Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: miscibility gap

26 Comparative Evaluation of Vanishing Interfacial Tension Approach for Minimum Miscibility Pressure Determination

Authors: Waqar Ahmad Butt, Gholamreza Vakili Nezhaad, Ali Soud Al Bemani, Yahya Al Wahaibi


Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) plays a great role in determining the displacement efficiency of different gas injection processes. Experimental techniques for MMP determination include industrially recommended slim tube, vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) and rising bubble apparatus (RBA). In this paper, MMP measurement study using slim tube and VIT experimental techniques for two different crude oil samples (M and N) both in live and stock tank oil forms is being presented. VIT measured MMP values for both 'M' and 'N' live crude oils were close to slim tube determined MMP values with 6.4 and 5 % deviation respectively. Whereas for both oil samples in stock tank oil form, VIT measured MMP showed a higher unacceptable deviation from slim tube determined MMP. This higher difference appears to be related to high stabilized crude oil heavier fraction and lack of multiple contacts miscibility. None of the different nine deployed crude oil and CO2 MMP computing correlations could result in reliable MMP, close to slim tube determined MMP. Since VIT determined MMP values for both considered live crude oils are in close match with slim tube determined MMP values, it confirms reliable, reproducible, rapid and cheap alternative for live crude oil MMP determination. Whereas VIT MMP determination for stock tank oil case needed further investigation about stabilization / destabilization mechanism of oil heavier ends and multiple contacts miscibility development issues.

Keywords: minimum miscibility pressure, interfacial tension, multiple contacts miscibility, heavier ends

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25 Study of Cahn-Hilliard Equation to Simulate Phase Separation

Authors: Nara Guimarães, Marcelo Aquino Martorano, Douglas Gouvêa


An investigation into Cahn-Hilliard equation was carried out through numerical simulation to identify a possible phase separation for one and two dimensional domains. It was observed that this equation can reproduce important mass fluxes necessary for phase separation within the miscibility gap and for coalescence of particles.

Keywords: Cahn-Hilliard equation, miscibility gap, phase separation, dimensional domains

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24 Uniqueness and Repeatability Analysis for Slim Tube Determined Minimum Miscibility Pressure

Authors: Waqar Ahmad Butt, Gholamreza Vakili Nezhaad, Ali Soud Al Bemani, Yahya Al Wahaibi


Miscible gas injection processes as secondary recovery methods can be applied to a huge number of mature reservoirs to improve the trapped oil displacement. Successful miscible gas injection processes require an accurate estimation of the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) to make injection process feasible, economical, and effective. There are several methods of MMP determination like slim tube approach, vanishing interfacial tension and rising bubble apparatus but slim tube is the deployed experimental technique in this study. Slim tube method is assumed to be non-standardized for MMP determination with respect to both operating procedure and design. Therefore, 25 slim tube runs were being conducted with three different coil lengths (12, 18 and 24 m) of constant diameter using three different injection rates (0.08, 0.1 and 0.15 cc/min) to evaluate uniqueness and repeatability of determined MMP. A trend of decrease in MMP with increase in coil length was found. No unique trend was found between MMP and injection rate. Lowest MMP and highest recovery were observed with highest coil length and lowest injection rate. It shows that slim tube measured MMP does not depend solely on interacting fluids characteristics but also affected by used coil selection and injection rate choice. Therefore, both slim tube design and procedure need to be standardized. It is recommended to use lowest possible injection rate and estimated coil length depending upon the distance between injections and producing wells for accurate and reliable MMP determination.

Keywords: coil length, injection rate, minimum miscibility pressure, multiple contacts miscibility

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23 From Homogeneous to Phase Separated UV-Cured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks: Influence of the System Composition on Properties and Microstructure

Authors: Caroline Rocco, Feyza Karasu, Céline Croutxé-Barghorn, Xavier Allonas, Maxime Lecompère, Gérard Riess, Yujing Zhang, Catarina Esteves, Leendert van der Ven, Rolf van Benthem Gijsbertus de With


Acrylates are widely used in UV-curing technology. Their high reactivity can, however, limit their conversion due to early vitrification. In addition, the free radical photopolymerization is known to be sensitive to oxygen inhibition leading to tacky surfaces. Although epoxides can lead to full polymerization, they are sensitive to humidity and exhibit low polymerization rate. To overcome the intrinsic limitations of both classes of monomers, Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) can be synthesized. They consist of at least two cross linked polymers which are permanently entangled. They can be achieved under thermal and/or light induced polymerization in one or two steps approach. IPNs can display homogeneous to heterogeneous morphologies with various degrees of phase separation strongly linked to the monomer miscibility and also synthesis parameters. In this presentation, we synthesize UV-cured methacrylate - epoxide based IPNs with different chemical compositions in order to get a better understanding of their formation and phase separation. Miscibility before and during the photopolymerization, reaction kinetics, as well as mechanical properties and morphology have been investigated. The key parameters controlling the morphology and the phase separation, namely monomer miscibility and synthesis parameters have been identified. By monitoring the stiffness changes on the film surface, atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) gave, in conjunction with polymerization kinetic profiles and thermomechanical properties, explanations and corroborated the miscibility predictions. When varying the methacrylate / epoxide ratio, it was possible to move from a miscible and highly-interpenetrated IPN to a totally immiscible and phase-separated one.

