Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 999

Search results for: hypertensive disorder

999 Evaluation of Salt Content in Bread and the Amount Intake by Hypertensive Patients in the Algiers Region

Authors: S.lanasri, A.Boudjerrane, R.Belgherbi, O.Hadjoudj

Abstract:

Introduction: Bread is the most popular food in Algeria. The aim of this study was to examine the consumption of salt from bread by hypertensive patients. Materials and methods: sixty breads were collected from different artisans Algiers bakeries, each sample was mixed in harm distilled water until homogeneous and filtered. Analysis of the salt content was carried out according to the Mohr method titration. We calculated the amount of salt in bread consumed by 100 hypertensive patients using a questionnaire about the average amount of bread per day. Results: The salt content values from bread were 3.4g ± 0.37 NaCl / 100g.The average amount of salt consumed per day by patients from only bread was 3.82 g ± 3.8 with a maximum of 17 g per day. Only 38.18% of patients consume bread without salt even then 95% knew that excess salt intake can complicate hypertension. Conclusion: This study showed that bread is a major contributor to salt intake by Algerian hypertensive patients.

Keywords: salt, bread, hypertensive patients, Algiers

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998 An ANN-Based Predictive Model for Diagnosis and Forecasting of Hypertension

Authors: Obe Olumide Olayinka, Victor Balanica, Eugen Neagoe

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The effects of hypertension are often lethal thus its early detection and prevention is very important for everybody. In this paper, a neural network (NN) model was developed and trained based on a dataset of hypertension causative parameters in order to forecast the likelihood of occurrence of hypertension in patients. Our research goal was to analyze the potential of the presented NN to predict, for a period of time, the risk of hypertension or the risk of developing this disease for patients that are or not currently hypertensive. The results of the analysis for a given patient can support doctors in taking pro-active measures for averting the occurrence of hypertension such as recommendations regarding the patient behavior in order to lower his hypertension risk. Moreover, the paper envisages a set of three example scenarios in order to determine the age when the patient becomes hypertensive, i.e. determine the threshold for hypertensive age, to analyze what happens if the threshold hypertensive age is set to a certain age and the weight of the patient if being varied, and, to set the ideal weight for the patient and analyze what happens with the threshold of hypertensive age.

Keywords: neural network, hypertension, data set, training set, supervised learning

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997 The Effects of Health Education Programme on Knowledge and Prevention of Cerebrovascular Disease among Hypertensive Patients in University College Hospital, Ibadan

Authors: T. A. Ajiboye

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This study examines the effects of health education programme on knowledge and prevention of cerebrovascular disease among hypertensive patients in University College Hospital, Ibadan. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. 100 hypertensive patients were conveniently selected from general outpatient department in UCH. Data generated were analyzed using ANOVA at 0.05 alpha levels. The findings of the study revealed that health education programme significantly influenced both the knowledge of hypertensive patients (F=22.70; DF=1/99; p < .05) and their attitude (F=10.377; DF=1/99; p < .05) on cerebrovascular disease. Findings also discovered that health education programme significantly reduce the complication of hypertension to cerebrovascular disease (F= 16.41; DF=7/286; p < 0.05) among the hypertensive patients at UCH. Based on the findings, it is recommended that hypertensive patients should relieve themselves from stress, engage themselves on regular exercises, compliance with drug and diet regimes coupled with keeping up of regular appointment. Government should design health information that will center on hypertension and cerebrovascular disease so as to keep health and community development problems to the barest minimum. Finally, there should be provision of social amenities and recreational centers, as this will prevents hypertension problems.

Keywords: cerebrovascular disease, effectiveness, health education, hypertension, knowledge, prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
996 Gut Microbiota and Their Modulating Role in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Hypertensive Rats Fed with Selected Local Wild Beans

Authors: Bankole Do, Omodara T. R., Awyinka O. A.

Abstract:

Probiotic supplementation has been known to be associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension. Against these backdrop, activities of the gut microbiota from hypertensive induced pregnant and non-pregnant rats as mediated by the soluble and indigestible fraction of carbohydrates derived from Otiliand fermentedIru were studied in this present work. Microbiota from hypertensive induced non- pregnant rats fed with Otili and Iruhad Proteus vulgaris + Staphylococcus aureus. However, hypertensive induced pregnant rats fed with Otilipredominantly contained Proteus vulgaris + Bacillus lichniformiswhile the group fed with Iruhad Staphylococcus aureus + Bacillus lichniformis. Thus, showingdysbiosis in hypertensive induced rats is influenced by pregnancy. Further In-vitro study showed Proteus vulgaris playing a key role in the fermentative process of the indigestible fraction of carbohydrates while Esherichia coli played the key role in the fermentative process of the soluble fraction of carbohydrates in all the bean samples. This dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, as seen in hypertension in rats in this present study, might be part of the strategies for the prevention and treatment of this Non-Communicable Disease.

Keywords: probiotic, microbiota, dysbiosis, hypertension

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995 Study of Dermatoglyphics Pattern in Patient with Hypertension

Authors: Ajeevan Gautam, Gulam Anwer Khan, Pratibha Pokhrel

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Introduction: Dermatoglyphics is the science which deals with the study of dermal ridge configuration on the digits, palms and soles. It is grooved by ridges and forms variety of configurations. The aim of the study was to identify dermal ridge patterns on fingertip of hypertensive patients and in normal population and to compare patterns among them. Methods: The subjects of the study were 130 hypertensives and 130 non-hypertensives cases of Kathmandu Valley aged between 40 to 80 years. Case history was recorded after consent finger prints were taken. Different parameters as whorl, loop, arch and composite patterns were studied and analysed. Result: It revealed, increased whorl pattern in hypertensive. It showed 65.69% whorl, 29.23% loop and 5.07% arch patterns in right hand of hypertensive people. In control, it was found to be 34.46% whorl, 58.15% loop and 5.38% arch patterns respectively. Similarly in left hand 63.69% whorl, 32% loop and 4.30% arch in hypertensive group. In control group it was 60.15% as loop, 35.69% as whorl and 15% as arch. Discussion: Based on findings of the result, it was concluded that the whorl, loop and arch patterns observed as 65.69%, 29.23% and 5.07% respectively in hypertensive cases in right hand. Similarly in left hand, it was found to be 4.30% as arch, 32% as loop and 63.69% as whorl patterns, but in normotensive subjects these patterns were recorded as 36.43%, 58.15%, 5.38% in right hand and 35.69%, 60.15%, 4.15% in left hand as whorl, loop and arch respectively.

