Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Araya Abrha Medhanye

12 Determinants of Maternal Near-Miss among Women in Public Hospital Maternity Wards in Northern Ethiopia: A Facility Based Case-Control Study

Authors: Dejene Ermias Mekango, Mussie Alemayehu, Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs, Araya Abrha Medhanye, Gelila Goba


Background: Maternal near miss (MNM) can be used as a proxy indicator of maternal mortality ratio. There is a huge gap in life time risk between Sub-Saharan Africa and developed countries. In Ethiopia, a significant number of women die each year from complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the post-partum period. Besides, a few studies have been performed on MNM, and little is known regarding determinant factors. This study aims to identify determinants of MNM among women in Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Methods: a case-control study in hospital found in Tigray region, Ethiopia was conducted from January 30 - March 30, 2016. The sample included 103 cases and 205 controls recruited from women seeking obstetric care at six public hospitals. Clients having a life-threatening obstetric complication including haemorrhage, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, dystocia, infections, and anemia or clinical signs of severe anemia in women without haemorrhage were taken as cases and those with normal obstetric outcomes were considered as controls. Cases were selected based on proportional to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression (odds ratio) analyses were calculated with 95% CI. Results: The largest proportion of cases and controls was among the ages of20–29 years, accounting for37.9 %( 39) of cases and 31.7 %( 65) of controls. Roughly 90% of cases and controls were married. About two-thirds of controls and 45.6 %( 47) of cases had gestational age between 37-41 weeks. History of chronic medical conditions was reported in 55.3 %(57) of cases and 33.2%(68) of controls. Women with no formal education [AOR=3.2;95%CI:1.24, 8.12],being less than 16 years old at first pregnancy [AOR=2.5; 95%CI:1.12,5.63],induced labor[AOR=3; 95%CI:1.44, 6.17], history of Cesarean section (C-section) [AOR=4.6; 95%CI: 1.98, 7.61] or chronic medical disorder[AOR=3.5;95%CI:1.78, 6.93], and women who traveled more than 60 minutes before reaching their final place of care[AOR=2.8;95% CI: 1.19,6.35] all had higher odds of experiencing MNM. Conclusions: The Government of Ethiopia should continue its effort to address the lack of road and health facility access as well as education, which will help reduce MNM. Work should also be continued to educate women and providers about common predictors of MNM like the history of C-section, chronic illness, and teenage pregnancy. These efforts should be carried out at the facility, community, and individual levels. The targeted follow-up to women with a history of chronic disease and C-section could also be a practical way to reduce MNM.

Keywords: maternal near miss, severe obstetric hemorrhage, hypertensive disorder, c-section, Tigray, Ethiopia

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11 Determinants of Repeated Abortion among Women of Reproductive Age Attending Health Facilities in Northern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

Authors: Henok Yebyo Henok, Araya Abrha Araya, Alemayehu Bayray Alemayehu, Gelila Goba Gelila


Background: Every year, an estimated 19–20 million unsafe abortions take place, almost all in developing countries, leading to 68,000 deaths and millions more injured many permanently. Many women throughout the world, experience more than one abortion in their lifetimes. Repeat abortion is an indicator of the larger problem of unintended pregnancy. This study aimed to identify determinants of repeat abortion in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Methods: Unmatched case-control study was conducted in hospitals in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia, from November 2014 to June 2015. The sample included 105 cases and 204 controls, recruited from among women seeking abortion care at public hospitals. Clients having two or more abortions (“repeat abortion”) were taken as cases, and those who had a total of one abortion were taken as controls (“single abortion”). Cases were selected consecutive based on proportional to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression analyses were calculated with 95% CI. Results: Mean age of cases was 24 years (±6.85) and 22 years (±6.25) for controls. 79.0% of cases had their sexual debut in less than 18 years of age compared to 57% of controls. 42.2% of controls and 23.8% of cases cited rape as the reason for having an abortion. Study participants who did not understand their fertility cycle and when they were most likely to conceive after menstruation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-3.7), having a previous abortion using medication(AOR=3.3, CI: 1.83, 6.11), having multiple sexual partners in the preceding 12 months (AOR=4.4, CI: 2.39,8.45), perceiving that the abortion procedure is not painful (AOR=2.3, CI: 1.31,4.26), initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 18 years (AOR=2.7, CI: 1.49, 5.23) and disclosure to a third-party about terminating the pregnancy (AOR=2.1, CI: 1.2,3.83) were independent predictors of repeat abortion. Conclusion: This study identified several factors correlated with women having repeat abortions. It may be helpful for the Government of Ethiopia to encourage women to delay sexual debut and decrease their number of sexual partners, including by promoting discussion within families about sexuality, to decrease the occurrence of repeated abortion.