Keywords: investigation of properties and morphology, kinetics, phase separation, UV-cured IPNs

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22 Release of PVA from PVA/PA Compounds into Water Solutions

Authors: J. Klofac, P. Bazant, I. Kuritka


This work is focused on the preparation of polymeric blend composed of polyamide (PA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with the intention to explore its basic characteristics important for potential use in medicine, especially for drug delivery systems. PA brings brilliant mechanical properties to the blend while PVA is inevitable due to its water solubility. Blend with different PA/PVA ratios were prepared and the release study of PVA into the water was carried out in a time interval 0-48 hours via the gravimetric method. The weight decrease is caused by the leaching of PVA domains what can be also followed by the optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the thermal properties and the miscibility of blend components were evaluated by the differential scanning calorimeter. On the bases of performed experiments, it was found that the kinetics, continuity development and micro structure features of PA/PVA blends is strongly dependent on the blend composition and miscibility of its components.

Keywords: releas study, polyvinyl alcohol, polyamide morphology, polymeric blend

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21 Compatibilization of Polymer Blends based on Recycled High-Density Polyethylene and Low-Density Polyethylene

Authors: Hniya Kharmoudi, Said Elkoun


In the literature, the elaboration of polymer blends based on recycled HDPE and LDPE is challenging because of the nonmiscibility of the molecules. Ensuring the compatibility and the miscibility of blends is a must to have the best mechanical properties, this article will discuss the different methods to be adopted to assess the compatibility of polymer blends. (a) The first one aims to act on the extrusion process while varying the speed, flow rate, and residence time. (b) This method consists of incorporating additives such as Kevlar and graphene, (c) The last method has as its purpose the use of grafted anhydride maleic elastomer chains as a compatibilizer. The results of the formulations will be characterized via dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) as well as mechanical tensile and bending tests to assess whether pipes made from recycled polyethylene meet the standards.

Keywords: compatibility, miscibility, extrusion, additives, compatibilizer, grafted anhydride maleic, DMA, DSC, mechanical properties, recycled polyethylene

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20 Artificial Intelligence Methods in Estimating the Minimum Miscibility Pressure Required for Gas Flooding

Authors: Emad A. Mohammed


Utilizing the capabilities of Data Mining and Artificial Intelligence in the prediction of the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) required for multi-contact miscible (MCM) displacement of reservoir petroleum by hydrocarbon gas flooding using Fuzzy Logic models and Artificial Neural Network models will help a lot in giving accurate results. The factors affecting the (MMP) as it is proved from the literature and from the dataset are as follows: XC2-6: Intermediate composition in the oil-containing C2-6, CO2 and H2S, in mole %, XC1: Amount of methane in the oil (%),T: Temperature (°C), MwC7+: Molecular weight of C7+ (g/mol), YC2+: Mole percent of C2+ composition in injected gas (%), MwC2+: Molecular weight of C2+ in injected gas. Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks have been used widely in prediction and classification, with relatively high accuracy, in different fields of study. It is well known that the Fuzzy Inference system can handle uncertainty within the inputs such as in our case. The results of this work showed that our proposed models perform better with higher performance indices than other emprical correlations.

Keywords: MMP, gas flooding, artificial intelligence, correlation

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19 New Formulation of FFS3 Layered Blown Films Containing Toughened Polypropylene and Plastomer with Superior Properties

Authors: S. Talebnezhad, S. Pourmahdian, D. Soudbar, M. Khosravani, J. Merasi


Adding toughened polypropylene and plastomer in FFS 3 layered blown film formulation resulted in superior dart impact and MD tear resistance along with acceptable tensile properties in TD and MD. The optimum loading of toughened polypropylene and plastomer in each layer depends on miscibility of polypropylene in polyethylene medium, mechanical properties, welding characteristics in bags top and bottoms and friction coefficient of film surfaces. Film property tests and efficiency of FFS machinery during processing in industrial scale showed that about 4% loading of plastomer and 16% of toughened polypropylene (reactor grade) in middle layer and loading of 0-1% plastomer and 5-19% of toughened polypropylene in other layers results optimum characteristics in the formulation based on 1-butene LLDPE grade with MFR of 0.9 and LDPE grade with MFI of 0.3. Both the plastomer and toughened polypropylene had the MFI of blow 1 and the TiO2 and processing aid masterbatches loading was 2%. The friction coefficient test results also represented the anti-block masterbatch could be omitted from formulation with adding toughened polypropylene due to partial miscibility of PP in PE which makes the surface of films somewhat bristly.

Keywords: FFS 3 layered blown film, toughened polypropylene, plastomer, dart impact, tear resistance

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18 Interfacial Adhesion and Properties Improvement of Polyethylene/Thermoplastic Starch Blend Compatibilized by Stearic Acid-Grafted-Starch