Keywords: arch, dermatoglyphics, hypertension, loop, whorl

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994 Association between Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and the Development of Offspring Mental and Behavioural Problems: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Berihun Dachew, Abdullah Mamun, Joemer Maravilla, Rosa Alati

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Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a major cause of maternal and childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, its effect on offspring mental and behavioural disorders is unclear. Aims:The aim of this study was to provide the best scientific evidence regarding the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and offspring mental and behavioural problems. Methods: We systematically searched Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, CINAH and PsycINFO databases. A total of 23 studies (11 included in meta-analysis) were identified. A qualitative analysis was conducted by summarizing, comparing, and contrasting the abstracted data for all included studies. For quantitative analysis, relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used as pooled effect size. Heterogeneity was assessed by measuring Cochran’s Q and I2 test statistics. Results: Of the 23 studies included in this review, 15 studies found that hypertensive disorders of pregnancy had a negative impact for at least one mental or behavioural problem. The pooled effect of 11 studies included in the meta-analysis showed that preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of offspring schizophrenia (RR=1.37; 95% CI, 1.08-1.72). Conclusions: Intrauterine exposure to pre-eclampsia increased the risk of schizophrenia among offspring. However, we found inconclusive finding on the effect of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and other mental and behavioural problems. Further high quality, large sample, mother child cohort studies are needed to further progress this area of research.

Keywords: behavioural disorders, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, mental disorders, offspring

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993 Uncovering Anti-Hypertensive Obesity Targets and Mechanisms of Metformin, an Anti-Diabetic Medication

Authors: Lu Yang, Keng Po Lai

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Metformin, a well-known clinical drug against diabetes, is found with potential anti-diabetic and anti-obese benefits, as reported in increasing evidences. However, the current clinical and experimental investigations are not to reveal the detailed mechanisms of metformin-anti-obesity/hypertension. We have used the bioinformatics strategy, including network pharmacology and molecular docking methodology, to uncover the key targets and pathways of bioactive compounds against clinical disorders, such as cancers, coronavirus disease. Thus, in this report, the in-silico approach was utilized to identify the hug targets, pharmacological function, and mechanism of metformin against obesity and hypertension. The networking analysis identified 154 differentially expressed genes of obesity and hypertension, 21 interaction genes, and 6 hug genes of metformin treating hypertensive obesity. As a result, the molecular docking findings indicated the potent binding capability of metformin with the key proteins, including interleukin 6 (IL-6) and chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2), in hypertensive obesity. The metformin-exerted anti-hypertensive obesity action involved in metabolic regulation, inflammatory reaction. And the anti-hypertensive obesity mechanisms of metformin were revealed, including regulation of inflammatory and immunological signaling pathways for metabolic homeostasis in tissue and microenvironmental melioration in blood pressure. In conclusion, our identified findings with bioinformatics analysis have demonstrated the detailed hug and pharmacological targets, biological functions, and signaling pathways of metformin treating hypertensive obesity.

Keywords: metformin, obesity, hypertension, bioinformatics findings

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992 Correlation Between Diastolic Function and Lower GLS in Hypertensive Patients

Authors: A. Kherraf, S. Ouarrak, L. Azzouzi, R. Habbal

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Introduction: Preserved LVEF heart failure is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in hypertensive patients. A strong correlation between impaired diastolic function and longitudinal systolic dysfunction. could have several explanations, first, the diastole is an energy dependent process, especially during its first phase, it also includes active systolic components during the phase of iso volumetric relaxation, in addition, the impairment of the intrinsic myocytic function is part of hypertensive pathology as evidenced by recent studies. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This work consists of performing in a series of 333 hypertensive patients (aged 25 to 75 years) a complete echocardiographic study, including LVEF by Simpson biplane method, the calculation of the indexed left ventricular mass, the analysis of the diastolic function, and finally, the study of the longitudinal deformation of the LV by the technique of speckletracking (calculation of the GLS). Patients with secondary hypertension, leaky or stenosing valve disease, arrhythmia, and a history of coronary insufficiency were excluded from this study. RESULTS: Of the 333 hypertensive patients, 225 patients (67.5%) had impaired diastolic function, of which 60 patients (18%) had high filling pressures. 49.39% had echocardigraphic HVG, Almost all of these patients (60 patients) had low GLS. There is a statistically very significant relationship between lower GLS and increased left ventricular filling pressures in hypertensive patients. These results suggest that increased filling pressures are closely associated with atrioventricular interaction in patients with hypertension, with a strong correlation with impairment of longitudinal systolic function and diastolic function CONCLUSION: Overall, a linear relationship is established between increased left ventricular mass, diastolic dysfunction, and longitudinal LV systolic dysfunction

Keywords: hypertension, diastolic function, left ventricle, heart failure

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991 Classification of Health Information Needs of Hypertensive Patients in the Online Health Community Based on Content Analysis

