Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs

11 Determinants of Maternal Near-Miss among Women in Public Hospital Maternity Wards in Northern Ethiopia: A Facility Based Case-Control Study

Authors: Dejene Ermias Mekango, Mussie Alemayehu, Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs, Araya Abrha Medhanye, Gelila Goba

Abstract:

Background: Maternal near miss (MNM) can be used as a proxy indicator of maternal mortality ratio. There is a huge gap in life time risk between Sub-Saharan Africa and developed countries. In Ethiopia, a significant number of women die each year from complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the post-partum period. Besides, a few studies have been performed on MNM, and little is known regarding determinant factors. This study aims to identify determinants of MNM among women in Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Methods: a case-control study in hospital found in Tigray region, Ethiopia was conducted from January 30 - March 30, 2016. The sample included 103 cases and 205 controls recruited from women seeking obstetric care at six public hospitals. Clients having a life-threatening obstetric complication including haemorrhage, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, dystocia, infections, and anemia or clinical signs of severe anemia in women without haemorrhage were taken as cases and those with normal obstetric outcomes were considered as controls. Cases were selected based on proportional to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression (odds ratio) analyses were calculated with 95% CI. Results: The largest proportion of cases and controls was among the ages of20–29 years, accounting for37.9 %( 39) of cases and 31.7 %( 65) of controls. Roughly 90% of cases and controls were married. About two-thirds of controls and 45.6 %( 47) of cases had gestational age between 37-41 weeks. History of chronic medical conditions was reported in 55.3 %(57) of cases and 33.2%(68) of controls. Women with no formal education [AOR=3.2;95%CI:1.24, 8.12],being less than 16 years old at first pregnancy [AOR=2.5; 95%CI:1.12,5.63],induced labor[AOR=3; 95%CI:1.44, 6.17], history of Cesarean section (C-section) [AOR=4.6; 95%CI: 1.98, 7.61] or chronic medical disorder[AOR=3.5;95%CI:1.78, 6.93], and women who traveled more than 60 minutes before reaching their final place of care[AOR=2.8;95% CI: 1.19,6.35] all had higher odds of experiencing MNM. Conclusions: The Government of Ethiopia should continue its effort to address the lack of road and health facility access as well as education, which will help reduce MNM. Work should also be continued to educate women and providers about common predictors of MNM like the history of C-section, chronic illness, and teenage pregnancy. These efforts should be carried out at the facility, community, and individual levels. The targeted follow-up to women with a history of chronic disease and C-section could also be a practical way to reduce MNM.

Keywords: maternal near miss, severe obstetric hemorrhage, hypertensive disorder, c-section, Tigray, Ethiopia

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10 Mosquito Repellent Finishing of Cotton Using Pepper Tree (Schinus molle) Seed Oil Extract

Authors: Granch Berhe Tseghai, Tekalgn Gebremedhin Belay, Abrehaley Hagos Gebremariam

Abstract:

Mosquito repellent textiles are one of the most growing ways to advance the textile field by providing the needed characteristics of protecting against mosquitoes, especially in the tropical areas. These types of textiles ensure the protection of human beings from the mosquitoes and the mosquito-borne disease includes malaria, filariasis and dengue fever. In this work Schinus Molle oil (pepper tree oil) was used for mosquito repellent finish as a preformatted thing. This study focused on the penetration of mosquito repellent finish in textile applications as well as nature based alternatives to commercial chemical mosquito repellents in the market. Suitable techniques and materials to achieve mosquito repellency are discussed and pointed out according to our project. In this study textile, sample was treated with binder and schinus oil. The different property has been studied for effective mosquito repellency.

Keywords: cotton, Schinus molle seed oil, mosquito repellent, mosquito-borne diseases

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9 Surface Modification of Cotton Using Slaughterhouse Wastes

Authors: Granch Berhe Tseghai, Lodrick Wangatia Makokha

Abstract:

Cotton dyeing using reactive dyes is one of the major water polluter; this is due to large amount of dye and salt remaining in effluent. Recent adverse climate change and its associated effect to human life have lead to search for more sustainable industrial production. Cationization of cotton to improve its affinity for reactive dye has been earmarked as a major solution for dyeing of cotton with no or less salt. Synthetic cationizing agents of ammonium salt have already been commercialized. However, in nature there are proteinous products which are rich in amino and ammonium salts which can be carefully harnessed to be used as cationizing agent for cotton. The hoofs and horns have successfully been used to cationize cotton so as to improve cotton affinity to the dye. The cationization action of the hoof and horn extract on cotton was confirmed by dyeing the pretreated fabric without salt and comparing it with conventionally dyed and untreated salt free dyed fabric. UV-VIS absorption results showed better dye absorption (62.5% and 50% dye bath exhaustion percentage for cationized and untreated respectively) while K/S values of treated samples were similar to conventional sample.

