Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1475

Search results for: severe obstetric hemorrhage

1475 Evaluation of Associated Risk Factors and Determinants of near Miss Obstetric Cases at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan

Authors: Madan Khadka, Dhruba Uprety, Rubina Rai


Background and objective: In 2011, around 273,465 women died worldwide during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days after childbirth. Near-miss is recognized as the predictor of the level of care and maternal death. The objective of the study was to evaluate the associated risk factors of near-miss obstetric cases and maternal death. Material and Methods A Prospective Observational Study was done from August 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015, in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at BPKIHS hospital, tertiary care hospital in Eastern Nepal, Dharan. Case eligible by the 5-factor scoring system and WHO near miss criteria were evaluated. Risk factors included severe hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, and a complication of abortion, ruptured uterus, medical/surgical condition and sepsis. Results: A total of 9,727 delivery were attended during the study period from August 2014 to June 2014. There were 6307 (71.5%) vaginal delivery and 2777(28.5%) caesarean section and 181 perinatal death with a total of 9,546 live birth. A total of 162 near miss was identified, and 16 maternal death occurred during the study. Maternal near miss rate of 16.6 per 1000 live birth, Women with life-threatening conditions (WLTC) of 172, Severe maternal outcome ratio of 18.64 per 1000 live birth, Maternal near-miss mortality ratio (MNM: 1 MD) 10.1:1, Mortality index (MI) of 8.98%. Risk factors were obstetric hemorrhage 27.8%, abortion/ectopic 27.2%, eclampsia 16%, medical/surgical condition 14.8%, sepsis 13.6%, severe preeclamsia 11.1%, ruptured uterus 3.1%, and molar pregnancy 1.9%. 19.75% were prim gravidae, with mean age 25.66 yrs, and cardiovascular and coagulation dysfunction as a major life threatening condition and sepsis (25%) was the major cause of mortality. Conclusion: Hemorrhage and hypertensive disorders are the leading causes of near miss event and sepsis as a leading cause of mortality. As near miss analysis indicates the quality of health care, it is worth presenting in national indices.

Keywords: abortion, eclampsia, hemorrhage, maternal mortility, near miss

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1474 Outcome of Obstetric Admission to General Intensive Care over a Period of 3 Years

Authors: Kamel Abdelaziz Mohamed


Intoduction:Inadequate knowledge about obstetric admission and infrequent dealing with the obstetric patients in ICU results in high mortality and morbidity. Aim of the work:To evaluate the indications, course, severity of illness, and outcome of obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients and Methods: We collected baseline data and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores. ICU mortality was the primary outcome. Results: Seventy obstetric patients were admitted to the ICU over 3 years, 36 of these patients (51.4 %) were admitted during the antepartum period. The primary obstetric indication for ICU admission was pregnancy-induced hypertension (22 patients, 31.4%), followed by sepsis (8 patients, 11.4%) as the leading non-obstetric admission. The mean APACHE II score was 19.6. The predicted mortality rate based on the APACHE II score was 22%, however, only 4 maternal deaths (5.7%) were among the obstetric patients admitted to the ICU. Conclusion: Evaluation of obstetric patients by (APACHE II) scores showed higher predicted mortality rate, however the overall mortality was lower. Regular follow up, together with early detection of complications and prompt ICU admission necessitating proper management by specialized team can improve mortality.

Keywords: obstetric, complication, postpartum, sepsis

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1473 Determinants of Maternal Near-Miss among Women in Public Hospital Maternity Wards in Northern Ethiopia: A Facility Based Case-Control Study

Authors: Dejene Ermias Mekango, Mussie Alemayehu, Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs, Araya Abrha Medhanye, Gelila Goba


Background: Maternal near miss (MNM) can be used as a proxy indicator of maternal mortality ratio. There is a huge gap in life time risk between Sub-Saharan Africa and developed countries. In Ethiopia, a significant number of women die each year from complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the post-partum period. Besides, a few studies have been performed on MNM, and little is known regarding determinant factors. This study aims to identify determinants of MNM among women in Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Methods: a case-control study in hospital found in Tigray region, Ethiopia was conducted from January 30 - March 30, 2016. The sample included 103 cases and 205 controls recruited from women seeking obstetric care at six public hospitals. Clients having a life-threatening obstetric complication including haemorrhage, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, dystocia, infections, and anemia or clinical signs of severe anemia in women without haemorrhage were taken as cases and those with normal obstetric outcomes were considered as controls. Cases were selected based on proportional to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression (odds ratio) analyses were calculated with 95% CI. Results: The largest proportion of cases and controls was among the ages of20–29 years, accounting for37.9 %( 39) of cases and 31.7 %( 65) of controls. Roughly 90% of cases and controls were married. About two-thirds of controls and 45.6 %( 47) of cases had gestational age between 37-41 weeks. History of chronic medical conditions was reported in 55.3 %(57) of cases and 33.2%(68) of controls. Women with no formal education [AOR=3.2;95%CI:1.24, 8.12],being less than 16 years old at first pregnancy [AOR=2.5; 95%CI:1.12,5.63],induced labor[AOR=3; 95%CI:1.44, 6.17], history of Cesarean section (C-section) [AOR=4.6; 95%CI: 1.98, 7.61] or chronic medical disorder[AOR=3.5;95%CI:1.78, 6.93], and women who traveled more than 60 minutes before reaching their final place of care[AOR=2.8;95% CI: 1.19,6.35] all had higher odds of experiencing MNM. Conclusions: The Government of Ethiopia should continue its effort to address the lack of road and health facility access as well as education, which will help reduce MNM. Work should also be continued to educate women and providers about common predictors of MNM like the history of C-section, chronic illness, and teenage pregnancy. These efforts should be carried out at the facility, community, and individual levels. The targeted follow-up to women with a history of chronic disease and C-section could also be a practical way to reduce MNM.