Authors: Aijing Luo, Zirui Xin, Yifeng Yuan

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Background: With the rapid development of the online health community, more and more patients or families are seeking health information on the Internet. Objective: This study aimed to discuss how to fully reveal the health information needs expressed by hypertensive patients in their questions in the online environment. Methods: This study randomly selected 1,000 text records from the question data of hypertensive patients from 2008 to 2018 collected from the website www.haodf.com and constructed a classification system through literature research and content analysis. This paper identified the background characteristics and questioning the intention of each hypertensive patient based on the patient’s question and used co-occurrence network analysis to explore the features of the health information needs of hypertensive patients. Results: The classification system for health information needs of patients with hypertension is composed of 9 parts: 355 kinds of drugs, 395 kinds of symptoms and signs, 545 kinds of tests and examinations , 526 kinds of demographic data, 80 kinds of diseases, 37 kinds of risk factors, 43 kinds of emotions, 6 kinds of lifestyles, 49 kinds of questions. The characteristics of the explored online health information needs of the hypertensive patients include: i)more than 49% of patients describe the features such as drugs, symptoms and signs, tests and examinations, demographic data, diseases, etc. ii) these groups are most concerned about treatment (77.8%), followed by diagnosis (32.3%); iii) 65.8% of hypertensive patients will ask doctors online several questions at the same time. 28.3% of the patients are very concerned about how to adjust the medication, and they will ask other treatment-related questions at the same time, including drug side effects, whether to take drugs, how to treat a disease, etc.; secondly, 17.6% of the patients will consult the doctors online about the causes of the clinical findings, including the relationship between the clinical findings and a disease, the treatment of a disease, medication, and examinations. Conclusion: In the online environment, the health information needs expressed by Chinese hypertensive patients to doctors are personalized; that is, patients with different background features express their questioning intentions to doctors. The classification system constructed in this study can guide health information service providers in the construction of online health resources, to help solve the problem of information asymmetry in communication between doctors and patients.

Keywords: online health community, health information needs, hypertensive patients, doctor-patient communication

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990 Management Practices in Hypertension: Results of Win-Over-A Pan India Registry

Authors: Abhijit Trailokya, Kamlesh Patel

Abstract:

Background: Hypertension is a common disease seen in clinical practice and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Many patients require combination therapy for the management of hypertension. Objective: To evaluate co-morbidities, risk factors and management practices of hypertension in Indian population. Material and methods: A total of 1596 hypertensive adult patients received anti-hypertensive medications were studied in a cross-sectional, multi-centric, non-interventional, observational registry. Statistical analysis: Categories or nominal data was expressed as numbers with percentages. Continuous variables were analyzed by descriptive statistics using mean, SD, and range Chi square test was used for in between group comparison. Results: The study included 73.50% males and 26.50% females. Overweight (50.50%) and obesity (30.01%) was common in the hypertensive patients (n=903). A total of 54.76% patients had history of smoking. Alcohol use (33.08%), sedentary life style (32.96%) and history of tobacco chewing (17.92%) were the other lifestyle habits of hypertensive patients. Diabetes (36.03%) and dyslipidemia (39.79%) history was common in these patients. Family history of hypertension and diabetes was seen in 82.21% and 45.99% patients respectively. Most (89.16%) patients were treated with combination of antihypertensive agents. ARBs were the by far most commonly used agents (91.98%) followed by calcium channel blockers (68.23%) and diuretics (60.21%). ARB was the most (80.35%) preferred agent as monotherapy. ARB was also the most common agent as a component of dual therapy, four drug and five drug combinations. Conclusion: Most of the hypertensive patients need combination treatment with antihypertensive agents. ARBs are the most preferred agents as monotherapy for the management of hypertension. ARBs are also very commonly used as a component of combination therapy during hypertension management.

Keywords: antihypertensive, hypertension, management, ARB

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989 Hypertensive Response to Maximal Exercise Test in Young and Middle Age Hypertensive on Blood Pressure Lowering Medication: Monotherapy vs. Combination Therapy

Authors: James Patrick A. Diaz, Raul E. Ramboyong

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Background: Hypertensive response during maximal exercise test provides important information on the level of blood pressure control and evaluation of treatment. Method: A single center retrospective descriptive study was conducted among 117 young (aged 20 to 40) and middle age (aged 40 to 65) hypertensive patients, who underwent treadmill stress test. Currently on maintenance frontline medication either monotherapy (Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/Angiotensin receptor blocker [ACEi/ARB], Calcium channel blocker [CCB], Diuretic - Hydrochlorthiazide [HCTZ]) or combination therapy (ARB+CCB, ARB+HCTZ), who attained a maximal exercise on treadmill stress test (TMST) with hypertensive response (systolic blood pressure: male >210 mm Hg, female >190 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure >100 mmHg, or increase of >10 mm Hg at any time during the test), on Bruce and Modified Bruce protocol. Exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise (systolic [SBP] and diastolic [DBP]), peak exercise blood pressure (SBP and DBP), recovery period (SBP and DBP) and test for ischemia and their antihypertensive medication/s were investigated. Analysis of variance and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Hypertensive responses on maximal exercise test were seen mostly among female population (P < 0.000) and middle age (P < 0.000) patients. Exaggerated diastolic blood pressure responses were significantly lower in patients who were taking CCB (P < 0.004). A longer recovery period that showed a delayed decline in SBP was observed in patients taking ARB+HCTZ (P < 0.036). There were no significant differences in the level of exaggerated systolic blood pressure response and during peak exercise (both systolic and diastolic) in patients using either monotherapy or combination antihypertensives. Conclusion: Calcium channel blockers provided lower exaggerated diastolic BP response during maximal exercise test in hypertensive middle age patients. Patients on combination therapy using ARB+HCTZ exhibited a longer recovery period of systolic blood pressure.

