adsorption did not only occur to the outer surface but also to the interior of the pores. The untreated and Pt(II) loaded particles were characterised by C, H, N combustion analysis, BET/BJH nitrogen sorption, electron microscopy (REM and TEM) and EDX. With the latter methods we were able to demonstrate the homogenous distribution of the Pt(II) compound on and in the silica particles, and no Pt(II) bulk precipitate had formed. The in vitro cytotoxicity in a human cancer cell line (HeLa) has been determined for one of the new platinum compounds adsorbed to mesoporous silica particles of different size, and compared with the corresponding compound in solution. The IC50 data are similar in all cases, suggesting that the release of the Pt(II) compound was relatively fast and possibly occurred before the particles reached the cells. Overall, the platinum drug is chemically stable on silica and retained its activity upon prolonged storage.

Keywords: cytotoxicity, mesoporous silica, nanoparticles, platinum compounds

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1534 Magnetic Silica Nanoparticles as Viable Support for the Immobilization of Oxidative Enzymes

Authors: Y. Moldes-Diz, M. Gamallo, G. Eibes, C. Vazquez-Vazquez, G. Feijoo, J. M. Lema, M. T. Moreira


Laccases (benzenediol oxygen oxidoreductases, EC are excellent biocatalysts for biotechnological and environmental applications because of their high activity, selectivity, and specificity. Specifically, these characteristics allow them to perform the oxidation of recalcitrant compounds with simple requirements for the catalysis (presence of molecular oxygen). Nevertheless, the low stability under unfavorable conditions (pH, inactivating agents or temperature) and high production costs still limits their use for practical applications. Immobilization of enzymes has proven particularly valuable to avoid some of the aforementioned drawbacks. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have received increasing attention as carriers for enzyme immobilization since they can potentially provide an easy recovery of the biocatalyst from the reaction medium under an external magnetic field. In the present work, silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles ([email protected]) were prepared, characterized and used for laccase immobilization by covalent binding. The synthesis of [email protected] was performed in a two-step procedure: co-precipitation and reverse microemulsion. The influence of immobilization conditions: concentrations of the functionalization agent (3-aminopropyl-triethoxy-silane) and the cross-linker (glutaraldehyde) as well as the influence of pH, T or inactivating agents were evaluated. In general, immobilized laccase showed superior stability compared to that of free enzyme. The reusability of the biocatalyst was demonstrated in successive batch reactions, where enzyme activity was maintained above 65% after 8 cycles of oxidation of the substrate 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate).

Keywords: silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles, laccase, immobilization, regeneration

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1533 Water-Repellent Coating Based on Thermoplastic Polyurethane, Silica Nanoparticles and Graphene Nanoplatelets

Authors: S. Naderizadeh, A. Athanassiou, I. S. Bayer


This work describes a layer-by-layer spraying method to produce a non-wetting coating, based on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and silica nanoparticles (Si-NPs). The main purpose of this work was to transform a hydrophilic polymer to superhydrophobic coating. The contact angle of pure TPU was measured about 77˚ ± 2, and water droplets did not roll away upon tilting even at 90°. But after applying a layer of Si-NPs on top of this, not only the contact angle increased to 165˚ ± 2, but also water droplets can roll away even below 5˚ tilting. The most important restriction in this study was the weak interfacial adhesion between polymer and nanoparticles, which had a bad effect on durability of the coatings. To overcome this problem, we used a very thin layer of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) as an interlayer between TPU and Si-NPs layers, followed by thermal treatment at 150˚C. The sample’s morphology and topography were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDX analysis and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was observed that Si-NPs embedded into the polymer phase in the presence of GNPs layer. It is probably because of the high surface area and considerable thermal conductivity of the graphene platelets. The contact angle value for the sample containing graphene decreased a little bit respected to the coating without graphene and reached to 156.4˚ ± 2, due to the depletion of the surface roughness. The durability of the coatings against abrasion was evaluated by Taber® abrasion test, and it was observed that superhydrophobicity of the coatings remains for a longer time, in the presence of GNPs layer. Due to the simple fabrication method and good durability of the coating, this coating can be used as a durable superhydrophobic coating for metals and can be produced in large scale.

Keywords: graphene, silica nanoparticles, superhydrophobicity, thermoplastic polyurethane

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1532 Dioxomolybdenum (VI) Schiff Base Complex Supported on Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Green Nanocatalysis in Epoxidation of Olefins

Authors: Abolfazl Bezaatpour, Sahar Khatami


Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation method and silica was then coated on the magnetic nanoparticles followed by modification with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane. Then, dioxomolybdenum(VI) Schiff base complex of N,N′-bis(5-chloromethyl-salicylidine)-1,2-phenylenediamine) was immobilized on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst. The catalyst was identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectra and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. The catalyst shows excellent catalytic activity in epoxidation of olefins using tert-butylhydroperoxide in 1,2-dichloroethane. In this report, the supported complex exhibited 100% selectivity for epoxidation with 100% conversion for cyclooctene. Nanocatalyst can be easily recovered by a magnetic field and reused for subsequent reactions for at least 5 times with less deterioration in catalytic activity.

Keywords: dioxomolybdenum (VI), epoxidation, nanocatalysis, nanoparticles, Schiff base

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