Keywords: cationization, cotton, proteinous products, reactive dyes

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8 Progressive Multimedia Collection Structuring via Scene Linking

Authors: Aman Berhe, Camille Guinaudeau, Claude Barras

Abstract:

In order to facilitate information seeking in large collections of multimedia documents with long and progressive content (such as broadcast news or TV series), one can extract the semantic links that exist between semantically coherent parts of documents, i.e., scenes. The links can then create a coherent collection of scenes from which it is easier to perform content analysis, topic extraction, or information retrieval. In this paper, we focus on TV series structuring and propose two approaches for scene linking at different levels of granularity (episode and season): a fuzzy online clustering technique and a graph-based community detection algorithm. When evaluated on the two first seasons of the TV series Game of Thrones, we found that the fuzzy online clustering approach performed better compared to graph-based community detection at the episode level, while graph-based approaches show better performance at the season level.

Keywords: multimedia collection structuring, progressive content, scene linking, fuzzy clustering, community detection

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7 Design and Development of Morphological Analyzer for Tigrigna Nouns Using Finite State Transducer Techniques

Authors: Gebremeskel Hagos Gebremedhin, Feng Chong, Huang Heyan

Abstract:

A morphological analyzer is an important component of most natural language processing tasks. It is the process of returning one or more surface forms from a sequence of underlying (lexical) forms, can provide fine-grained parts of speech information, and help resolve necessary syntactic agreements. It is used to analyze surface word forms, which are the ones that are found in everyday communication, is the segmentation of words into their component morphemes and the assignment of grammatical morphemes to grammatical categories and lexical morphemes to lexemes. In addition, morphological analysis systems are used as components in many applications, including machine translation, spell-checker, speech recognition, lexicon compilation, POS tagging, conversational systems, automatic sentence construction, and many others. Morphological analyzers have been developed for many local/European languages like English and Amharic. However, there is no such system for Tigrigna. This study develops a rule-based morphological analyzer for Tigrigna nouns. A rule-based morphological analyzer is designed and developed based on the Finite State Transducer Techniques. The FOMA tool is employed for the experiment analysis. The performance of the system is 82.85%. The result obtained encourages the undertaking of further research in the area, especially with the aim of developing a full-fledged Tigrigna morphological analyzer.

Keywords: morphology, Tigrigna, finite state transducer, finite state automata, FOMA

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6 Modeling Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield in Geba Catchment, Ethiopia

Authors: Gebremedhin Kiros, Amba Shetty, Lakshman Nandagiri

Abstract:

Soil erosion is a major threat to the sustainability of land and water resources in the catchment and there is a need to identify critical areas of erosion so that suitable conservation measures may be adopted. The present study was taken up to understand the temporal and spatial distribution of soil erosion and daily sediment yield in Geba catchment (5137 km2) located in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the Geba catchment using data pertaining to rainfall, climate, soils, topography and land use/land cover (LU/LC) for the historical period 2000-2013. LU/LC distribution in the catchment was characterized using LANDSAT satellite imagery and the GIS-based ArcSWAT version of the model. The model was calibrated and validated using sediment concentration measurements made at the catchment outlet. The catchment was divided into 13 sub-basins and based on estimated soil erosion, these were prioritized on the basis of susceptibility to soil erosion. Model results indicated that the average sediment yield estimated of the catchment was 12.23 tons/ha/yr. The generated soil loss map indicated that a large portion of the catchment has high erosion rates resulting in significantly large sediment yield at the outlet. Steep and unstable terrain, the occurrence of highly erodible soils and low vegetation cover appeared to favor high soil erosion. Results obtained from this study prove useful in adopting in targeted soil and water conservation measures and promote sustainable management of natural resources in the Geba and similar catchments in the region.