Keywords: antihypertensive, exercise test, hypertension, hyperytensive response

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988 A Comparison of Transdiagnostic Components in Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Unipolar Mood Disorder and Nonclinical Population

Authors: Imaneh Abbasi, Ladan Fata, Majid Sadeghi, Sara Banihashemi, Abolfazl Mohammadee

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Background: Dimensional and transdiagnostic approaches as a result of high comorbidity among mental disorders have captured researchers and clinicians interests for exploring the latent factors of development and maintenance of some psychological disorders. The goal of present study is to compare some of these common factors between generalized anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder. Methods: 27 patients with generalized anxiety disorder, 29 patients with depression disorder were recruited using SCID-I and 69 non-clinical population were selected using GHQ cut off point. MANCOVA was used for analyzing data. Results: The results show that worry, rumination, intolerance of uncertainty, maladaptive metacognitive beliefs, and experiential avoidance were all significantly different between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. However, there were not any significant differences in difficulties in emotion regulation and neuroticism between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. Discussion: Results indicate that although there are some transdiagnostic and common factors in GAD and unipolar mood disorder, there may be some specific vulnerability factors for each disorder. Further study is needed for answering these questions.

Keywords: transdiagnostic, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, emotion regulation

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987 The Effect of Dissociation in Bipolar Disorder: An EEG Power Analysis

Authors: Merve Cebi, Turker Tekin Erguzel, Gokben Hizli Sayar

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Understanding the biological mechanisms of dissociation in patients with bipolar disorder is important for developing new treatment approaches for the disorder as well as using the appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, we compared EEG power and coherence values for alpha, theta and beta frequency bands between patients having bipolar disorder with dissociation as compared to the bipolar patients without dissociation. Accordingly, we did not find any statistically significant difference in either the absolute or the relative power between the groups. Coherence values were not found to be statistically different, as well. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the existence of dissociation did not influence electrophysiological correlates in bipolar disorder.

Keywords: bipolar disorder, dissociation, absolute power, coherence

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
986 Dietary Magnesium, Lipids, and Hypertension: New Insights and Unsolved Mysteries

Authors: Elena Pello, Martin Bobak, Yuri Nikitin

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In current issue we evaluated integration of magnesium with lipids; the attractive findings were obtained in men and women; the crucial ties of magnesium with total cholesterol in hypertensive men, with total cholesterol in concordance with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypertensive women were disclosed; unanswered questions were trapped, difficulties were surmounted, and magnesium deficiency perseverance in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development was expressed; nutrients as well as risk factors may contribute to cardiovascular complications.

Keywords: dietary, magnesium, hypertension, lipids

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985 Effect of Nigella sativa on Blood Pressure, Vascular Reactivity, Inflammatory Biomarkers and Nitric Oxide in L-Name-Induced Hypertensive Rats

Authors: Kamsiah Jaarin, Yusof Kamisah, Faizah Othman Nurul Akmal Muhammad, Zakiah Jubri, Qodriyah Mohd Saad, Srijit Das

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Forty (40) normotensive adult male Sprague-Dawley rats aged three months weighing 180-200 g were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats per group: (1) normotensive control; (2) hypertensive rats; (3) hypertensive rats treated with Nigella sativa (2.5 ml/kg/day); and (4) hypertensive rats treated with nicardipine (5 mg/kg/day). After acclimatization, the hypertensive rats of the group 2, 3 and 4 were induced to be hypertensive by giving NW–nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 30 mg/kg/day) in their drinking water for consecutive 7 days. After one week, rats in the group 3 were given a daily oral dose of 2.5 ml/kg/day of Nigella sativa (NS) by oral gavage. Rats in the group 4 were given nicardipine (5 mg/kg/day) via oral gavages. All rats in this study received L-NAME continuously throughout the treatment duration. The blood pressure will be measured pre-treatment and weekly for 8 weeks using power lab. Blood was taken before and at the end of study for measurement of nitric oxide. At the end of 8 weeks, the rats are sacrificed and descending thoracic aorta was disserted for measurement of vascular reactivity, and intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1). Nigella sativa reduced both systolic and diastolic BP compared to control and L-name group. The BP lowering effect of NS was comparable to nicardipine a calcium antagonist. The blood pressure lowering effect of NS was accompanied with an increasing relaxation response to nitroprusside and acetylcholine and reducing vasoconstriction response to epinephrine. L-NAME and nicardipine on the other hand, reduced plasma nitric oxide concentration. In contrast, NS increased NO concentration. However, Nigella sativa had no significant effect on aortic VCAM- 1 and ICAM-1 expression. In conclusion; Nigella sativa oil reduces both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in L-NAME treated rats. The antihypertensive effect of NS was comparable to nicardipine. The BP lowering effect may be mediated via stimulating nitric oxide release from vascular endothelium.

Keywords: Nigella sativa, ICAM, VCAM, blood pressure, vascular reactivity

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984 Cardio Autonomic Response during Mental Stress in the Wards of Normal and Hypertensive Parents

Authors: Sheila R. Pai, Rekha D. Kini, Amrutha Mary

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Objective: To assess and compare the cardiac autonomic activity after mental stress among the wards of normal and hypertensive parents. Methods: The study included 67 subjects, 30 of them had a parental history of hypertension and rest 37 had normotensive parents. Subjects were divided into control group (wards of normotensive parents) and Study group (wards of hypertensive parents). The height, weight were noted, and Body Mass Index (BMI) was also calculated. The mental stress test was carried out. Blood pressure (BP) and electro cardiogram (ECG) was recorded during normal breathing and after mental stress test. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was done by time domain method HRV was recorded and analyzed by the time-domain method. Analysis of HRV in the time-domain was done using the software version 1.1 AIIMS, New Delhi. The data obtained was analyzed using student’s t-test followed by Mann-Whitney U-test and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no significant difference in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between study group and control group following mental stress. In the time domain analysis, the mean value of pNN50 and RMSSD of the study group was not significantly different from the control group after the mental stress test. Conclusion: The study thus concluded that there was no significant difference in HRV between study group and control group following mental stress.