Keywords: maternal near miss, severe obstetric hemorrhage, hypertensive disorder, c-section, Tigray, Ethiopia

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1472 Cerebral Venous Thrombosis at High Altitude: A Rare Presentation by Sub-Arachnoid Hemorrhage

Authors: Eman G. Alayad, Mazen G. Aleyad, Mohammed Alshahrani, Ibrahim Alnaami


Introduction: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare type of cerebrovascular disease that can occur at any age. Patients with CVT commonly present with headache, focal neurological deficit, decreased level of consciousness and seizures. Many etiologic risk factors have been reported for CVT, high altitude and oral contraceptive pill some of them. Case Presentation: A 37-year-old woman living in Abha city in the southeastern area of Saudi Arabia. (about 10,000 feet-3000 m) over the sea. complaining acute onset of severe diffuse headache and generalized tonic clonic convulsions. Followed by loss of consciousness. She was on contraceptive pills for the last 3 years. No significant Medical or surgical history. Brain CT revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage, with MRI findings showing thrombosis in transvers sinus. There was no vascular malformations such as aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), or dural arteriovenous fistula. A CVT with subarachnoid hemorrhage was our final diagnosis based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. Discussion: Patients with CVT had evidence of cortical SAH by 10 of 233, others found 3% of SAH was caused by CVT, indicating that the presence of cortical SAH without involvement of the basal cisterns may provide an early sign of underlying CVT. However, what is more interesting in this case, is the relationship of high altitude with CVT and SAH, which previously undescribed. Conclusion: High-altitude climbing per se was described as a risk factor for the development of CVT, though its occurrence was probably rare. Whether it is primary in etiology due to high altitude induced hypercoagulable state of unknown origin or due to cerebrovascular disturbances there is a need for further investigation especially at this unusual presentation of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Keywords: cerebral venous thrombosis, high-altitude, subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke

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1471 Clinical Outcomes of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Acute Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage on Initial Emergency Ward Neuroimaging

Authors: S. Shafiee Ardestani, A. Najafi, N. Valizadeh, E. Payani, H. Karimian


Objectives: Treatment of mild traumatic brain injury in emergency ward patients with any type of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage is flexible. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical outcomes of mild traumatic brain injury patients who had acute traumatic intracranial hemorrhage on initial emergency ward neuroimaging. Materials-Methods: From March 2011 to November 2012 in a retrospective cohort study we enrolled emergency ward patients with mild traumatic brain injury with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 or 15 and who had stable vital signs. Patients who had any type of intracranial hemorrhage on first head CT and repeat head CT within 24 hours were included. Patients with initial GCS < 14, injury > 24 hours old, pregnancy, concomitant non-minor injuries, and coagulopathy were excluded. Primary endpoints were neurosurgical procedures and/or death and for discharged patients, return to the emergency ward during one week. Results: Among 755 patients who were referred to the emergency ward and underwent two head CTs during first 24 hours, 302 (40%) were included. The median interval between CT scans was 6 hours (ranging 4 to 8 hours). Consequently, 135 (45%) patients had subarachnoid hemorrhage, 124 (41%) patients had subdural hemorrhage, 15 (5%) patients had epidural hemorrhage, 28 (9%) patients had cerebral contusions, and 54 (18%) patients had intra-parenchymal hemorrhage. Six of 302 patients died within 15 days of injury. 200 patients (66%) have been discharged from the emergency ward, 25 (12%) of whom returned to the emergency ward after one week. Conclusion: Discharge of the head trauma patients after a repeat head CT and brief period of observation in the emergency ward lead to early discharge of mild traumatic brain injury patients with traumatic ICH without adverse events.

Keywords: clinical outcomes, emergency ward, mild traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)

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1470 The Development of Nursing Model for Pregnant Women to Prevention of Early Postpartum Hemorrhage

Authors: Wadsana Sarakarn, Pimonpan Charoensri, Baliya Chaiyara


Objectives: To study the outcomes of the developed nursing model to prevent early postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Materials and Methods: The analytical study was conducted in Sunpasitthiprasong Hospital during October 1st, 2015, until May 31st, 2017. After review the prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of postpartum hemorrhage of the parturient who gave birth in Sunpasitthiprasong Hospital, the nursing model was developed under research regulation of Kemmis&McTaggart using 4 steps of operating procedures: 1) analyzing problem situation and gathering 2) creating the plan 3) noticing and performing 4) reflecting the result of the operation. The nursing model consisted of the screening tools for risk factors associated with PPH, the clinical nursing practice guideline (CNPG), and the collecting bag for measuring postpartum blood loss. Primary outcome was early postpartum hemorrhage. Secondary outcomes were postpartum hysterectomy, maternal mortality, personnel’s practice, knowledge, and satisfaction of the nursing model. The data were analyzed by using content analysis for qualitative data and descriptive statistics for quantitative data. Results: Before using the nursing model, the prevalence of early postpartum hemorrhage was under estimated (2.97%). There were 5 cases of postpartum hysterectomy and 2 cases of maternal death due to postpartum hemorrhage. During the study period, there was 22.7% prevalence of postpartum hemorrhage among 220 pregnant women who were vaginally delivered at Sunpasitthiprasong Hospital. No maternal death or postpartum hysterectomy was reported after using the nursing model. Among 16 registered nurses at the delivery room who evaluated using of the nursing model, they reported the high level of practice, knowledge, and satisfaction Conclusion: The nursing model for the prevention of early PPH is effective to decrease early PPH and other serious complications.

Keywords: the development of a nursing model, prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, pregnant women, postpartum hemorrhage

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1469 A Physiological Approach for Early Detection of Hemorrhage

Authors: Rabie Fadil, Parshuram Aarotale, Shubha Majumder, Bijay Guargain


Hemorrhage is the loss of blood from the circulatory system and leading cause of battlefield and postpartum related deaths. Early detection of hemorrhage remains the most effective strategy to reduce mortality rate caused by traumatic injuries. In this study, we investigated the physiological changes via non-invasive cardiac signals at rest and under different hemorrhage conditions simulated through graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), blood pressure (BP), impedance cardiogram (ICG), and phonocardiogram (PCG) were acquired from 10 participants (age:28 ± 6 year, weight:73 ± 11 kg, height:172 ± 8 cm). The LBNP protocol consisted of applying -20, -30, -40, -50, and -60 mmHg pressure to the lower half of the body. Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean aerial pressure (MAP) were extracted from ECG and blood pressure. Systolic amplitude (SA), systolic time (ST), diastolic time (DT), and left ventricle Ejection time (LVET) were extracted from PPG during each stage. Preliminary results showed that the application of -40 mmHg i.e. moderate stage simulated hemorrhage resulted significant changes in HR (85±4 bpm vs 68 ± 5bpm, p < 0.01), ST (191 ± 10 ms vs 253 ± 31 ms, p < 0.05), LVET (350 ± 14 ms vs 479 ± 47 ms, p < 0.05) and DT (551 ± 22 ms vs 683 ± 59 ms, p < 0.05) compared to rest, while no change was observed in SA (p > 0.05) as a consequence of LBNP application. These findings demonstrated the potential of cardiac signals in detecting moderate hemorrhage. In future, we will analyze all the LBNP stages and investigate the feasibility of other physiological signals to develop a predictive machine learning model for early detection of hemorrhage.