Authors: Nattaporn Khanoonkon, Rangrong Yoksan, Amod A. Ogale


Polyethylene (PE) is one of the most petroleum-based thermoplastic materials used in many applications including packaging due to its cheap, light-weight, chemically inert and capable to be converted into various shapes and sizes of products. Although PE is a commercially potential material, its non-biodegradability caused environmental problems. At present, bio-based polymers become more interesting owing to its bio-degradability, non-toxicity, and renewability as well as being eco-friendly. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) is a bio-based and biodegradable plastic produced from the plasticization of starch under applying heat and shear force. In many researches, TPS was blended with petroleum-based polymers including PE in order to reduce the cost and the use of those polymers. However, the phase separation between hydrophobic PE and hydrophilic TPS limited the amount of TPS incorporated. The immiscibility of two different polarity polymers can be diminished by adding compatibilizer. PE-based compatibilizers, e.g. polyethylene-grafted-maleic anhydride, polyethylene-co-vinyl alcohol, etc. have been applied for the PE/TPS blend system in order to improve their miscibility. Until now, there is no report about the utilization of starch-based compatibilizer for PE/TPS blend system. The aims of the present research were therefore to synthesize a new starch-based compatibilizer, i.e. stearic acid-grafted starch (SA-g-starch) and to study the effect of SA-g-starch on chemical interaction, morphological properties, tensile properties and water vapor as well as oxygen barrier properties of the PE/TPS blend films. PE/TPS blends without and with incorporating SA-g-starch with a content of 1, 3 and 5 part(s) per hundred parts of starch (phr) were prepared using a twin screw extruder and then blown into films using a film blowing machine. Incorporating 1 phr and 3 phr of SA-g-starch could improve miscibility of the two polymers as confirmed from the reduction of TPS phase size and the good dispersion of TPS phase in PE matrix. In addition, the blend containing SA-g-starch with contents of 1 phr and 3 phr exhibited higher tensile strength and extensibility, as well as lower water vapor and oxygen permeabilities than the naked blend. The above results suggested that SA-g-starch could be potentially applied as a compatibilizer for the PE/TPS blend system.

Keywords: blend, compatibilizer, polyethylene, thermoplastic starch

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17 Reactive Blending of Thermoplastic Starch, Ethylene-1-Butene Rubber, and Chitosan

Authors: Kittisak Jantanasakulwong, Toshiaki Ougizawa


Thermoplastic starch (TPS) was prepared by melt-blending of cassava starch with glycerol (70/30 wt%/wt%) at 130 ◦C for 10 min. Chitosan (CTS) was used as a compatibilizer. TPS/CTS blend was melt-blended with maleic anhydride grafted ethylene-1-butene rubber (EB-MAH) in the composition of 80/20 respectively. Addition of CTS in TPS/EB-MAH blend decreased particles size of EB-MAH rubber to 1µm in TPS matrix. Mechanical properties, solubility, swelling property, morphology, and water contact angle of TPS/EB-MAH blend were improved by CTS incorporation. FTIR confirmed a reaction had occurred between amino groups (-NH2) of CTS and the MAH groups of EB-MAH. This reaction and the enhanced miscibility between TPS and CTS improved morphology and properties of the TPS/EB-MAH/CTS blend.

Keywords: thermoplastic starch, rubber, reactive blending, chitosan

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16 Sintering of YNbO3:Eu3+ Compound: Correlation between Luminescence and Spark Plasma Sintering Effect

Authors: Veronique Jubera, Ka-Young Kim, U-Chan Chung, Amelie Veillere, Jean-Marc Heintz


Emitting materials and all solid state lasers are widely used in the field of optical applications and materials science as a source of excitement, instrumental measurements, medical applications, metal shaping etc. Recently promising optical efficiencies were recorded on ceramics which result from a cheaper and faster ways to obtain crystallized materials. The choice and optimization of the sintering process is the key point to fabricate transparent ceramics. It includes a high control on the preparation of the powder with the choice of an adequate synthesis, a pre-heat-treatment, the reproducibility of the sintering cycle, the polishing and post-annealing of the ceramic. The densification is the main factor needed to reach a satisfying transparency, and many technologies are now available. The symmetry of the unit cell plays a crucial role in the diffusion rate of the material. Therefore, the cubic symmetry compounds having an isotropic refractive index is preferred. The cubic Y3NbO7 matrix is an interesting host which can accept a high concentration of rare earth doping element and it has been demonstrated that SPS is an efficient way to sinter this material. The optimization of diffusion losses requires a microstructure of fine ceramics, generally less than one hundred nanometers. In this case, grain growth is not an obstacle to transparency. The ceramics properties are then isotropic thereby to free-shaping step by orienting the ceramics as this is the case for the compounds of lower symmetry. After optimization of the synthesis route, several SPS parameters as heating rate, holding, dwell time and pressure were adjusted in order to increase the densification of the Eu3+ doped Y3NbO7 pellets. The luminescence data coupled with X-Ray diffraction analysis and electronic diffraction microscopy highlight the existence of several distorted environments of the doping element in the studied defective fluorite-type host lattice. Indeed, the fast and high crystallization rate obtained to put in evidence a lack of miscibility in the phase diagram, being the final composition of the pellet driven by the ratio between niobium and yttrium elements. By following the luminescence properties, we demonstrate a direct impact on the SPS process on this material.

Keywords: emission, niobate of rare earth, Spark plasma sintering, lack of miscibility

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15 Mechanical Properties of Recycled Plasticized PVB/PVC Blends

Authors: Michael Tupý, Dagmar Měřínská, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Christian Carrot, Caroline Pillon, Vít Petránek


The mechanical properties of blends consisting of plasticized poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) are studied, in order to evaluate the possibility of using recycled PVB waste derived from windshields. PVC was plasticized with 38% of diisononyl phthalate (DINP), while PVB was plasticized with 28% of triethylene glycol, bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (3GO). The optimal process conditions for the PVB/PVC blend in 1:1 ratio were determined. Entropy was used in order to theoretically predict the blends miscibility. The PVB content of each blend composition used was ranging from zero to 100%. Tensile strength and strain were tested. In addition, a comparison between recycled and original PVB, used as constituents of the blend, was performed.