Keywords: Ethiopia, Geba catchment, MUSLE, sediment yield, SWAT Model

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5 The Ethio-Eritrea Claims Commission on Use of Force: Issue of Self-Defense or Violation of Sovereignty

Authors: Isaias Teklia Berhe

Abstract:

A decision that deals with international disputes, be it arbitral or judicial, has to properly reflect objectivity and coherence with existing rules of international law. This paper shows the decision of the Ethio-Eritrea Claims Commission on the jus ad bellum case is bereft of objectivity and coherence, which contributed a disservice to international law on many aspects. The Commission’s decision that holds Eritrea in contravention to Art 2(4) of the UN Charter based on Ethiopia’s contention is flawed. It fails to consider: the illegitimacy of an actual authority established over contested territory through hostile acts, the proper determination of effectivites under international law, the sanctity of colonially determined boundaries, Ethiopia’s prior firm political recognition and undergirds to respect colonial boundary, and Ethio-Eritrea Border Commission’s decision. The paper will also argue that the Commission confused Eritrea’s right of self-defense with the rule against the non-use of force to settle territorial disputes; wherefore its decision sanitizes or sterilizes unlawful change of territory resulted through unlawful use of force to the effect of advantaging aggressions. The paper likewise argues that the decision is so sacrilegious that it disregards the ossified legal finality of colonial boundaries. Moreover, its approach toward armed attack does not reflect the peculiarity of the jus ad bellum case rather it brings about definitional uncertainties and sustains the perception that the law on self-defense is unsettled.

Keywords: armed attack, Eritrea, Ethiopia, self-defense, territorial integrity, use of force

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4 Performance of Visual Inspection Using Acetic Acid for Cervical Cancer Screening as Compared to HPV DNA Testingin Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Agajie Likie Bogale, Tilahun Teklehaymanot, Getnet Mitike Kassie, Girmay Medhin, Jemal Haidar Ali, Nega Berhe Belay

Abstract:

Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of visual inspection using acetic acid compared with HPV DNA testing among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Methods: Acomparative cross-sectional study was conducted to address the aforementioned objective. Data were collected from January to October 2021 to compare the performance of these two screening modalities. Trained clinicians collected cervical specimens and immediately applied acetic acid for visual inspection. The HPV DNA testing was done using Abbott m2000rt/SP by trained laboratory professionals in accredited laboratories. A total of 578 HIV positive women with age 25-49 years were included. Results: Test positivity was 8.9% using VIA and 23.3% using HPV DNA test. The sensitivity and specificity of the VIA test were 19.2% and 95.1%, respectively, while the positive and negative predictive values of the VIA test were 54.4% and 79.4%, respectively. The strength of agreement between the two screening methods was poor (k=0.184), and the area under the curve was 0.572. The burden of genetic distribution of high risk HPV16 was 3.8%, and mixed HPV16& other HR HPV was 1.9%. Other high risk HPV types were predominant in this study (15.7%). Conclusion: The high positivity result using HPV DNA testing compared with VIA, and low sensitivity of VIA are indicating that the implementation of HPV DNA testing as the primary screening strategy is likely to reduce cervical cancer cases and deaths of women in the country.

Keywords: cervical cancer screening, HPV DNA, VIA, Ethiopia

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3 The Impact of Blended Learning on Developing the students' Writing Skills and the Perception of Instructors and Students: Hawassa University in Focus

Authors: Mulu G. Gencha, Gebremedhin Simon, Menna Olango

Abstract:

This study was conducted at Hawassa University (HwU) in the Southern Nation Nationalities Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS) of Ethiopia. The prime concern of this study was to examine the writing performances of experimental and control group students, perception of experimental group students, and subject instructors. The course was blended learning (BL). Blended learning is a hybrid of classroom and on-line learning. Participants were eighty students from the School of Computer Science. Forty students attended the BL delivery involved using Face-to-Face (FTF) and campus-based online instruction. All instructors, fifty, of School of Language and Communication Studies along with 10 FGD members participated in the study. The experimental group went to the computer lab two times a week for four months, March-June, 2012, using the local area network (LAN), and software (MOODLE) writing program. On the other hand, the control group, forty students, took the FTF writing course five times a week for four months in similar academic calendar. The three instruments, the attitude questionnaire, tests and FGD were designed to identify views of students, instructors, and FGD participants on BL. At the end of the study, students’ final course scores were evaluated. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests. A statistically, significant difference was found between the FTF and BL (p<0.05). The analysis showed that the BL group was more successful than the conventional group. Besides, both instructors and students had positive attitude towards BL. The final section of the thesis showed the potential benefits and challenges, considering the pedagogical implications for the BL, and recommended possible avenues for further works.