Keywords: abortion, Ethiopia, repeated abortion, single abortion

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10 Effect of Current Density, Temperature and Pressure on Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyser Stack

Authors: Na Li, Samuel Simon Araya, Søren Knudsen Kær


This study investigates the effects of operating parameters of different current density, temperature and pressure on the performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis stack. A 7-cell PEM water electrolysis stack was assembled and tested under different operation modules. The voltage change and polarization curves under different test conditions, namely current density, temperature and pressure, were recorded. Results show that higher temperature has positive effect on overall stack performance, where temperature of 80 ℃ improved the cell performance greatly. However, the cathode pressure and current density has little effect on stack performance.

Keywords: PEM electrolysis stack, current density, temperature, pressure

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9 Cochliobolus sativus: An Important Pathogen of Cereal Crops

Authors: Awet Araya


Cochliobolus sativus ((anamorphic stage: Bipolaris sorokiniana (synonyms: Helminthosporium sorokinianum, Drechslera sorokiniana, and Helminthosporium sativum)) is an important pathogen of cereal crops. Many other grass species are also hosts for this fungus. Yield losses have been reported from many regions, especially where barley and wheat are commercially cultivated. The fungus has a worldwide distribution. The pathogen causes root rot, seedling blight, spot blotch, head blight, and black point. Environmental conditions affect disease development. Most of the time, fungus survives as mycelia and conidia. Pseudothecium of the fungus is not commonly encountered and probably not important in the epidemiology of the disease. The fungus can be in seed, soil, or in plant parts. Crop rotation, proper fertilization, reducing other stress factors, fungicide treatments, and resistant cultivars may be used for the control of the disease.

Keywords: Cochliobolus sativus, barley, cultivars, root rot

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8 Comparison of Allelopathic Activity of Some Edible Mushroom and Wild Mushroom in Japan

Authors: Asma Osivand, Hossein Mardani, Hiroshi Araya, Yoshiharu Fujii


Wild mushrooms have always been considered as valuable source of bioactive compounds, while edible mushrooms have been known for their importance as food source. However, their interaction with plants through chemicals that could lead to find new biochemical have not been well undertaken. A special bioassay method (Sandwich method) was applied to compare eight common edible mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, Grifola frondosa, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizygus tessellatus and Pholiota namako) with some wild species (Ganoderma appelanatum, Amanita pantherina, Artomyces pyxidatus, Morchella conica, Tricholosporum porphyrophyllum, Trametes hirsuta) for their phytotoxicity against lettuce. Among all tested edible mushrooms, application of 5 mg of P. ostreatus showed stronger allelopathic activity by inhibiting the growth of radicle and hypocotyl of lettuce by 84% and 63% respectively. Moreover, same amount of T. porphyrophyllum exerted 77% and 67% growth inhibition on radicle and hypocotyl of lettuce. In general, biochemicals contributed in tested mushrooms could be the main cause for their inhibitory activity and could lead to find new allelochemicals.

Keywords: allelopathy, interaction, mushroom, phytotoxicity, Pleurotus sp., sandwich method

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7 Effect of Supplementing Ziziphus Spina-Christi Leaf Meal to Natural Pasture Hay on Feed Intake, Body Weight Gain, Digestibility, and Carcass Characteristics of Tigray Highland Sheep