Keywords: poly(vinyl butyral), poly(vinyl chloride), windshield, polymer waste, mechanical properties

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14 Fabrication of Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile Blend and SEMI-IPN Hydrogel with Epichlorohydrin

Authors: Muhammad Omer Aijaz, Sajjad Haider, Fahad S. Al Mubddal, Yousef Al-Zeghayer, Waheed A. Al Masry


The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan-based blend and Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (SEMI-IPN) with polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Blend Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hydrogel films were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. Chitosan in the blend was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare SEMI-IPN. The developed Chitosan/PAN blend and SEMI-IPN hydrogels were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA, and DSC. The result showed good miscibility between chitosan and PAN, crosslinking of chitosan in the blend, and improved thermal properties for SEMI-IPN. The swelling of the different blended and SEMI-IPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature. Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (2400%) and fair degree of stability (28%) whereas SEMI-IPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (244%) and high degree of aqueous stability (85.5%).

Keywords: polymer hydrogels, chitosan, SEMI-IPN, polyacrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin

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13 Optimization of Bio-Diesel Production from Rubber Seed Oils

Authors: Pawit Tangviroon, Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul


Rubber seed oil is an attractive alternative feedstock for biodiesel production because it is not related to food-chain plant. Rubber seed oil contains large amount of free fatty acids, which causes problem in biodiesel production. Free fatty acids can react with alkaline catalyst in biodiesel production. Acid esterification is used as pre-treatment to convert unwanted compound to desirable biodiesel. Phase separation of oil and methanol occurs at low ratio of methanol to oil and causes low reaction rate and conversion. Acid esterification requires large excess of methanol in order to increase the miscibility of methanol in oil and accordingly, it is a more expensive separation process. In this work, the kinetics of esterification of rubber seed oil with methanol is developed from available experimental results. Reactive distillation process was designed by using Aspen Plus program. The effects of operating parameters such as feed ratio, molar reflux ratio, feed temperature, and feed stage are investigated in order to find the optimum conditions. Results show that the reactive distillation process is proved to be better than conventional process. It consumes less feed methanol and less energy while yielding higher product purity than the conventional process. This work can be used as a guideline for further development to industrial scale of biodiesel production using reactive distillation.

Keywords: biodiesel, reactive distillation, rubber seed oil, transesterification

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12 Ultrathin Tin-Silicalite 1 Zeolite Membrane in Ester Solvent Recovery

Authors: Kun Liang Ang, Eng Toon Saw, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna


Ester solvents are widely used in pharmaceutical, printing and flavor industry due to their good miscibility, low toxicity, and high volatility. Through pervaporation, these ester solvents can be recovered from industrial wastewater. While metal-doped silicalite 1 zeolite membranes are commonly used in organic solvent recovery in the pervaporation process, these ceramic membranes suffer from low membrane permeation flux, mainly due to the high thickness of the metal-doped zeolite membrane. Herein, a simple method of fabricating an ultrathin tin-silicalite 1 membrane supported on alumina tube is reported. This ultrathin membrane is able to achieve high permeation flux and separation factor for an ester in a diluted aqueous solution. Nanosized tin-Silicalite 1 seeds which are smaller than 500nm has been formed through hydrothermal synthesis. The sn-Silicalite 1 seeds were then seeded onto alumina tube through dip coating, and the tin-Silicalite 1 membrane was then formed by hydrothermal synthesis in an autoclave through secondary growth method. Multiple membrane synthesis factors such as seed size, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection, and secondary growth conditions were studied for their effects on zeolite membrane growth. The microstructure, morphology and the membrane thickness of tin-Silicalite 1 zeolite membrane were examined. The membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, pervaporation, solvent recovery, Sn-MFI zeolite

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11 Statistical Mechanical Approach in Modeling of Hybrid Solar Cells for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: A. E. Kobryn


We present both descriptive and predictive modeling of structural properties of blends of PCBM or organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites of the type CH3NH3PbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) with P3HT, P3BT or squaraine SQ2 dye sensitizer, including adsorption on TiO2 clusters having rutile (110) surface. In our study, we use a methodology that allows computing the microscopic structure of blends on the nanometer scale and getting insight on miscibility of its components at various thermodynamic conditions. The methodology is based on the integral equation theory of molecular liquids in the reference interaction site representation/model (RISM) and uses the universal force field. Input parameters for RISM, such as optimized molecular geometries and charge distribution of interaction sites, are derived with the use of the density functional theory methods. To compare the diffusivity of the PCBM in binary blends with P3HT and P3BT, respectively, the study is complemented with MD simulation. A very good agreement with experiment and the reports of alternative modeling or simulation is observed for PCBM in P3HT system. The performance of P3BT with perovskites, however, seems as expected. The calculated nanoscale morphologies of blends of P3HT, P3BT or SQ2 with perovskites, including adsorption on TiO2, are all new and serve as an instrument in rational design of organic/hybrid photovoltaics. They are used in collaboration with experts who actually make prototypes or devices for practical applications.