Keywords: blended learning, computer attitudes, computer usefulness, computer liking, computer confidence, computer phobia

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2 Development and Validation of Integrated Continuous Improvement Framework for Competitiveness: Mixed Research of Ethiopian Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Haftu Hailu Berhe, Hailekiros Sibhato Gebremichael, Kinfe Tsegay Beyene, Haileselassie Mehari

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to develop and validate integrated literature-based JIT, TQM, TPM, SCM and LSS framework through a combination of the PDCA cycle and DMAIC methodology. The study adopted a mixed research approach. Accordingly, the qualitative study employed to develop the framework is based on identifying the uniqueness and common practices of JIT, TQM, TPM, SCM and LSS initiatives, the existing practice of the integration, identifying the existing gaps in the framework and practices, developing new integrated JIT, TQM, TPM, SCM and LSS practice framework. Previous very few studies of the uniqueness and common practices of the five initiatives are preserved. Whereas the quantitative study working to validate the framework is based on empirical analysis of the self-administered questionnaire using a statistical package for social science. A combination of the PDCA cycle and DMAIC methodology stand integrated CI framework is developed. The proposed framework is constructed as a project-based framework with five detailed implementation phases. Besides, the empirical analysis demonstrated that the proposed framework is valuable if adopted and implemented correctly. So far, there is no study proposed & validated the integrated CI framework within the scope of the study. Therefore, this is the earliest study that proposed and validated the framework for manufacturing industries. The proposed framework is applicable to manufacturing industries and can assist in achieving competitive advantages when the manufacturing industries, institutions and government offer unconditional efforts in implementing the full contents of the framework.

Keywords: integrated continuous improvement framework, just in time, total quality management, total productive maintenance, supply chain management, lean six sigma

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1 Effect of N2-cold Plasma Treatment of Carbon Supports on the Activity of Pt3Pd3Sn2/C Towards the Dimethyl Ether Oxidation

Authors: Medhanie Gebremedhin Gebru, Alex Schechter

Abstract:

Dimethyl ether (DME) possesses several advantages over other small organic molecules such as methanol, ethanol, and ammonia in terms of providing higher energy density, being less toxic, and having lower Nafion membrane crossover. However, the absence of an active and stable catalyst has been the bottleneck that hindered the commercialization of direct DME fuel cells. A Vulcan XC72 carbon-supported ternary metal catalyst, Pt₃Pd₃Sn₂/C is reported to have yielded the highest specific power density (90 mW mg-¹PGM) as compared to other catalysts tested fordirect DME fuel cell (DDMEFC). However, the micropores and sulfur groups present in Vulcan XC72 hinder the fuel utilization by causing Pt agglomeration and sulfur poisoning. Vulcan XC72 having a high carbon sp³ hybridization content, is also prone to corrosion. Therefore, carbon supports such as multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), black pearl 2000 (BP2000), and their cold N2 plasma-treated counterpartswere tested to further enhance the activity of the catalyst, and the outputs with these carbons were compared with the originally used support. Detailed characterization of the pristine and carbon supports was conducted. Electrochemical measurements in three-electrode cells and laboratory prototype fuel cells were conducted.Pt₃Pd₃Sn₂/BP2000 exhibited excellent performance in terms of electrochemical active surface area (ECSA), peak current density (jp), and DME oxidation charge (Qoxi). The effect of the plasma activation on the activity improvement was observed only in the case of MWCNT while having little or no effect on the other carbons. A Pt₃Pd₃Sn₂ supported on the optimized mixture of carbons containing 75% plasma-activated MWCNT and 25% BP2000 (Pt₃Pd₃Sn₂/75M25B) provided the highest reported power density of 117 mW mg-1PGM using an anode loading of1.55 mgPGMcm⁻².

Keywords: DME, DDMEFC, ternary metal catalyst, carbon support, plasma activation

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