Keywords: blood pressure, hemorrhage, lower-body negative pressure, LBNP, machine learning

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1468 Knowledge and Utilization of Partograph among Obstetric Care Givers in Public Health Institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Engida Yisma, Berhanu Dessalegn, Ayalew Astatkie, Nebreed Fesseha


Background: The use of the partograph is a well-known best practice for quality monitoring of labour and subsequent prevention of obstructed and prolonged labour. However, a number of cases of obstructed labour do happen in health facilities due to poor quality of intrapartum care. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study assessed knowledge and utilization of partograph among obstetric care givers in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia using a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with knowledge and use of partograph among obstetric care givers. Results: Knowledge about the partograph was fair: 189 (96.6%) of all the respondents correctly mentioned at least one component of the partograph, 104 (53.3%) correctly explained the function of alert line and 161 (82.6%) correctly explained the function of action line. The study showed that 112 (57.3%) of the obstetric care givers at public health institutions reportedly utilized partograph to monitor mothers in labour. The utilization of the partograph was significantly higher among obstetric care givers working in health centres (67.9%) compared to those working in hospitals (34.4%) [Adjusted OR = 3.63(95%CI: 1.81, 7.28)]. Conclusions: A significant percentage of obstetric care givers had fair knowledge of the partograph and why it is necessary to use it in the management of labour and over half of obstetric care givers reported use of the partograph to monitor mothers in labour. Pre-service and on-job training of obstetric care givers on the use of the partograph should be given emphasis. Mandatory health facility policy is also recommended to ensure safety of women in labour in public health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Keywords: partograph, knowledge, utilization, obstetric care givers, public health institutions

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1467 Determinants of Hospital Obstetric Unit Closures in the United States 2002-2013: Loss of Hospital Obstetric Care 2002-2013

Authors: Peiyin Hung, Katy Kozhimannil, Michelle Casey, Ira Moscovice


Background/Objective: The loss of obstetric services has been a pressing concern in urban and rural areas nationwide. This study aims to determine factors that contribute to the loss of obstetric care through closures of a hospital or obstetric unit. Methods: Data from 2002-2013 American Hospital Association annual surveys were used to identify hospitals providing obstetric services. We linked these data to Medicare Healthcare Cost Report Information for hospital financial indicators, the US Census Bureau’s American Community Survey for zip-code level characteristics, and Area Health Resource files for county- level clinician supply measures. A discrete-time multinomial logit model was used to determine contributing factors to obstetric unit or hospital closures. Results: Of 3,551 hospitals providing obstetrics services during 2002-2013, 82% kept units open, 12% stopped providing obstetrics services, and 6% closed down completely. State-level variations existed. Factors that significantly increased hospitals’ probability of obstetric unit closures included lower than 250 annual birth volume (adjusted marginal effects [95% confidence interval]=34.1% [28%, 40%]), closer proximity to another hospital with obstetric services (per 10 miles: -1.5% [-2.4, -0.5%]), being in a county with lower family physician supply (-7.8% [-15.0%, -0.6%), being in a zip code with higher percentage of non-white females (per 10%: 10.2% [2.1%, 18.3%]), and with lower income (per $1,000 income: -0.14% [-0.28%, -0.01%]). Conclusions: Over the past 12 years, loss of obstetric services has disproportionately affected areas served by low-volume urban and rural hospitals, non-white and low-income communities, and counties with fewer family physicians, signaling a need to address maternity care access in these communities.

Keywords: access to care, obstetric care, service line discontinuation, hospital, obstetric unit closures

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1466 Comparison of Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Obstetric Population Diagnosed with Covid-19 in Reference to Influenza A/H1N1: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Maria Vargas Hernandez, Jose Rojas Suarez, Carmelo Dueñas Castell, Sandra Contreras, Camilo Bello, Diana Borre, Walter Anichiarico, Harold Vasquez, Eduard Perez, Jose Santacruz


In the last two decades, there have been outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, with an impact on both the general population and the obstetric population. These infections, which affect the general population, pose a high risk for adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes, taking into account that physiological and immunological changes that occur during pregnancy can increase their risk or severity. Among these, the pandemics of viral infections, Influenza A/H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, stand out. In 2009, Influenza A/H1N1 infection (H1N1 2009pdm) affected approximately 3,110 obstetric patients, with data reported from 29 countries, including 1,625 (52.3%) cases that were hospitalized, 378 (23.3%) admissions to ICU and 130 (8%) deaths; and since the end of 2019, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified, causing the COVID-19 pandemic, with global mortality that is around 2-4% for the general population, and higher mortality in patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Its impact on the obstetric population is still unknown. Objectives: To evaluate the impact on maternal and perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 infection in reference to influenza A/H1N1 infection in the obstetric population. Methodology: Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Results: Mortality from maternal infection with influenza A/H1N1 appears to be higher (8%) than mortality due to maternal infection with COVID-19 (3%). The rates of ICU admission, hospitalization, the requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation, and fetal death also appear to be higher in the maternal population with A/H1N1 infection, in reference to the maternal population with COVID-19 infection. Within perinatal outcomes, the admission to the neonatal ICU appears to be higher in the infants born to mothers with COVID-19 infection (28% vs. 15% for COVID-19 and A/H1N1, respectively). Conclusion: A/H1N1 infection in the obstetric population seems to be associated with a higher proportion of adverse outcomes in relation to COVID-19 infection. The actual impact of maternal influenza A/H1N1 infection on perinatal outcomes is unknown. More COVID-19 studies are needed to understand the impact of maternal infection on perinatal outcomes in this population.