Keywords: heart rate variability, time domain analysis, mental stress, hypertensive

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983 Propranalol is Not Effective in Preventing the Progression to Severe Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy in Cirrhotic Patients who Had Undergone Variceal Eradication: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Jeffey George, Varghese Thomas

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Background and Objectives: PHG is an important source of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension. Aim: To assess the progression to severe portal hypertensive gastropathy(PHG) in patients with cirrhosis who were treated with maximum tolerated dose of propranalol, after variceal eradication to grade II or below. Methods: Cirrhotic patients(child A and B) presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding with endoscopic findings of mild or no PHG were followed up over 6 months after variceal eradication to assess the progression to severe PHG. Included patients were randomised to either maximum tolerated doses of propranalol (group A) or to no treatment (group B). Primary end point of the study were the development of gastrointestinal bleed, evidence of hepatic decompensation and death. Progression to severe PHG were compared between the two groups. Results: 56 patients (49 males) were enrolled (group A = 28, group B = 28). 8 patients were excluded from final analysis (gi bleed=5, encephalopathy=2,HCC=1 including 4 deaths).3 patients were lost to follow-up, and 1 developed intolerance to propranalol. Mean dose of propranalol used was 60 mg per day. Progression to severe PHG in the fundus over 6 months was 23.8% in group A versus 15.8 % in group B (p = 0.52). Severe PHG was noted in body in 14.3% in group A versus 21.1% in group B (p = 0.57). 23.8 % in group A had progression to severe PHG compared with 15.8 % in group B (p =0.52). There was no statistically significant difference in the progression of PHG between the two groups(p=0.43). Conclusion: In this short term study propranalol was found not to prevent the progression to severe portal hypertensive gastropathy in cirrhotic patients who had undergone endotherapy for esophageal varices.

Keywords: propranalol, portal hypertensive gastropathy, cirrhotic patients, gastroenterology

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982 The Role of ALDH2 Genotypes in Bipolar II Disorder Comorbid with Anxiety Disorder

Authors: Yun-Hsuan Chang, Chih-Chun Huang, Ru-Band Lu

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Dopamine, metabolized to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ALDH2*1/*1, and ALDH2*1/*2+ALDH*2/*2 equally carried in Han Chinese. The relationship between dopamine metabolic enzyme and cognitive performance in bipolar II disorder comorbid with anxiety disorder (AD) remains unclear. This study proposed to explore the association between ALDH2 polymorphisms, anxiety comorbidity in bipolar II disorder. One hundred and ninety-seven BPII with or without AD comorbidity were recruited and compared with 130 Health controls (HC). A polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to determine genotypes for ALDH2, and neuropsychological battery was performed. Two factor analyses with AD comorbidity and ALDH2 showed a significant main effect of ALDH2 on attention and marginally significant interaction between AD and ALDH2 memory performance. The ALDH2 polymorphisms may play a different role in the neuropsychological performance on varied neuropsychological performance in BPII comorbid with and without AD.

Keywords: anxiety disorder, bipolar II disorder, comorbidity, genetic

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981 Localization Problem in Optical Fiber Sensors

Authors: M. Zyczkowski, P. Markowski, M. Karol

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The security industry is making many efforts to lower the costs of system installation. However, the dominant technique is the application of fiber optic sensors. It is necessary to determine the location of the disorder of long optical fiber cables. For a number of years, many research centers developed their own solutions. The article presents the construction of the sensor systems with the possibility of disorder location. We present a methodology for determining location of the disorder. The aim of investigations is to answer the question of which of optical sensor configuration offer the best performance for location of the disorder.

Keywords: fiber optic sensor, security sensor, fiber cables, system instillation

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980 Lessons Learnt from a Patient with Pseudohyperkalaemia Secondary to Polycythaemia Rubra Vera in a Neuro-ICU Patient Resulting in Dangerous Interventions: Lessons Learnt on Patient Safety Improvement

Authors: Dinoo Kirthinanda, Sujani Wijeratne

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Pseudohyperkalaemia is a common benign in vitro phenomenon caused by the release of potassium ions (K+) from cells during specimen processing. Analysis of haemolysed blood samples for predominantly intracellular electrolytes may lead to re-investigation and potentially harmful interventions. We report a case of a 52-year male with myeloproliferative disease manifested as Polycythaemia Rubra Vera, Hypertension and hypertensive nephropathy with stage 3 chronic kidney disease admitted to Neuro-intensive care unit (NICU) with an intra-cerebral haemorrhage secondary to hypertensive bleed. His initial blood investigations showed hyperkalemia with serum K+ 6.2 mmol/L yet the bedside arterial blood gas analysis yielded K+ of 4.6 mmol/L. The patient was however given hyperkalemia regime twice based on venous electrolyte analysis. The discrepancy between the bedside electrolyte analysis using arterial blood and venous blood prompted further evaluation. The 12 lead Electrocardiogram showed U waves and sinus bradycardia corresponding to the serum K+ of 2.8 mmol/L on arterial blood gas analysis. Immediate K+ replacement ensured the patient did not develop life-threatening cardiac complications. Pseudohyperkalaemia may pose diagnostic challenges in the absence of detectable haemolysis and should be suspected in susceptible patients with normal Electrocardiogram and Glomerular Filtration Rate to avoid potentially life-threatening interventions. When in doubt, rapid analysis of arterial blood gas may be useful for accurate quantification of potassium.