Keywords: multiscale theory and modeling, nanoscale morphology, organic-inorganic halide perovskites, three dimensional distribution

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10 Active Food Packaging Films Based on Functionalized Graphene/Polymer Composites

Authors: Ahmad Ghanem, Mohamad Yasin, Mona Abdel Rehim, Fabrice Gouanve, Eliane Espuche


Biodegradable polymers are of great interest, especially for biomedical and packaging applications. Current research efforts are focused on the development of biopolymers with the purpose of reducing the plastic pollution induced by the widely used in biodegradable polyolefins. The main challenge is focused on the elaboration of biopolymers having properties competitive to those of polyolefins. On the other hand, graphene oxide (GO), a graphene derivative, is characterized by the presence of several functional groups on the surface such as carboxylic, hydroxyl and epoxide. This feature enables modification of GO surface with different modifiers to obtain versatile surface properties and overcome the problem of graphene sheets aggregations during inclusion in a polymer matrix. In this context, poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) as promising biopolyester is modified through blending with different ratios of functionalized (GO) to improve its barrier properties. Modification of GO has been carried out using different hyperbranched polymeric structures in order to increase miscibility of the nanosheets in the hosting polymeric matrix. Films have been prepared from the modified PBS and their mechanical, thermal and gas barrier properties were investigated. The results reveal enhancement in the thermal and mechanical properties beside observed improvement of the barrier properties for the films prepared from the modified PBS. This improvement is related to the strong dependence on tortuosity effects of dispersion, exfoliation levels of fillers into the polymer matrix and interactions between the fillers and the polymer matrix.

Keywords: gas barrier properties, graphene oxide, food packaging, transport properties

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9 Synthesis of New Bio-Based Solid Polymer Electrolyte Polyurethane-Liclo4 via Prepolymerization Method: Effect of NCO/OH Ratio on Their Chemical, Thermal Properties and Ionic Conductivity

Authors: C. S. Wong, K. H. Badri, N. Ataollahi, K. P. Law, M. S. Su’ait, N. I. Hassan


Novel bio-based polymer electrolyte was synthesized with LiClO4 as the main source of charge carrier. Initially, polyurethane-LiClO4 polymer electrolytes were synthesized via polymerization method with different NCO/OH ratios and labelled as PU1, PU2, PU3, and PU4. Subsequently, the chemical, thermal properties and ionic conductivity of the films produced were determined. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicates the co-ordination between Li+ ion and polyurethane in PU1 due to the greatest amount of hard segment of polyurethane in PU1 as proven by soxhlet analysis. The structures of polyurethanes were confirmed by 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) and FTIR spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicates PU 1 has the highest glass transition temperature (Tg) corresponds to the most abundant urethane group which is the hard segment in PU1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the PU-LiClO4 shows the good miscibility between lithium salt and the polymer. The study found that PU1 possessed the greatest ionic conductivity (1.19 × 10-7 at 298 K and 5.01 × 10-5 at 373 K) and the lowest activation energy, Ea (0.32 eV) due to the greatest amount of hard segment formed in PU 1 induces the coordination between lithium ion and oxygen atom of carbonyl group in polyurethane. All the polyurethanes exhibited linear Arrhenius variations indicating ion transport via simple lithium ion hopping in polyurethane. This research proves the NCO content in polyurethane plays an important role in affecting the ionic conductivity of this polymer electrolyte.

Keywords: ionic conductivity, palm kernel oil-based monoester-OH, polyurethane, solid polymer electrolyte

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8 Preparation of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced HDPE Using Dialkylimidazolium as a Dispersing Agent: Effect on Thermal and Rheological Properties

Authors: J. Samuel, S. Al-Enezi, A. Al-Banna


High-density polyethylene reinforced with carbon nanofibers (HDPE/CNF) have been prepared via melt processing using dialkylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (ionic liquid) as a dispersion agent. The prepared samples were characterized by thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses. The samples blended with imidazolium ionic liquid exhibit higher thermal stability. DSC analysis showed clear miscibility of ionic liquid in the HDPE matrix and showed single endothermic peak. The melt rheological analysis of HDPE/CNF composites was performed using an oscillatory rheometer. The influence of CNF and ionic liquid concentration (ranging from 0, 0.5, and 1 wt%) on the viscoelastic parameters was investigated at 200 °C with an angular frequency range of 0.1 to 100 rad/s. The rheological analysis shows the shear-thinning behavior for the composites. An improvement in the viscoelastic properties was observed as the nanofiber concentration increases. The progress in the modulus values was attributed to the structural rigidity imparted by the high aspect ratio CNF. The modulus values and complex viscosity of the composites increased significantly at low frequencies. Composites blended with ionic liquid exhibit slightly lower values of complex viscosity and modulus over the corresponding HDPE/CNF compositions. Therefore, reduction in melt viscosity is an additional benefit for polymer composite processing as a result of wetting effect by polymer-ionic liquid combinations.