Keywords: A/H1N1, COVID-19, maternal outcomes, perinatal outcomes

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1465 Obstetric Outcome after Hysteroscopic Septum Resection in Patients with Uterine Septa of Various Sizes

Authors: Nilanchali Singh, Alka Kriplani, Reeta Mahey, Garima Kachhawa


Objective: Resection of larger uterine septa does improve obstetric performance but whether smaller septa need resection and their impact on obstetric outcome is not clear. We wanted to evaluate the role of septal resection of septa of various sizes in obstetric performance. Methods: This retrospective cohort study comprised of 107 patients with uterine septum. The patients were categorized on the basis of extent of uterine septum into four groups: a) Subsepta (< 1/3rd), b) Septum > 1/3 to ½, c) Septum>1/2 to whole uterine cervix, d) Septum traversing whole of uterine cavity and cervix. Out of these 107 patients, 74 could be contacted telephonically and outcomes recorded. Sensitivity and specificity of investigative modalities were calculated. Results: Infertility was seen in maximum number of cases in complete septa (100%), whereas abortions were seen more commonly, in subsepta (18%). MRI had maximum sensitivity and positive predictive value, followed by hysteron-salpingography. Tubal block, fibroid, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, ovarian pathologies were seen in some but no definite association of these pathologies was seen with any subgroup of septa. Almost five-year follow-up was recorded in all the subgroups. Significant reduction in infertility was seen in all septal subgroup (p=0.046, 0.032 & 0.05) patients except in subsepta (< 1/3rd uterine cavity) after septum resection. Abortions were significantly reduced (p=0.048) in third subgroup (i.e. septum > ½ to upto internal os) after hysteroscopic septum resection. Take home baby rate was 33% in subsepta and around 50% in the remaining subgroups of septa. Conclusions: Septal resection improves obstetric performance in patients with uterine septa of various sizes. Whether septal resection improves obstetric performance in patients with subsepta or very small septa, is controversial. Larger studies addressing this issue need to be planned.

Keywords: septal resection, obstetric outcome, infertility, septum size

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1464 Fear of Childbirth According to Parity

Authors: Ozlem Karabulutlu, Kiymet Yesilcicek Calik, Nazli Akar


Objectives: To examine fear of childbirth according to parity, gestational age, prenatal education, and obstetric history. Methods: The study was performed as a questionnaire design in a State Hospital in Kars, Turkey with 403 unselected pregnant who were recruited from the delivery unit. The data were collected via 3 questionnaires; the first with sociodemographic and obstetric features, the second with Wijma Delivery Expectance/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) scale, and the third with the scale of Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results: The W-DEQ and BAI scores were higher in nulliparous than multiparous woman (W-DEQ 67.08±28.33, 59.87±26.91, P=0.039<0.05, BAI 18.97±9.5, 16.65±11.83, P=0.0009<0.05 respectively). Moreover, W-DEQ and BAI scores of pregnant whose gestational week was ≤37 / ≥41 and who didn’t receive training and had vaginal delivery was higher than those whose gestational week was 38-40 weeks and who received prenatal training and had cesarean delivery (W-DEQ 67.54±29.20, 56.44±22.59, 69.72±25.53 p<0.05, BAI 21.41±9.07; 15.77±11.20, 18.36±10.57 p<0.05 respectively). Both in nulliparous and multiparous, as W-DEQ score increases BAI score increases too (r=0.256; p=0.000<0.05). Conclusions: Severe fear of childbirth and anxiety was more common in nulliparous women, preterm and post-term pregnancy and who did not receive prenatal training and had vaginal delivery.

Keywords: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), fear of birth, parity, pregnant women, Wijma Delivery Expectance/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ)

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1463 Trauma after Childbirth: The Mediating Effects of Subjective Experience

Authors: Grace Baptie, Jackie Andrade, Alison Bacon, Alyson Norman


Background: Many women experience their childbirth as traumatic, and 4-6% of mothers present with postnatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of their birth. Aims: To measure the relationship between obstetric and subjective experience of childbirth on mothers’ experience of postnatal trauma and identify salient aspects of the birth experience considered traumatic. Methods: Women who had given birth within the last year completed an online mixed-methods survey reporting on their subjective and obstetric birth experience as well as symptoms of postnatal trauma, depression and anxiety. Findings: 29% of mothers experienced their labour as traumatic and 15% met full or partial criteria for PTSD. Feeling supported and in control mediated the relationship between obstetric intervention and postnatal trauma symptoms. Five key themes were identified from the qualitative data regarding aspects of the birth considered traumatic including: obstetric complications; lack of control; concern for baby; psychological trauma and lack of support. Conclusion: Subjective birth experience is a significantly stronger predictor of postnatal trauma than level of medical intervention, the psychological consequences of which can be buffered by an increased level of support and control.

Keywords: birth trauma, perinatal mental health, postnatal PTSD, subjective experience

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1462 Histopathological and Biochemical Evaluation of Hydroxyurea-Induced Hepato-Pulmonary Toxicity and Lymphoid Necrosis in Rats

Authors: Samah Oda, Asmaa Khafaga, Mohammed Hashim, Asmaa Khamis


Toxicity of hydroxyurea (HU), a treatment for certain tumors, polycythemia, and thrombocytosis, was evaluated in rats in one-month toxicity study. Sixty male albino rats were equally classified into four groups. Rats received daily oral gavage of HU in 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg b.wt. Chemical and histopathological assessment of liver, lung, spleen, and bone marrow was performed at 10, 20, and 30 days of the experiment. No significant change was reported in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), globulin, and albumin/ globulin ratio during the experiment. Significant decreases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total albumin were reported in rats received 500 and 750 mg/kg b.wt of HU. In addition, total cholesterol level increased significantly after 10 days; however, it significantly decreased after 20 and 30 days of the experiment. Moreover, hepatocytic vacuolation and necrosis with portal inflammatory infiltrates were reported along experimental periods. Pulmonary congestion, hemorrhage, interstitial mononuclear infiltration, peribronchitis, and bronchial epithelial necrosis were also reported. Severe lymphocytic necrosis in spleen and severe loss of hematopoietic cells and replacement with corresponding adipose tissue in bone marrow tissues was demonstrated. In conclusion, HU could be able to induce severe dose and time-dependent hepato-pulmonary toxicity and lymphoid depression in rats.

Keywords: hydroxyurea, hepato-pulmonary toxicity, lymphoid depression, histopathology

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1461 Bridging the Gap between Obstetric and Colorectal Services after Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries

Authors: Shachi Joshi


Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pelvic dysfunction symptoms following OASI. The secondary aim was to assess the scope of a dedicated perineal trauma clinic in identifying and investigating women that have experienced faecal incontinence after OASI and if a transitional clinic arrangement to colorectal surgeons would be useful. Methods: The clinical database was used to identify and obtain information about 118 women who sustained an OASI (3rd/ 4th degree tear) between August 2016 and July 2017. A questionnaire was designed to assess symptoms of pelvic dysfunction; this was sent via the post in November 2018. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 45 women (38%). Faecal incontinence was experienced by 42% (N=19), flatus incontinence by 47% (N=21), urinary incontinence by 76% (N=34), dyspareunia by 49% (N=22) and pelvic pain by 33% (N=15). Of the questionnaire respondents, only 62% (N=28) had attended a perineal trauma clinic appointment. 46% (N=13) of these women reported having experienced difficulty controlling flatus or faeces in the questionnaire, however, only 23% (N=3) of these reported ongoing symptoms at the time of clinic attendance and underwent an endoanal ultrasound scan. Conclusion: Pelvic dysfunction symptoms are highly prevalent following an OASI. Perineal trauma clinic attendance alone is not sufficient for identification and follow up of symptoms. Transitional care is needed between obstetric and colorectal teams, to recognize and treat women with ongoing faecal incontinence.