Keywords: patient safety, pseudohyperkalaemia, haemolysis, myeloproliferative disorder

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979 The Role of College Teachers’ in Identifying Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Students

Authors: Hargunjeet Shergill, Palwinder Singh

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The present paper analyzes the lack of teachers' awareness and knowledge regarding the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the college students. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder causes individuals to consistently display extreme inattention, impulsivity and in many cases hyperactivity as a result of the physiological differences of the brain. Teachers have a formative influence on their students and can play a key role in identifying and supporting students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Despite the pervasiveness and salience of this disorder, educators at college continue to labor under a number of misconceptions about the nature of ADHD. In order to fulfill this important role, it is imperative for teachers to have explicit knowledge about this disorder. ADHD in college students remains the most under-recognized and undertreated mental health condition. The overall aim of this study is to investigate teachers’ knowledge and misconceptions of ADHD with a particular focus on recognition, assessment and management of ADHD in adult college students. It designed to assess the college teachers' knowledge, opinions, and experience related to the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and by maintaining open lines of communication with the students and understanding some key elements that can affect students’ overall growth and ability. The discussion focuses on the value of the role of teachers and their relationship with each college student dealing with ADHD.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, development of ADHD, diagnostic criteria, role of teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
978 Maternal Death Review and Contextualization of Maternal Death in West Bengal

Authors: M. Illias Kanchan

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The death of a woman during pregnancy and childbirth is not only a health issue, but also a matter of social injustice. This study makes an attempt to explore the association between maternal death and associated factors in West Bengal using the approaches of facility-based and community-based maternal death review. Bivariate and binary logistic regression analysis have been performed to understand the causes and circumstances of maternal deaths in West Bengal. Delay in seeking care was the major contributor in maternal deaths, near about one-third women died due to this factor. The most common cause of maternal death is found to be hypertensive disorders of pregnancy or eclampsia. We believe that these deaths can be averted by reducing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy or eclampsia.

Keywords: maternal death, facility-based, community-based, review, west Bengal, eclampsia

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977 Stress and Marital Satisfaction of Parents to Children Diagnosed with Autism

Authors: Oren Shtayermman

Abstract:

The current investigation expended on research among parents caring for a child who is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An online web survey was used to collect data from 253 parents caring for a child with a diagnosis of ASD. Both parents reported on elevated levels of parental stress associated with caring for the child on the spectrum. In addition, lower levels of marital satisfaction were found in both parents. About 13% of the parents in the sample met the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and About 15% of the parents met the diagnostic criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Although the majority of the sample was females (94%) significant differences were found between males and females in relation to meeting the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Higher levels of stress were associated with higher number of Generalized Anxiety Disorder symptoms and higher number of Major Depressive Disorder symptoms. Findings from this study indicate how vulnerable parents and especially females are in relation to caring to a child diagnosed with ASD. Educational Objectives: At the conclusion of the paper, the readers should be able to: -Identify levels of stress and marital satisfaction among parents caring for a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, -Recognize the impact of stress on the development of mental health issues, -Name the two most common mood and anxiety related disorders associated with caring for a child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

Keywords: autism, stress, parents, children

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976 Determinants of Maternal Near-Miss among Women in Public Hospital Maternity Wards in Northern Ethiopia: A Facility Based Case-Control Study

Authors: Dejene Ermias Mekango, Mussie Alemayehu, Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs, Araya Abrha Medhanye, Gelila Goba

Abstract:

Background: Maternal near miss (MNM) can be used as a proxy indicator of maternal mortality ratio. There is a huge gap in life time risk between Sub-Saharan Africa and developed countries. In Ethiopia, a significant number of women die each year from complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the post-partum period. Besides, a few studies have been performed on MNM, and little is known regarding determinant factors. This study aims to identify determinants of MNM among women in Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Methods: a case-control study in hospital found in Tigray region, Ethiopia was conducted from January 30 - March 30, 2016. The sample included 103 cases and 205 controls recruited from women seeking obstetric care at six public hospitals. Clients having a life-threatening obstetric complication including haemorrhage, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, dystocia, infections, and anemia or clinical signs of severe anemia in women without haemorrhage were taken as cases and those with normal obstetric outcomes were considered as controls. Cases were selected based on proportional to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression (odds ratio) analyses were calculated with 95% CI. Results: The largest proportion of cases and controls was among the ages of20–29 years, accounting for37.9 %( 39) of cases and 31.7 %( 65) of controls. Roughly 90% of cases and controls were married. About two-thirds of controls and 45.6 %( 47) of cases had gestational age between 37-41 weeks. History of chronic medical conditions was reported in 55.3 %(57) of cases and 33.2%(68) of controls. Women with no formal education [AOR=3.2;95%CI:1.24, 8.12],being less than 16 years old at first pregnancy [AOR=2.5; 95%CI:1.12,5.63],induced labor[AOR=3; 95%CI:1.44, 6.17], history of Cesarean section (C-section) [AOR=4.6; 95%CI: 1.98, 7.61] or chronic medical disorder[AOR=3.5;95%CI:1.78, 6.93], and women who traveled more than 60 minutes before reaching their final place of care[AOR=2.8;95% CI: 1.19,6.35] all had higher odds of experiencing MNM. Conclusions: The Government of Ethiopia should continue its effort to address the lack of road and health facility access as well as education, which will help reduce MNM. Work should also be continued to educate women and providers about common predictors of MNM like the history of C-section, chronic illness, and teenage pregnancy. These efforts should be carried out at the facility, community, and individual levels. The targeted follow-up to women with a history of chronic disease and C-section could also be a practical way to reduce MNM.