Keywords: high-density polyethylene, carbon nanofibers, ionic liquid, complex viscosity

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7 Preparation of Electrospun PLA/ENR Fibers

Authors: Jaqueline G. L. Cosme, Paulo H. S. Picciani, Regina C. R. Nunes


Electrospinning is a technique for the fabrication of nanoscale fibers. The general electrospinning system consists of a syringe filled with polymer solution, a syringe pump, a high voltage source and a grounded counter electrode. During electrospinning a volumetric flow is set by the syringe pump and an electric voltage is applied. This forms an electric potential between the needle and the counter electrode (collector plate), which results in the formation of a Taylor cone and the jet. The jet is moved towards the lower potential, the counter electrode, wherein the solvent of the polymer solution is evaporated and the polymer fiber is formed. On the way to the counter electrode, the fiber is accelerated by the electric field. The bending instabilities that occur form a helical loop movements of the jet, which result from the coulomb repulsion of the surface charge. Trough bending instabilities the jet is stretched, so that the fiber diameter decreases. In this study, a thermoplastic/elastomeric binary blend of non-vulcanized epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) and poly(latic acid) (PLA) was electrospun using polymer solutions consisting of varying proportions of PCL and NR. Specifically, 15% (w/v) PLA/ENR solutions were prepared in /chloroform at proportions of 5, 10, 25, and 50% (w/w). The morphological and thermal properties of the electrospun mats were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The SEM images demonstrated the production of micrometer- and sub-micrometer-sized fibers with no bead formation. The blend miscibility was evaluated by thermal analysis, which showed that blending did not improve the thermal stability of the systems.

Keywords: epoxidized natural rubber, poly(latic acid), electrospinning, chemistry

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6 Development of 4-Allylpyrocatechol Loaded Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System for Enhancing Water Solubility and Antibacterial Activity against Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

Authors: Pimpak Phumat, Sakornrat Khongkhunthian, Thomas Rades, Anette Müllertz, Siriporn Okonogi


Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) containing 4-allylpyrocatechol (AP) extracted from Piper betle were developed to enhance water solubility of AP by using modeling and design (MODDE) program. The amount of AP in each SNEDDS formulation was determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The formulation consisted of 20% Miglyol®812N, 40 % Kolliphor®RH40, 30 % Maisine®35-1 and 10 % ethanol was found to be the best SNEDDS that provided the highest loading capacity of AP. (141.48±15.64 mg/g SNEDDS). The system also showed miscibility with water. The particle shape and size of the AP-SNEDDS after dispersing in water was investigated by using a transmission electron microscope and photon correlation spectrophotometer, respectively. The results showed that they were a spherical shape, having a particle size of 34.27 ± 1.14 nm with a narrow size distribution of 0.17 ± 0.04. The particles showed negative zeta potential with a value of -21.66 ± 2.09 mV. Antibacterial activity of AP-SNEDDS containing 1.5 mg/mL of AP was investigated against Streptococcus intermedius. The effect of this system on S. intermedius cells was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results from SEM revealed that the bacterial cells were obviously destroyed. Killing kinetic study of AP-SNEDDS was carried out. It was found that the killing rate of AP-SNEDDS against S. intermedius was dose-dependent and the bacterial reduction was 79.86 ± 0.45 % within 30 min. In comparison with chlorhexidine (CHX), AP-SNEDDS showed similar antibacterial effects against S. intermedius. It is concluded that SNEDDS is a potential system for enhancing water solubility of AP. The antibacterial study reveals that AP-SNEDDS can be a promising system to treat bacterial infection caused by S. intermedius.

Keywords: SNEDDS, 4-allylpyrocathecol, solubility, antibacterial activity, Streptococcus intermedius

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5 A Molecular Dynamic Simulation Study to Explore Role of Chain Length in Predicting Useful Characteristic Properties of Commodity and Engineering Polymers

Authors: Lokesh Soni, Sushanta Kumar Sethi, Gaurav Manik


This work attempts to use molecular simulations to create equilibrated structures of a range of commercially used polymers. Generated equilibrated structures for polyvinyl acetate (isotactic), polyvinyl alcohol (atactic), polystyrene, polyethylene, polyamide 66, poly dimethyl siloxane, poly carbonate, poly ethylene oxide, poly amide 12, natural rubber, poly urethane, and polycarbonate (bisphenol-A) and poly ethylene terephthalate are employed to estimate the correct chain length that will correctly predict the chain parameters and properties. Further, the equilibrated structures are used to predict some properties like density, solubility parameter, cohesive energy density, surface energy, and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. The simulated densities for polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, polystyrene, polypropylene, and polycarbonate are 1.15 g/cm3, 1.125 g/cm3, 1.02 g/cm3, 0.84 g/cm3 and 1.223 g/cm3 respectively are found to be in good agreement with the available literature estimates. However, the critical repeating units or the degree of polymerization after which the solubility parameter showed saturation were 15, 20, 25, 10 and 20 respectively. This also indicates that such properties that dictate the miscibility of two or more polymers in their blends are strongly dependent on the chosen polymer or its characteristic properties. An attempt has been made to correlate such properties with polymer properties like Kuhn length, free volume and the energy term which plays a vital role in predicting the mentioned properties. These results help us to screen and propose a useful library which may be used by the research groups in estimating the polymer properties using the molecular simulations of chains with the predicted critical lengths. The library shall help to obviate the need for researchers to spend efforts in finding the critical chain length needed for simulating the mentioned polymer properties.