Authors: Abrha Reta, Ajebu Nurfeta, Genet Mengistu, Mohammed Beyan


Fodder trees such as Ziziphus spina-christi have the potential to enhance the utilization of natural grazing resources and also to mitigate seasonal feed shortages. The experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of supplementing Ziziphus spina-christi leaf meal (ZSCLM) to natural pasture hay on feed intake, body weight gain, digestibility, and carcass characteristics of Tigray highland sheep. A randomized complete block design was employed with 5 blocks based on initial body weight, and sheep were randomly assigned to five treatments. Treatments were: 100g concentrate mix + ad libtum natural pasture hay (T1), T1+ 100g ZSCLM (T2), T1 + 200g ZSCLM (T3), T1 + 300g ZSCLM (T4), and T1 + 400g ZSCLM (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Dry matter intake was greater (P<0.05) in sheep on T5 compared to T3 and T1, while the total DM intake among T2, T4, and T5 were similar. Crude protein and metabolizable energy intake differed (P<0.05) among treatments with highest and lowest values in T5 and T1, respectively. Average daily gain was higher (P<0.05) in sheep kept on T2, T3, and T4 diets than T1. Higher (P<0.05) DM digestibility was found in T4 and T5 than T1. The highest (P<0.05) OM and CP digestibility was observed in sheep fed T3, T4, and T5 diets. Rib eye muscle area was higher (P<0.05) for T4 than T1 and T2. Dressing percentage was similar (P>0.05) among treatments. The current study indicated that supplementation of Tigray highland sheep with 200g air-dried Ziziphus spina-christi leaf meal leaves with 100g of concentrate mixture in their diet significantly increased feed intake and apparent digestibility, body weight gain, hot carcass weight, and rib eye muscle area by improving feed conversion efficiency.

Keywords: body weight, carcass, digestibility, and ziziphus spina-christi leaf meal

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6 Non-Adherence to Antidepressant Treatment and Its Predictors among Outpatients with Depressive Disorders

Authors: Selam Mulugeta, Barkot Milkias, Mesfin Araya, Abel Worku, Eyasu Mulugeta


In Ethiopia, there is inadequate information on non-adherence to antidepressant treatment in patients with depressive disorders. Having awareness of the pattern of adherence is important in future prognosis, quality of life, and functionality in these patients. This hospital-based cross-sectional quantitative study was done on a sample of 216 consecutive outpatients with depressive disorders. Data were collected using questionnaires through in-person and phone call interviews. The 8-item Morisky scale was used to assess the pattern of medication adherence. Other specially developed tools were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical information from electronic medical records and patient interviews. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version - 25. Univariate and multivariable analyses were carried out to assess factors associated with non-adherence. 90% of the participants had a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Based on the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, the prevalence of non-adherence was found to be 84.7%. Living distance between 11 to 50 km from the hospital (AOR= 11, 95% CI (29,46.6)), post-secondary level of education (AOR= 8.3, 95% CI (1, 64.4)) and taking multiple medications (AOR= 6.1, 95% CI (1, 34.9)) were found to have significantly increased odds of non-adherence. Non-adherence was significantly associated with factors such as increased living distance from the hospital, relatively higher educational level, and polypharmacy. Proper and patient-centered psychoeducation, addressing the communication gap between patients and doctors, adherence to prescribing guidelines, avoiding polypharmacy unless indicated & working on accessibility of treatment is essential to decrease non-adherence.

Keywords: depressive disorders, Ethiopia, medication adherence, Addis Ababa

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5 Resistance to the South African Root-Knot Nematode Population Densities in Artemisia annua: An Anti-Malaria Ethnomedicinal Plant

Authors: Kgabo Pofu, Hintsa Araya, Dean Oelofse, Sonja Venter, Christian Du Plooy, Phatu Mashela


Nematode resistance to the tropical root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes is one of the most preferred nematode management strategies in development of smallholder resource-poor farming systems. Due to its pharmacological and ethnomedicinal applications, Artemisia annua is one of the underutilised crops that have attracted attention of policy-makers in rural agrarian development in South Africa. However, the successful introduction of this crop in smallholder resource-poor farming systems could be upset by the widespread aggressive Meloidogyne species, which have limited management options. The objective of this study therefore was to determine the degree of nematode resistance to the South African M. incognita and M. javanica population densities on A. annua seedlings. Uniform three-week-old seedlings in pots containing pasteurised growing medium under greenhouse conditions were inoculated using a series of eggs and second-stage juveniles of two Meloidogyne species in separate trials. At 56 days after inoculation, treatments were highly significant on reproductive factor (RF) for M. incognita and M. javanica on A. annua, contributing 87 and 89% in total treatment variation of the variables, respectively. At all levels of inoculation, RF values for M. incognita (0.17-0.79) and M. javanica (0.02-0.29) were below unity, without any noticeable root galls. Infection of A. annua by both Meloidogyne species had no significant effects on growth variables. In conclusion, A. annua seedlings are resistant to the South African M. incognita and M. javanica population densities and could therefore be explored further for use in smallholder resource-poor farming systems.