Keywords: maternal near miss, severe obstetric hemorrhage, hypertensive disorder, c-section, Tigray, Ethiopia

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975 Current Judicial Discourse Regarding the Impact of Alcohol Use Disorders on Crime in Canada

Authors: Ellen McClure

Abstract:

It is generally well-known that a number of inmates suffer from some form of substance or alcohol use disorder. This study identifies, analyses, classifies and codifies the most recent Canadian criminal judgments involving an accused diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder specifically. From this research, patterns in judicial discourse and sentencing norms can be established, and these findings can be juxtaposed with existing relevant academic literature, particular attention will be given to this discussion at the sentencing stage, and the subsequent incarceration of those with alcohol use disorders. This topic will be explored with an overarching emphasis on the effects that a lack of conversation regarding a possible correlation between alcohol consumption and crime may have. Although comparisons may be made in order to clarify or highlight certain issues, particular attention will be paid to jurisdictions within Canada. This paper explores the existing judicial discourse in sentencing regarding the relationship between alcohol and crime, and how this might explain the higher incarceration rates of those suffering from alcohol use disorders in Canada. The research questions are as follows: (1) What are the existing judicial discourses in sentencing around the relationship between alcohol and crime? (2) To what extent has the current discourse on alcohol addiction among judges and legal academics contributed to the incarceration of alcoholics?The major findings of this research indicate a strong correlation between a lack of judicial discussion regarding the accused’s alcohol use disorder and an increased tendency to consider an alcohol use disorder as an aggravating factor. Furthermore, it was found that an 82% of judges who discussed the alcohol use disorder meaningfully referred to the disorder as a mitigating factor. This can be compared with 6.7% of judges who referred to the alcohol use disorder as a mitigating factor in cases where the disorder was not meaningfully discussed.

Keywords: alcohol use disorder, addiction, criminal justice, judicial discourse

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974 Responsibility Attitude and Interpretation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Authors: Ryotaro Ishikawa

Abstract:

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common, chronic and long-lasting disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) that he or she feels the urge to repeat over and over. Inflated responsibility attitude and interpretation are central beliefs in a cognitive model of OCD. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS-J) and Responsibility Interpretation Questionnaire (RIQ-J). 98 participants (OCD group = 37; anxiety control group = 24; healthy control group = 37) completed the RAS-J, RIQ-J and other measures to assess the validity of the RAS-J and RIQ-J. As a result of analysis, both scales had adequate concurrent validity, demonstrated by significant correlations with other measures of OCD, anxiety, and depression. Group comparison data using ANOVA with Bonferroni method indicated that RAS-J and RIQ-J scores for the OCD group not only differed from the nonclinical group, but also from the clinically anxious comparison group. In conclusion, this study indicated that the developed RAS-J and RIQ-J effectively measure responsibility attitude and responsibility interpretation in the Japanese population.

Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder, responsibility, cognitive theory, anxiety disorder

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973 Separation of Urinary Proteins with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis in Patients with Secondary Nephropathies

Authors: Irena Kostovska, Katerina Tosheska Trajkovska, Svetlana Cekovska, Julijana Brezovska Kavrakova, Hristina Ampova, Sonja Topuzovska, Ognen Kostovski, Goce Spasovski, Danica Labudovic

Abstract:

Background: Proteinuria is an important feature of secondary nephropathies. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of proteinuria plays an important role in determining the types of proteinuria (glomerular, tubular and mixed), in the diagnosis and prognosis of secondary nephropathies. The damage of the glomerular basement membrane is responsible for a proteinuria characterized by the presence of large amounts of protein with high molecular weights such as albumin (69 kilo Daltons-kD), transferrin (78 kD) and immunoglobulin G (150 kD). An insufficiency of proximal tubular function is the cause of a proteinuria characterized by the presence of proteins with low molecular weight (LMW), such as retinol binding protein (21 kD) and α1-microglobulin (31 kD). In some renal diseases, a mixed glomerular and tubular proteinuria is frequently seen. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is the most widely used method of analyzing urine proteins for clinical purposes. The main aim of the study is to determine the type of proteinuria in the most common secondary nephropathies such as diabetic, hypertensive nephropathy and preeclampsia. Material and methods: In this study were included 90 subjects: subjects with diabetic nephropathy (n=30), subjects with hypertensive nephropahty (n=30) and pregnant women with preeclampsia (n=30). We divided all subjects according to UM/CR into three subgroups: macroalbuminuric (UM/CR >300 mg/g), microalbuminuric (UM/CR 30-300 mg/g) and normolabuminuric (UM/CR<30 mg/g). In all subjects, we measured microalbumin and creatinine in urine with standard biochemical methods. Separation of urinary proteins was performed by SDS-PAGE, in several stages: linear gel preparation (4-22%), treatment of urinary samples before their application on the gel, electrophoresis, gel fixation, coloring with Coomassie blue, and identification of the separated protein fractions based on standards with exactly known molecular weight. Results: According to urinary microalbumin/creatinin ratio in group of subject with diabetic nephropathy, nine patients were macroalbuminuric, while 21 subject were microalbuminuric. In group of subjects with hypertensive nephropathy, we found macroalbuminuria (n=4), microalbuminuria (n=20) and normoalbuminuria (n=6). All pregnant women with preeclampsia were macroalbuminuric. Electrophoretic separation of urinary proteins showed that in macroalbuminric patients with diabetic nephropathy 56% have mixed proteinuria, 22% have glomerular proteinuria and 22% have tubular proteinuria. In subgroup of subjects with diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria, 52% have glomerular proteinuria, 8% have tubular proteinuria, and 40% of subjects have normal electrophoretic findings. All patients with maroalbuminuria and hypertensive nephropathy have mixed proteinuria. In subgroup of patients with microalbuminuria and hypertensive nephropathy, we found: 32% with mixed proteinuria, 27% with normal findings, 23% with tubular, and 18% with glomerular proteinuria. In all normoalbuminruic patiens with hypertensive nephropathy, we detected normal electrophoretic findings. In group of subjects pregnant women with preeclampsia, we found: 81% with mixed proteinuria, 13% with glomerular, and 8% with tubular proteinuria. Conclusion: By SDS PAGE method, we detected that in patients with secondary nephropathies the most common type of proteinuria is mixed proteinuria, indicating both loss of glomerular permeability and tubular function. We can conclude that SDS PAGE is high sensitive method for detection of renal impairment in patients with secondary nephropathies.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, preeclampsia, hypertensive nephropathy, SDS PAGE