Keywords: incontinence, obstetric anal sphincter, injury, repair

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1460 Continuous Manufacturing of Ultra Fine Grained Materials by Severe Plastic Deformation Methods

Authors: Aslı Günay Bulutsuz, Mehmet Emin Yurci


Severe plastic deformation techniques are top-down deformation methods which enable superior mechanical properties by decreasing grain size. Different kind severe plastic deformation methods have been widely being used at various process temperature and geometries. Besides manufacturing advantages of severe plastic deformation technique, most of the types are being used only at the laboratory level. They cannot be adapted to industrial usage due to their continuous manufacturability and manufacturing costs. In order to enhance these manufacturing difficulties and enable widespread usage, different kinds of methods have been developed. In this review, a comprehensive literature research was fulfilled in order to highlight continuous severe plastic deformation methods.

Keywords: continuous manufacturing, severe plastic deformation, ultrafine grains, grain size refinement

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1459 Evaluation of Traumatic Spine by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Sarita Magu, Deepak Singh


Study Design: This prospective study was conducted at the department of Radio Diagnosis, at Pt B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak in 57 patients of spine injury on radiographs or radiographically normal patients with neurological deficits presenting within 72 hours of injury. Aims: Evaluation of the role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Spinal Trauma Patients and to compare MRI findings with clinical profile and neurological status of the patient and to correlate the MRI findings with neurological recovery of the patient and predict the outcome. Material and Methods: Neurological status of patients was assessed at the time of admission and discharge in all the patients and at long term interval of six months to one year in 27 patients as per American spine injury association classification (ASIA). On MRI cord injury was categorized into cord hemorrhage, cord contusion, cord edema only, and normal cord. Quantitative assessment of injury on MRI was done using mean canal compromise (MCC), mean spinal cord compression (MSCC) and lesion length. Neurological status at admission and neurological recovery at discharge and long term follow up was compared with various qualitative cord findings and quantitative parameters on MRI. Results: Cord edema and normal cord was associated with favorable neurological outcome. Cord contusion show lesser neurological recovery as compared to cord edema. Cord hemorrhage was associated with worst neurological status at admission and poor neurological recovery. Mean MCC, MSCC, and lesion length values were higher in patients presenting with ASIA A grade injury and showed decreasing trends towards ASIA E grade injury. Patients showing neurological recovery over the period of hospital stay and long term follow up had lower mean MCC, MSCC, and lesion length as compared to patients showing no neurological recovery. The data was statistically significant with p value <.05. Conclusion: Cord hemorrhage and higher MCC, MSCC and lesion length has poor prognostic value in spine injury patients.

Keywords: spine injury, cord hemorrhage, cord contusion, MCC, MSCC, lesion length, ASIA grading

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1458 Incidence of Post-Stroke Depression in a Tertiary Hospital in Cebu City, Philippines

Authors: Ivory A. Rulona, Jarungchai Anton S. Vatanagul


Background: Depression is common after stroke with quoted rates ranging from 18% to 61%. 8 Mood disturbance is common after stroke and may present as depression or anxiety. Psychological mood disturbance is associated with higher rates of mortality, long term disability, and hospital readmission. Objectives: To investigate the incidence of post-stroke depression in a tertiary hospital in Cebu City, Philippines and to determine its associated factors. The study is designed to be prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Participants: Adult patients seen and diagnosed to have stroke either infarct or hemorrhage within the period of January 1 to July 31, 2014. Results: A total of 100 patients with stroke were interviewed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) questionnaire. The average age of the respondents was 60.50 years old ±1.18, majority were males (55%), 83% were married, and 81% were employed. The most common co-morbidity was hypertension 78% followed by diabetes mellitus at 50%. Moreover, 39% of these patients had stroke in months, 26% in years, and 18% in weeks. The average functional capacity based on Modified Rankin Scale was 2.14+/-0.14. Among 100 patients, a total of 30 patients (30%) had depression: 2 (2%) very severe, 5 (5%) moderate and 23 (23%) had mild depression while 70 patients (70%) had no depression. Stroke located at the dominant hemisphere was not associated with severe depression (p=0.102). A similar trend was also noted among those with stroke at the right side (p=0.183), pons (p=0.634), bilateral (p=0.776), and midbrain (p=0.336). Conclusion: This study showed that majority of stroke patients were males with average age of 60.50 years. Hypertension was the most common co-morbidity. There was no association between stroke location and depression. The incidence of PSD was 30%.

Keywords: post-stroke depression, co-morbidity, disturbance, bilateral

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1457 Analysis of the Treatment Hemorrhagic Stroke in Multidisciplinary City Hospital №1 Nur-Sultan

Authors: M. G. Talasbayen, N. N. Dyussenbayev, Y. D. Kali, R. A. Zholbarysov, Y. N. Duissenbayev, I. Z. Mammadinova, S. M. Nuradilov


Background. Hemorrhagic stroke is an acute cerebrovascular accident resulting from rupture of a cerebral vessel or increased permeability of the wall and imbibition of blood into the brain parenchyma. Arterial hypertension is a common cause of hemorrhagic stroke. Male gender and age over 55 years is a risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage. Treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage is aimed at the primary pathophysiological link: the relief of coagulopathy and the control of arterial hypertension. Early surgical treatment can limit cerebral compression; prevent toxic effects of blood to the brain parenchyma. Despite progress in the development of neuroimaging data, the use of minimally invasive techniques, and navigation system, mortality from intracerebral hemorrhage remains high. Materials and methods. The study included 78 patients (62.82% male and 37.18% female) with a verified diagnosis of hemorrhagic stroke in the period from 2019 to 2021. The age of patients ranged from 25 to 80 years, the average age was 54.66±11.9 years. Demographic, brain CT data (localization, volume of hematomas), methods of treatment, and disease outcome were analyzed. Results. The retrospective analyze demonstrate that 78.2% of all patients underwent surgical treatment: decompressive craniectomy in 37.7%, craniotomy with hematoma evacuation in 29.5%, and hematoma draining in 24.59% cases. The study of the proportion of deaths, depending on the volume of intracerebral hemorrhage, shows that the number of deaths was higher in the group with a hematoma volume of more than 60 ml. Evaluation of the relationship between the time before surgery and mortality demonstrates that the most favorable outcome is observed during surgical treatment in the interval from 3 to 24 hours. Mortality depending on age did not reveal a significant difference between age groups. An analysis of the impact of the surgery type on mortality reveals that decompressive craniectomy with or without hematoma evacuation led to an unfavorable outcome in 73.9% of cases, while craniotomy with hematoma evacuation and drainage led to mortality only in 28.82% cases. Conclusion. Even though the multimodal approaches, the development of surgical techniques and equipment, and the selection of optimal conservative therapy, the question of determining the tactics of managing and treating hemorrhagic strokes is still controversial. Nevertheless, our experience shows that surgical intervention within 24 hours from the moment of admission and craniotomy with hematoma evacuation improves the prognosis of treatment outcomes.