Keywords: Kuhn length, Flory Huggins interaction parameter, cohesive energy density, free volume

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4 Mechanism of Action of New Sustainable Flame Retardant Additives in Polyamide 6,6

Authors: I. Belyamani, M. K. Hassan, J. U. Otaigbe, W. R. Fielding, K. A. Mauritz, J. S. Wiggins, W. L. Jarrett


We have investigated the flame-retardant efficiency of special new phosphate glass (P-glass) compositions having different glass transition temperatures (Tg) on the processing conditions of polyamide 6,6 (PA6,6) and the final hybrid flame retardancy (FR). We have showed that the low Tg P glass composition (i.e., ILT 1) is a promising flame retardant for PA6,6 at a concentration of up to 15 wt. % compared to intermediate (IIT 3) and high (IHT 1) Tg P glasses. Cone calorimetry data showed that the ILT 1 decreased both the peak heat release rate and the total heat amount released from the PA6,6/ILT 1 hybrids, resulting in an efficient formation of a glassy char layer. These intriguing findings prompted to address several questions concerning the mechanism of action of the different P glasses studied. The general mechanism of action of phosphorous based FR additives occurs during the combustion stage by enhancing the morphology of the char and the thermal shielding effect. However, the present work shows that P glass based FR additives act during melt processing of PA6,6/P glass hybrids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed that the Tg of PA6,6/ILT 1 was significantly shifted to a lower Tg (~65 oC) and another transition appeared at high temperature (~ 166 oC), thus indicating a strong interaction between PA6,6 and ILT 1. This was supported by a drop in the melting point and crystallinity of the PA6,6/ILT 1 hybrid material as detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The dielectric spectroscopic investigation of the networks’ molecular level structural variations (i.e. hybrids chain motion, Tg and sub-Tg relaxations) agreed very well with the DMA and DSC findings; it was found that the three different P glass compositions did not show any effect on the PA6,6 sub-Tg relaxations (related to the NH2 and OH chain end groups motions). Nevertheless, contrary to IIT 3 and IHT 1 based hybrids, the PA6,6/ILT 1 hybrid material showed an evidence of splitting the PA6,6 Tg relaxations into two peaks. Finally, the CPMAS 31P-NMR data confirmed the miscibility between ILT 1 and PA6,6 at the molecular level, as a much larger enhancement in cross-polarization for the PA6,6/15%ILT 1 hybrids was observed. It can be concluded that compounding low Tg P-glass (i.e. ILT 1) with PA6,6 facilitates hydrolytic chain scission of the PA6,6 macromolecules through a potential chemical interaction between phosphate and the alpha-Carbon of the amide bonds of the PA6,6, leading to better flame retardant properties.

Keywords: broadband dielectric spectroscopy, composites, flame retardant, polyamide, phosphate glass, sustainable

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3 Development and Obtaining of Solid Dispersions to Increase the Solubility of Efavirenz in Anti-HIV Therapy

Authors: Salvana P. M. Costa, Tarcyla A. Gomes, Giovanna C. R. M. Schver, Leslie R. M. Ferraz, Cristovão R. Silva, Magaly A. M. Lyra, Danilo A. F. Fonte, Larissa A. Rolim, Amanda C. Q. M. Vieira, Miracy M. Albuquerque, Pedro J. Rolim-neto


Efavirenz (EFV) is considered one of the most widely used anti-HIV drugs. However, it is classified as a drug class II (poorly soluble, highly permeable) according to the biopharmaceutical classification system, presenting problems of absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby inadequate bioavailability for its therapeutic action. This study aimed to overcome these barriers by developing and obtaining solid dispersions (SD) in order to increase the EFZ bioavailability. For the development of SD with EFV, theoretical and practical studies were initially performed. Thus, there was a choice of a carrier to be used. For this, it was analyzed the various criteria such as glass transition temperature of the polymer, intra- and intermolecular interactions of hydrogen bonds between drug and polymer, the miscibility between the polymer and EFV. The choice of the obtainment method of the SD came from the analysis of which method is the most consolidated in both industry and literature. Subsequently, the choice of drug and carrier concentrations in the dispersions was carried out. In order to obtain DS to present the drug in its amorphous form, as the DS were obtained, they were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). SD are more stable the higher the amount of polymer present in the formulation. With this assumption, a SD containing 10% of drug was initially prepared and then this proportion was increased until the XRD showed the presence of EFV in its crystalline form. From this point, it was not produced SD with a higher concentration of drug. Thus, it was allowed to select PVP-K30, PVPVA 64 and the SOLUPLUS formulation as carriers, once it was possible the formation of hydrogen bond between EFV and polymers since these have hydrogen acceptor groups capable of interacting with the donor group of the drug hydrogen. It is worth mentioning also that the films obtained, independent of concentration used, were presented homogeneous and transparent. Thus, it can be said that the EFV is miscible in the three polymers used in the study. The SD and Physical Mixtures (PM) with these polymers were prepared by the solvent method. The EFV diffraction profile showed main peaks at around 2θ of 6,24°, in addition to other minor peaks at 14,34°, 17,08°, 20,3°, 21,36° and 25,06°, evidencing its crystalline character. Furthermore, the polymers showed amorphous nature, as evidenced by the absence of peaks in their XRD patterns. The XRD patterns showed the PM overlapping profile of the drug with the polymer, indicating the presence of EFV in its crystalline form. Regardless the proportion of drug used in SD, all the samples showed the same characteristics with no diffraction peaks EFV, demonstrating the behavior amorphous products. Thus, the polymers enabled, effectively, the formation of amorphous SD, probably due to the potential hydrogen bonds between them and the drug. Moreover, the XRD analysis showed that the polymers were able to maintain its amorphous form in a concentration of up to 80% drug.