Keywords: ethnomedicial plants, medicinal plants, underutilised crops, plant parasitic nematodes

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4 Comparison of Parametric and Bayesian Survival Regression Models in Simulated and HIV Patient Antiretroviral Therapy Data: Case Study of Alamata Hospital, North Ethiopia

Authors: Zeytu G. Asfaw, Serkalem K. Abrha, Demisew G. Degefu


Background: HIV/AIDS remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia and heavily affecting people of productive and reproductive age. We aimed to compare the performance of Parametric Survival Analysis and Bayesian Survival Analysis using simulations and in a real dataset application focused on determining predictors of HIV patient survival. Methods: A Parametric Survival Models - Exponential, Weibull, Log-normal, Log-logistic, Gompertz and Generalized gamma distributions were considered. Simulation study was carried out with two different algorithms that were informative and noninformative priors. A retrospective cohort study was implemented for HIV infected patients under Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Alamata General Hospital, North Ethiopia. Results: A total of 320 HIV patients were included in the study where 52.19% females and 47.81% males. According to Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for the two sex groups, females has shown better survival time in comparison with their male counterparts. The median survival time of HIV patients was 79 months. During the follow-up period 89 (27.81%) deaths and 231 (72.19%) censored individuals registered. The average baseline cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells count for HIV/AIDS patients were 126.01 but after a three-year antiretroviral therapy follow-up the average cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells counts were 305.74, which was quite encouraging. Age, functional status, tuberculosis screen, past opportunistic infection, baseline cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells, World Health Organization clinical stage, sex, marital status, employment status, occupation type, baseline weight were found statistically significant factors for longer survival of HIV patients. The standard error of all covariate in Bayesian log-normal survival model is less than the classical one. Hence, Bayesian survival analysis showed better performance than classical parametric survival analysis, when subjective data analysis was performed by considering expert opinions and historical knowledge about the parameters. Conclusions: Thus, HIV/AIDS patient mortality rate could be reduced through timely antiretroviral therapy with special care on the potential factors. Moreover, Bayesian log-normal survival model was preferable than the classical log-normal survival model for determining predictors of HIV patients survival.

Keywords: antiretroviral therapy (ART), Bayesian analysis, HIV, log-normal, parametric survival models

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3 Determinants of Post-Psychotic Depression in Schizophrenia Patients in ACSH and Mekellle Hospital Tigray, Ethiopia, 2019

Authors: Ashenafi Ayele, Shewit Haftu, Tesfalem Araya


Background: “Post-psychotic depression”, “post schizophrenic depression”, and “secondary depression” have been used to describe the occurrence of depressive symptoms during the chronic phase of schizophrenia. Post-psychotic depression is the most common cause of death due to suicide in schizophrenia patients. Overall lifetime risk for patients with schizophrenia is 50% for suicide attempts and 9-13% lifetime risk for completed suicide and also it is associated with poor prognosis and poor quality of life. Objective: To assess determinant of post psychotic depression in schizophrenia patients ACSH and Mekelle General Hospital, Tigray Ethiopia 2019. Methods: An institutional based unmatched case control study was conducted among 69 cases and 138 controls with the ratio of case to control 1 ratio 2. The sample is calculated using epi-info 3.1 to assess the determinant factors of post-psychotic depression in schizophrenia patients. The cases were schizophrenia patients who have been diagnosed at least for more than one-year stable for two months, and the controls are any patients who are diagnosed as schizophrenia patients. Study subjects were selected using a consecutive sampling technique. The Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia self-administered questionnaire was used. Before the interview, it was assessed the client’s capacity to give intended information using a scale called the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent (UBACC). Bivariant and multiple Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine between the independent and dependent variables. The significant independent predictor was declared at 95% confidence interval and P-value of less than 0.05. Result: Females were affected by post psychotic depression with the (AOR=2.01, 95%CI: 1.003- 4.012, P= 0.49).Patients who have mild form of positive symptom of schizophrenia affected by post psychotic depression with (AOR =4.05, 95%CI: 1.888- 8.7.8, P=0001).Patients who have minimal form of negative symptom of schizophrenia are affected by post psychotic depression with (AOR =4.23, 95%CI: 1.081-17.092, P=.038). Conclusion: In this study, sex (female) and presence of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were significantly associated. It is recommended that the post psychotic depression should be assessed in every schizophrenia patient to decrease the severity of illness, and to improve patient’s quality of life.