Keywords: hemorragic stroke, Intracerebral hemorrhage, surgical treatment, stroke mortality

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1456 Left Cornual Ectopic Pregnancy with Uterine Rupture - a Case Report

Authors: Vinodhini Elangovan, Jen Heng Pek


Background: An ectopic pregnancy is defined as any pregnancy implanted outside of the endometrial cavity. Cornual pregnancy, a rare variety of ectopic pregnancies, is seen in about 2-4% of ectopic pregnancies. It develops in the interstitial portion of the fallopian tube and invades through the uterine wall. This case describes a third-trimester cornual pregnancy that resulted in a uterine rupture. Case: A 38-year old Chinese lady was brought to the Emergency Department (ED) as a standby case for hypotension. She was 30+6 weeks pregnant (Gravida 3, Parous 1). Her past obstetric history included a live birth delivered via lower segment Caesarean section due to non-reassuring fetal status in 2002 and a miscarriage in 2012. She developed generalized abdominal pain. There was no per vaginal bleeding or leaking liquor. There was also no fever, nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, or urinary symptoms. On arrival in the ED, she was pale, diaphoretic, and lethargic. She had generalized tenderness with guarding and rebound over her abdomen. Point of care ultrasound was performed and showed a large amount of intra-abdominal free fluid, and the fetal heart rate was 170 beats per minute. The point of care hemoglobin was 7.1 g/dL, and lactate was 6.8 mmol/L. The patient’s blood pressure dropped precipitously to 50/36 mmHg, and her heart rate went up to 141 beats per minute. The clinical impression was profound shock secondary to uterine rupture. Intra-operatively, there was extensive haemoperitoneum, and the fetus was seen in the abdominal cavity. The fetus was delivered immediately and handed to the neonatal team. On exploration of the uterus, the point of rupture was at the left cornual region where the placenta was attached to. Discussion: Cornual pregnancies are difficult to diagnose pre-operatively with low ultrasonographic sensitivity and hence are commonly confused with normal intrauterine pregnancies. They pose a higher risk of rupture and hemorrhage compared to other types of ectopic pregnancies. In very rare circumstances, interstitial pregnancies can result in a viable fetus. Uterine rupture resulting in hemorrhagic shock is a true obstetric emergency that can result in significant morbidity and mortality for the patient and the fetus, and early diagnosis in the emergency department is crucial. The patient in this case presented with known risk factors of multiparity, advanced maternal age, and previous lower segment cesarean section, which increased the suspicion of uterine rupture. Ultrasound assessment may be beneficial to any patient who presents with symptoms and a history of uterine surgery to assess the possibility of uterine dehiscence or rupture. Management of a patient suspected of uterine rupture should be systematic in the emergency department and follow an ABC approach. Conclusion: This case demonstrates the importance for an emergency physician to maintain the suspicion for ectopic pregnancy even at advanced gestational ages. It also highlights how even though all emergency physicians may not be qualified to do a detailed pelvic ultrasound, it is essential for them to be competent with a point of care ultrasound to make a prompt diagnosis of conditions such as uterine rupture.

Keywords: cornual ectopic , ectopic pregnancy, emergency medicine, obstetric emergencies

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1455 Effect of Organizational Resources on Improving Independency of People with Severe Disabilities: Vocational Rehabilitation Facilities in South Korea

Authors: Soungwan Kim


This paper discusses an analysis of how the characteristics of resources at vocational rehabilitation facilities for the disabled affect the improvement of independency skills among people with severe disabilities. The analysis results indicate that more internal financial resources and more connections to local communities among network resources had greater effects on improving the independency of people with severe disabilities. Based on this result, this paper presents strategies for mobilizing resources to improve the independency of people with severe disabilities at vocational rehabilitation facilities.

Keywords: vocational rehabilitation facility for people with disabilities, types of resources, independency, network resources

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1454 The Distribution of HLA-C* 14:02 Allele in Thai Population: Risk Factor for Severe COVID-19

Authors: Naso Isaiah Thanavisuth


Introduction: Covid-19 has been a global pandemic for some time now, causing severe symptoms to patients that received the virus. Previous study, we found that HLA-C*14:02 in the Chinese population was strongly associated with severe Covid-19 (severe 8.7% vs. mild 4.6%, OR = 4.7, P <0.05). However, there has been no report on this gene in the Thai population. Objective: Our aim in this study is to explore and compare the frequency of HLA-C allele that is associated with severe COVID-19 symptoms in Thais and other populations. Method: 200 general Thai population were enrolled in this study. The genotyping of HLA -C alleles were determined by the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP) and Luminex®IS 100 system (Luminex Corporation, Austin, Texas, USA). Results: We found that the frequency of alleles HLA-C* 01:02 (16.00%), HLA-C* 08:01(10.50%), HLA-C* 03:04 (10.25%),HLA-C* 07:02 (10.00%), HLA-C* 03:02 (9.25%), HLA-C* 07:01 (6.75%), HLA-C* 04:01 (5.00%), HLA-C* 06:02 (4.00%), HLA-C* 04:03 (4.00%), and HLA-C* 07:04 (3.75%) were more common in the Thai population. HLA-C* 01:02 (16.00%) allele was the highest frequency in the North, Center, and North East groups in Thailand, but there was the South region that was not significantly different when compared with the other groups of the region. Additionally, HLA-C∗14:02 allele was similarly distributed in Thais (3.00%), African Americans (1.98%), Caucasians (2.08%), Hispanics (1.71%), North American Natives (1.34%) and Asians (5.01%) by p-value = 0.6506, 0.6506, 0.6506, 0.6135 and 0.7182, respectively. Conclusion: Genetic variation database is important to identify HLA can be a risk factor for severe COVID-19 in many populations. In this study, we will support the research of the HLA markers for screening severe COVID-19 in many populations.