Keywords: amorphous form, Efavirenz, solid dispersions, solubility

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2 Physicochemical-Mechanical, Thermal and Rheological Properties Analysis of Pili Tree (Canarium Ovatum) Resin as Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank Sealant

Authors: Mark Kennedy, E. Bantugon, Noruane A. Daileg


Leaks arising from aircraft fuel tanks is a protracted problem for the aircraft manufacturers, operators, and maintenance crews. It principally arises from stress, structural defects, or degraded sealants as the aircraft age. It can be ignited by different sources, which can result in catastrophic flight and consequences, exhibiting a major drain both on time and budget. In order to mitigate and eliminate this kind of problem, the researcher produced an experimental sealant having a base material of natural tree resin, the Pili Tree Resin. Aside from producing an experimental sealant, the main objective of this research is to analyze its physical, chemical, mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties, which is beneficial and effective for specific aircraft parts, particularly the integral fuel tank. The experimental method of research was utilized in this study since it is a product invention. This study comprises two parts, specifically the Optimization Process and the Characterization Process. In the Optimization Process, the experimental sealant was subjected to the Flammability Test, an important test and consideration according to 14 Code of Federal Regulation Appendix N, Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis, to get the most suitable formulation. Followed by the Characterization Process, where the formulated experimental sealant has undergone thirty-eight (38) different standard testing including Organoleptic, Instrumental Color Measurement Test, Smoothness of Appearance Test, Miscibility Test, Boiling Point Test, Flash Point Test, Curing Time, Adhesive Test, Toxicity Test, Shore A Hardness Test, Compressive Strength, Shear Strength, Static Bending Strength, Tensile Strength, Peel Strength Test, Knife Test, Adhesion by Tape Test, Leakage Test), Drip Test, Thermogravimetry-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Calorific Value, Viscosity Test, Creep Test, and Anti-Sag Resistance Test to determine and analyze the five (5) material properties of the sealant. The numerical values of the mentioned tests are determined using product application, testing, and calculation. These values are then used to calculate the efficiency of the experimental sealant. Accordingly, this efficiency is the means of comparison between the experimental and commercial sealant. Based on the results of the different standard testing conducted, the experimental sealant exceeded all the data results of the commercial sealant. This result shows that the physicochemical-mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of the experimental sealant are far more effective as an aircraft integral fuel tank sealant alternative in comparison to the commercial sealant. Therefore, Pili Tree possesses a new role and function: a source of ingredients in sealant production.

Keywords: Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank, Physicochemi-mechanical, Pili Tree Resin, Properties, Rheological, Sealant, Thermal

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1 Formulation and Optimization of Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System of Rutin for Enhancement of Oral Bioavailability Using QbD Approach

Authors: Shrestha Sharma, Jasjeet K. Sahni, Javed Ali, Sanjula Baboota


Introduction: Rutin is a naturally occurring strong antioxidant molecule belonging to bioflavonoid category. Due to its free radical scavenging properties, it has been found to be beneficial in the treatment of various diseases including inflammation, cancer, diabetes, allergy, cardiovascular disorders and various types of microbial infections. Despite its beneficial effects, it suffers from the problem of low aqueous solubility which is responsible for low oral bioavailability. The aim of our study was to optimize and characterize self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of rutin using Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with a desirability function. Further various antioxidant, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies were performed for the optimized rutin SNEDDS formulation. Methodologies: Selection of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant was done on the basis of solubility/miscibility studies. Sefsol+ Vitamin E, Solutol HS 15 and Transcutol P were selected as oil phase, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. Optimization of SNEDDS formulations was done by a three-factor, three-level (33)BBD. The independent factors were Sefsol+ Vitamin E, Solutol HS15, and Transcutol P. The dependent variables were globule size, self emulsification time (SEF), % transmittance and cumulative percentage drug released. Various response surface graphs and contour plots were constructed to understand the effect of different factor, their levels and combinations on the responses. The optimized Rutin SNEDDS formulation was characterized for various parameters such as globule size, zeta potential, viscosity, refractive index , % Transmittance and in vitro drug release. Ex vivo permeation studies and pharmacokinetic studies were performed for optimized formulation. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and reducing power assays. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by using carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Permeation of rutin across small intestine was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Major findings:The optimized SNEDDS formulation consisting of Sefsol+ Vitamin E - Solutol HS15 -Transcutol HP at proportions of 25:35:17.5 (w/w) was prepared and a comparison of the predicted values and experimental values were found to be in close agreement. The globule size and PDI of optimized SNEDDS formulation was found to be 16.08 ± 0.02 nm and 0.124±0.01 respectively. Significant (p˂0.05) increase in percentage drug release was achieved in the case of optimized SNEDDS formulation (98.8 %) as compared to rutin suspension. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic study showed a 2.3-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability compared with that of the suspension. Antioxidant assay results indicated better efficacy of the developed formulation than the pure drug and it was found to be comparable with ascorbic acid. The results of anti-inflammatory studies showed 72.93 % inhibition for the SNEDDS formulation which was significantly higher than the drug suspension 46.56%. The results of CLSM indicated that the absorption of SNEDDS formulation was considerably higher than that from rutin suspension. Conclusion: Rutin SNEDDS have been successfully prepared and they can serve as an effective tool in enhancing oral bioavailability and efficacy of Rutin.

Keywords: rutin, oral bioavilability, pharamacokinetics, pharmacodynamics

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