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972 Cardiopulmonary Disease in Bipolar Disorder Patient with History of SJS: Evidence Based Case Report

Authors: Zuhrotun Ulya, Muchammad Syamsulhadi, Debree Septiawan

Abstract:

Patients with bipolar disorder are three times more likely to suffer cardiovascular disorders than the general population, which will influence their level of morbidity and rate of mortality. Bipolar disorder also affects the pulmonary system. The choice of long term-monotherapy and other combinative therapies have clinical impacts on patients. This study investigates the case of a woman who has been suffering from bipolar disorder for 16 years, and who has a history of Steven Johnson Syndrome. At present she is suffering also from cardiovascular and pulmonary disorder. An analysis of the results of this study suggests that there is a relationship between cardiovascular disorder, drug therapies, Steven Johnson Syndrome and mood stabilizer obtained from the PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, and ProQuest (publications between 2005 and 2015). Combination therapy with mood stabilizer is recommended for patients who do not have side effect histories from these drugs. The replacement drugs and combinations may be applied, especially for those with bipolar disorders, and the combination between atypical antipsychotic groups and mood stabilizers is often made. Clinicians, however, should be careful with the patients’ physical and metabolic changes, especially those who have experienced long-term therapy and who showed a history of Steven Johnson Syndrome (for which clinicians probably prescribed one type of medicine).

Keywords: cardiopulmonary disease, bipolar disorder, SJS, therapy

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971 EEG Analysis of Brain Dynamics in Children with Language Disorders

Authors: Hamed Alizadeh Dashagholi, Hossein Yousefi-Banaem, Mina Naeimi

Abstract:

Current study established for EEG signal analysis in patients with language disorder. Language disorder can be defined as meaningful delay in the use or understanding of spoken or written language. The disorder can include the content or meaning of language, its form, or its use. Here we applied Z-score, power spectrum, and coherence methods to discriminate the language disorder data from healthy ones. Power spectrum of each channel in alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and theta frequency bands was measured. In addition, intra hemispheric Z-score obtained by scoring algorithm. Obtained results showed high Z-score and power spectrum in posterior regions. Therefore, we can conclude that peoples with language disorder have high brain activity in frontal region of brain in comparison with healthy peoples. Results showed that high coherence correlates with irregularities in the ERP and is often found during complex task, whereas low coherence is often found in pathological conditions. The results of the Z-score analysis of the brain dynamics showed higher Z-score peak frequency in delta, theta and beta sub bands of Language Disorder patients. In this analysis there were activity signs in both hemispheres and the left-dominant hemisphere was more active than the right.

Keywords: EEG, electroencephalography, coherence methods, language disorder, power spectrum, z-score

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970 Exercise Training for Management Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Noor F. Ilias, Mazlifah Omar, Hashbullah Ismail

Abstract:

Exercise training has been shown to improve functional capacity and is recommended as a therapy for management of blood pressure. Our purpose was to establish whether different exercise capacity produces different effect size for Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Exercise characteristic is required in order to have optimal benefit from the training, but optimal exercise capacity is still unwarranted. A MEDLINE search (1985 to 2015) was conducted for exercise based rehabilitation trials in hypertensive patients. Thirty-seven studies met the selection criteria. Of these, 31 (83.7%) were aerobic exercise and 6 (16.3%) aerobic with additional resistance exercise, providing a total of 1318 exercise subjects and 819 control, the total of subjects was 2137. We calculated exercise volume and energy expenditure through the description of exercise characteristics. 4 studies (18.2%) were 451kcal - 900 kcal, 12 (54.5%) were 900 kcal – 1350 kcal and 6 (27.3%) >1351kcal per week. Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) increased by mean difference of 1.44 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08 to 1.79 ml/kg/min; p = 0.00001) with weighted mean 21.2% for aerobic exercise compare to aerobic with additional resistance exercise 4.50 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.57 to 5.42 ml/kg/min; p = 0.00001) with weighted mean 14.5%. SBP was clinically reduce for both aerobic and aerobic with resistance training by mean difference of -4.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -5.68 to -3.63 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 6% reduction and -5.06 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -7.32 to -2.8 mmHg; p = 0.0001) weighted mean 5% reduction respectively. Result for DBP was clinically reduce for aerobic by mean difference of -1.62 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.09 to -1.15 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 4% reduction and aerobic with resistance training reduce by mean difference of -3.26 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.87 to -1.65 mmHg; p = 0.0001) weighted mean 6% reduction. Optimum exercise capacity for 451 kcal – 900 kcal showed greater improvement in peak VO2 and SBP by 2.76 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47 to 4.05 ml/kg/min; p = 0.0001) with weighted mean 40.6% and -16.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -21.72 to -11.60 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 9.8% respectively. Our data demonstrated that aerobic exercise with total volume of 451 kcal – 900 kcal/ week energy expenditure may elicit greater changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Higher exercise capacity weekly does not seem better result in management hypertensive patients.

Keywords: blood Pressure, exercise, hypertension, peak VO2

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