Keywords: HLA-C * 14:02, COVID-19, allele frequency, Thailand

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1453 Propranalol is Not Effective in Preventing the Progression to Severe Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy in Cirrhotic Patients who Had Undergone Variceal Eradication: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Jeffey George, Varghese Thomas


Background and Objectives: PHG is an important source of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension. Aim: To assess the progression to severe portal hypertensive gastropathy(PHG) in patients with cirrhosis who were treated with maximum tolerated dose of propranalol, after variceal eradication to grade II or below. Methods: Cirrhotic patients(child A and B) presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding with endoscopic findings of mild or no PHG were followed up over 6 months after variceal eradication to assess the progression to severe PHG. Included patients were randomised to either maximum tolerated doses of propranalol (group A) or to no treatment (group B). Primary end point of the study were the development of gastrointestinal bleed, evidence of hepatic decompensation and death. Progression to severe PHG were compared between the two groups. Results: 56 patients (49 males) were enrolled (group A = 28, group B = 28). 8 patients were excluded from final analysis (gi bleed=5, encephalopathy=2,HCC=1 including 4 deaths).3 patients were lost to follow-up, and 1 developed intolerance to propranalol. Mean dose of propranalol used was 60 mg per day. Progression to severe PHG in the fundus over 6 months was 23.8% in group A versus 15.8 % in group B (p = 0.52). Severe PHG was noted in body in 14.3% in group A versus 21.1% in group B (p = 0.57). 23.8 % in group A had progression to severe PHG compared with 15.8 % in group B (p =0.52). There was no statistically significant difference in the progression of PHG between the two groups(p=0.43). Conclusion: In this short term study propranalol was found not to prevent the progression to severe portal hypertensive gastropathy in cirrhotic patients who had undergone endotherapy for esophageal varices.

Keywords: propranalol, portal hypertensive gastropathy, cirrhotic patients, gastroenterology

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1452 Risk Factors for Significant Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury in a District General Hospital

Authors: A. Wahid Uddin


Obstetric anal sphincter injury carries significant morbidity for a woman and affects the quality of life to the extent of permanent damage to anal sphincter musculature. The study was undertaken in a district general hospital by retrospectively reviewing random 63 case notes of patients diagnosed with a significant third or fourth-degree perineal tear admitted between the year of 2015 to 2018. The observations were collected by a pre-designed questionnaire. All variables were expressed as percentages. The major risk factors noted were nulliparity (37%), instrumental delivery (25%), and birth weight of more than 4 kg (14%). Forceps delivery with or without episiotomy was the major contributing factor (75%). In the majority of the cases (71%), no record of any perineal protection measures undertaken. The study concluded that recommended perineal protection measures should be adopted as a routine practise.

Keywords: forceps, obstetrics, perineal, sphincter

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1451 Analysis of Cross-Sectional and Retrograde Data on the Prevalence of Marginal Gingivitis

Authors: Ilma Robo, Saimir Heta, Nedja Hysi, Vera Ostreni


Introduction: Marginal gingivitis is a disease with considerable frequency among patients who present routinely for periodontal control and treatment. In fact, this disease may not have alarming symptoms in patients and may go unnoticed by themselves when personal hygiene conditions are optimal. The aim of this study was to collect retrograde data on the prevalence of marginal gingiva in the respective group of patients, evaluated according to specific periodontal diagnostic tools. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in two patient groups. The first group was with 34 patients, during December 2019-January 2020, and the second group was with 64 patients during 2010-2018 (each year in the mentioned monthly period). Bacterial plaque index, hemorrhage index, amount of gingival fluid, presence of xerostomia and candidiasis were recorded in patients. Results: Analysis of the collected data showed that susceptibility to marginal gingivitis shows higher values according to retrograde data, compared to cross-sectional ones. Susceptibility to candidiasis and the occurrence of xerostomia, even in the combination of both pathologies, as risk factors for the occurrence of marginal gingivitis, show higher values ​​according to retrograde data. The female are presented with a reduced bacterial plaque index than the males, but more importantly, this index in the females is also associated with a reduced index of gingival hemorrhage, in contrast to the males. Conclusions: Cross-sectional data show that the prevalence of marginal gingivitis is more reduced, compared to retrograde data, based on the hemorrhage index and the bacterial plaque index together. Changes in production in the amount of gingival fluid show a higher prevalence of marginal gingivitis in cross-sectional data than in retrograde data; this is based on the sophistication of the way data are recorded, which evolves over time and also based on professional sensitivity to this phenomenon.

Keywords: marginal gingivitis, cross-sectional, retrograde, prevalence

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1450 Predicting COVID-19 Severity Using a Simple Parameters in Resource-Limited Settings

Authors: Sireethorn Nimitvilai, Ussanee Poolvivatchaikarn, Nuchanart Tomeun


Objective: To determine the simple laboratory parameters to predict disease severity among COVID-19 patients in resource-limited settings. Material and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Nakhonpathom Hospital, a 722-bed tertiary care hospital, with an average of 50,000 admissions per year, during April 15 and May 15, 2021. Eligible patients were adults aged ≥ 15 years who were hospitalized with COVID-19. Baseline characteristics, comorbid conditions ad laboratory findings at admission were collected. Predictive factors for severe COVID-19 infection were analyzed. Result: There were 207 patients (79 male and 128 female) and the mean age was 46.7 (16.8) years. Of these, 39 cases (18.8%) were severe and 168 (81.2%) cases were non-severe. Factors associated with severe COVID-19 were neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio ≥ 4 (OR 8.1, 95%CI 2.3-20.3, P < 0.001) and C-reactive protein to albumin ratio ≥ 10 (OR 3.49, 95%CI 1.3-9.1, p 0.01). Conclusions: Complete blood counts, C-reactive protein and albumin are simple, inexpensive, widely available tests and can be used to predict severe COVID-19 in resource-limited settings.