Keywords: determinants, post-psychotic depression, Mekelle city

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2 Model Organic Ranikin Cycle Power Plant for Waste Heat Recovery in Olkaria-I Geothermal Power Plant

Authors: Haile Araya Nigusse, Hiram M. Ndiritu, Robert Kiplimo


Energy consumption is an indispensable component for the continued development of the human population. The global energy demand increases with development and population rise. The increase in energy demand, high cost of fossil fuels and the link between energy utilization and environmental impacts have resulted in the need for a sustainable approach to the utilization of the low grade energy resources. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant is an advantageous technology that can be applied in generation of power from low temperature brine of geothermal reservoirs. The power plant utilizes a low boiling organic working fluid such as a refrigerant or a hydrocarbon. Researches indicated that the performance of ORC power plant is highly dependent upon factors such as proper organic working fluid selection, types of heat exchangers (condenser and evaporator) and turbine used. Despite a high pressure drop, shell-tube heat exchangers have satisfactory performance for ORC power plants. This study involved the design, fabrication and performance assessment of the components of a model Organic Rankine Cycle power plant to utilize the low grade geothermal brine. Two shell and tube heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser) and a single stage impulse turbine have been designed, fabricated and the performance assessment of each component has been conducted. Pentane was used as a working fluid and hot water simulating the geothermal brine. The results of the experiment indicated that the increase in mass flow rate of hot water by 0.08 kg/s caused a rise in overall heat transfer coefficient of the evaporator by 17.33% and the heat transferred was increased by 6.74%. In the condenser, the increase of cooling water flow rate from 0.15 kg/s to 0.35 kg/s increased the overall heat transfer coefficient by 1.21% and heat transferred was increased by 4.26%. The shaft speed varied from 1585 to 4590 rpm as inlet pressure was varied from 0.5 to 5.0 bar and power generated was varying from 4.34 to 14.46W. The results of the experiments indicated that the performance of each component of the model Organic Rankine Cycle power plant operating at low temperature heat resources was satisfactory.

Keywords: brine, heat exchanger, ORC, turbine

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1 Guidelines for the Management Process Development of Research Journals in Order to Develop Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University to International Standards

Authors: Araya Yordchim, Rosjana Chandhasa, Suwaree Yordchim


This research aims to study guidelines on the development of management process for research journals in order to develop Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University to international standards. This research investigated affecting elements ranging from the format of the article, evaluation form for research article quality, the process of creating a scholarly journal, satisfaction level of those with knowledge and competency to conduct research, arisen problems, and solutions. Drawing upon the sample size of 40 persons who had knowledge and competency in conducting research and creating scholarly journal articles at an international level, the data for this research were collected using questionnaires as a tool. Through the usage of computer software, data were analyzed by using the statistics in the forms of frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and multiple regression analysis. The majority of participants were civil servants with a doctorate degree, followed by civil servants with a master's degree. Among them, the suitability of the article format was rated at a good level while the evaluation form for research articles quality was assessed at a good level. Based on participants' viewpoints, the process of creating scholarly journals was at a good level, while the satisfaction of those who had knowledge and competency in conducting research was at a satisfactory level. The problems encountered were the difficulty in accessing the website. The solution to the problem was to develop a website with user-friendly accessibility, including setting up a Google scholar profile for the purpose of references counting and the articles being used for reference in real-time. Research article format influenced the level of satisfaction of those who had the knowledge and competency to conduct research with statistical significance at the 0.01 level. The research article quality assessment form (preface section, research article writing section, preparation for research article manuscripts section, and the original article evaluation form for the author) affected the satisfaction of those with knowledge and competency to conduct research with the statistical significance at the level of 0.01. The process of establishing journals had an impact on the satisfaction of those with knowledge and ability to conduct research with statistical significance at the level of .05

Keywords: guidelines, development of management, research journals, international standards

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