Keywords: COVID-19, predictor of severity, resource-limiting settings, simple laboratory parameters

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1449 Association between Severe Acidemia before Endotracheal Intubation and the Lower First Attempt Intubation Success Rate

Authors: Keiko Naito, Y. Nakashima, S. Yamauchi, Y. Kunitani, Y. Ishigami, K. Numata, M. Mizobe, Y. Homma, J. Takahashi, T. Inoue, T. Shiga, H. Funakoshi


Background: A presence of severe acidemia, defined as pH < 7.2, is common during endotracheal intubation for critically ill patients in the emergency department (ED). Severe acidemia is widely recognized as a predisposing factor for intubation failure. However, it is unclear that acidemic condition itself actually makes endotracheal intubation more difficult. We aimed to evaluate if a presence of severe acidemia before intubation is associated with the lower first attempt intubation success rate in the ED. Methods: This is a retrospective observational cohort study in the ED of an urban hospital in Japan. The collected data included patient demographics, such as age, sex, and body mass index, presence of one or more factors of modified LEMON criteria for predicting difficult intubation, reasons for intubation, blood gas levels, airway equipment, intubation by emergency physician or not, and the use of the rapid sequence intubation technique. Those with any of the following were excluded from the analysis: (1) no blood gas drawn before intubation, (2) cardiopulmonary arrest, and (3) under 18 years of age. The primary outcome was the first attempt intubation success rates between a severe acidemic patients (SA) group and a non-severe acidemic patients (NA) group. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the first attempt success rates for intubations between those two groups. Results: Over 5 years, a total of 486 intubations were performed; 105 in the SA group and 381 in the NA group. The univariate analysis showed that the first attempt intubation success rate was lower in the SA group than in the NA group (71.4% vs 83.5%, p < 0.01). The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that severe acidemia was significantly associated with the first attempt intubation failure (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.03-3.68, p = 0.04). Conclusions: A presence of severe acidemia before endotracheal intubation lowers the first attempt intubation success rate in the ED.

Keywords: acidemia, airway management, endotracheal intubation, first-attempt intubation success rate

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1448 Allele Frequency of HLA-DRB1* in Thai Population to Predict Factor for Severity of COVID-19 Infection

Authors: Siriniya Siribrahmanakul


Introduction:SARsCOVID-19 is rapidly spreading, and some people may exhibit severe symptoms. Mortality rate of 2.0–3.0% with COVID-19 infection atworldwide. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA), located on chromosome 6, consist of HLA class I and class II. HLA are used by the immune system to attach self-antigens. Previous studies, HLA-DRB1*01:01,HLA-DRB1*12:01and HLA-DRB1*14:04 were, showed significant difference with severe COVID-19 in the Chinese population by p-value < 0.05. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of HLA-DRB1 alleles associated with severe COVID-19 in Thai population. Materials and Methods:200 DNA samples were isolated from EDTA blood using the MagNAprue Compact Nucleic Acid Isolation kits.HLA-DRB1alleles were genotyped using sequence-specific oligonucleotides (PCR-SSOs). Results:The frequency of HLA-DRB1 alleles in Thai population wereHLA-DRB1*12:02 (15.75%), HLA-DRB1*15:02 (14.50%), HLA-DRB1*09:01 (11.50%), HLA-DRB1*07:01 (9.50%), HLA-DRB1*03:01,HLA-DRB1*05:01 (5.75%), HLA-DRB1*14:01 (5.50%), HLA-DRB1*16:02 (4.50%), HLA-DRB1*04:05 (4.00%), HLA-DRB1*14:03 (3.25%), HLA-DRB1*10:01 (2.25%) and HLA-DRB1*13:02 (2.00%). Particularly, HLA-DRB1*12:02 allele was the highest allele frequency presented in the four regions groups of Thai population. Furthermore, the HLA-DRB1* alleles associated with severe COVID-19, which consists ofHLA-DRB1*14:04(2.00 %) and HLA-DRB1*12:01(0.50%) in Thai population, whereas HLA-DRB1*01:01 allele was not found in this population. HLA-DRB1*14:04 and HLA-DRB1*12:01alleles were similarly distributed in four regions populations in Thailand (p-value > 0.05). The alleles frequencies of HLA-DRB1*14:04 and HLA-DRB1*12:01, which associated with severe COVID-19, had no significant differences between Thai population, South China population, South Africa population, and South Koreapopulation (p-value > 0.05). Conclusions: Particularly, this study has focused on allele frequency of HLA-DRB1*14:04in a healthy Thai population to evaluating their impact on the severe COVID-19. Furthermore, our research needs to be done in larger numbers of Thai patients.

Keywords: HLA-DRB1, allele frequency, Thai population, COVID-19 marker

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1447 Advanced Eales’ Disease with Neovascular Glaucoma at First Presentation: Case Report

Authors: Mohammed A. Alfayyadh, Halla A. AlAbdulhadi, Mahdi H. Almubarak


Purpose: Eales’ disease is an idiopathic vasculitis that affects the peripheral retina. It is characterized by recurrent vitreous hemorrhage as a complication of retinal neovascularization. It is more prevalent in India and affects young males. Here we present a patient with neovascular glaucoma as a rare first presentation of Eales’ disease. Observations: This is a 24-year-old Indian gentleman, who complained of a sudden decrease in vision in the left eye over less than 24 hours, along with frontal headache and eye pain for the last three weeks. Ocular examination revealed peripheral retinal ischemia in the right eye, very high intraocular pressure, rubeosis iridis, vitreous hemorrhage and extensive retinal ischemia in the left eye, vascular sheathing and neovascularization in both eyes. Purified protein derivative skin test was positive. The patient was managed with anti-glaucoma, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and laser photocoagulation. Systemic steroids and anti-tuberculous therapy were also initiated. Conclusions: Neovascular glaucoma is an infrequent complication of Eales’ disease. However, the lack of early detection of the disease in the early stages might lead to such serious complication.

Keywords: case report, Eales’ disease, mycobacterium tuberculosis, neovascular glaucoma

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1446 High Temperature Creep Analysis for Lower Head of Reactor Pressure Vessel

Authors: Dongchuan Su, Hai Xie, Naibin Jiang


Under severe accident cases, the nuclear reactor core may meltdown inside the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Retaining the melt pool inside the RPV is an important strategy of severe accident management. During this process, the inner wall of the lower head will be heated to high temperature of a thousand centigrade, and the outer wall is immersed in a large amount of cooling water. The material of the lower head will have serious creep damage under the high temperature and the temperature difference, and this produces a great threat to the integrity of the RPV. In this paper, the ANSYS program is employed to build the finite element method (FEM) model of the lower head, the creep phenomena is simulated under the severe accident case, the time dependent strain and stress distribution is obtained, the creep damage of the lower head is investigated, the integrity of the RPV is evaluated and the theoretical basis is provided for the optimized design and safety assessment of the RPV.

Keywords: severe accident, lower head of RPV, creep, FEM

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