Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 253

Search results for: asymmetric diffuser

253 Viscous Flow Computations for the Diffuser Section of a Large Cavitation Tunnel

Authors: Ahmet Y. Gurkan, Cagatay S. Koksal, Cagri Aydin, U. Oral Unal

Abstract:

The present paper covers the viscous flow computations for the asymmetric diffuser section of a large, high-speed cavitation tunnel which will be constructed in Istanbul Technical University. The analyses were carried out by using the incompressible Reynold-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations. While determining the diffuser geometry, a high quality, separation-free flow field with minimum energy loses was particularly aimed. The expansion angle has a critical role on the diffuser hydrodynamic performance. In order obtain a relatively short diffuser length, due to the constructive limitations, and hydrodynamic energy effectiveness, three diffuser sections with varying expansion angles for side and bottom walls were considered. A systematic study was performed to determine the most effective diffuser configuration. The results revealed that the inlet condition of the diffuser greatly affects its flow field. The inclusion of the contraction section in the computations substantially modified the flow topology in the diffuser. The effect of the diffuser flow on the test section flow characteristics was clearly observed. The influence of the introduction of small chamfers at the corners of the diffuser geometry is also presented.

Keywords: asymmetric diffuser, diffuser design, cavitation tunnel, viscous flow, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), rans

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
252 Prediction of Turbulent Separated Flow in a Wind Tunel

Authors: Karima Boukhadia

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In the present study, the subsonic flow in an asymmetrical diffuser was simulated numerically using code CFX 11.0 and its generator of grid ICEM CFD. Two models of turbulence were tested: K- ε and K- ω SST. The results obtained showed that the K- ε model singularly over-estimates the speed value close to the wall and that the K- ω SST model is qualitatively in good agreement with the experimental results of Buice and Eaton 1997. They also showed that the separation and reattachment of the fluid on the tilted wall strongly depends on its angle of inclination and that the length of the zone of separation increases with the angle of inclination of the lower wall of the diffuser.

Keywords: asymmetric diffuser, separation, reattachment, tilt angle, separation zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
251 Lightweight High-Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor for Vehicles-Investigation of Pipe Diffuser Designs by Means of CFD

Authors: Eleni Ioannou, Pascal Nucara, Keith Pullen

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The subject of this paper is the investigation of the best efficiency design of a compressor diffuser applied in new lightweight, ultra efficient micro-gas turbine engines for vehicles. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results are obtained utilizing steady state simulations for a wedge and an ”oval” type pipe diffuser in an effort to identify the beneficial effects of the pipe diffuser design. The basic flow features are presented with particular focus on the optimization of the pipe diffuser leading to higher efficiencies for the compressor stage. The optimised pipe diffuser is designed to exploit the 3D freedom enabled by Selective Laser Melting, hence purposely involves an investigation of geometric characteristics that do not follow the traditional diffuser concept.

Keywords: CFD, centrifugal compressor, micro-gas turbine, pipe diffuser, SLM, wedge diffuser

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
250 Numerical Investigation of the Diffuser: Geometrical Parameters Effect on Flow Characteristics for Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine

Authors: Hany El Said Fawaz

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This study deals with numerical simulation using a commercial package 'ANSYS FLUENT 14.5' for flow characteristics of a flanged diffuser wind turbine. Influence of geometrical parameters such as flange height, diffuser length, and expansion angle on the lift and drag performance were investigated. As the angle of expansion increases, a considerable flow acceleration through the diffuser occur at expansion angle ranged from 0° and 12° due to the presence of undisturbed streamlines. after that flow circulation is developed near the diffuser outlet and increase with increasing expansion angle which causes a negligible effect of expansion angle. The effect of diffuser length on flow behavior shows that when the diffuser length ratio is less than 1.25, flow acceleration is observed and increased with diffuser length ratio. After this value, the flow field at diffuser outlet is characterized by a recirculation zone. The diffuser flange has an impact effect of the flow behavior as a low pressure zone is developed behind the flange, while a high pressure zone is generated in front of it. As the flange height increase, the intensity of both low and high pressure regions increase which tend to accelerate the flow inside the diffuser till flange height ratio reaches to 0.75.

Keywords: wind turbine, flanged diffuser, expansion angle, diffuser length

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
249 Temperature Distribution Enhancement in a Conical Diffuser Fitted with Helical Screw-Tape with and without Center-Rod

Authors: Ehan Sabah Shukri, Wirachman Wisnoe

Abstract:

Temperature distribution investigation in a conical diffuser fitted with helical screw-tape with and without center-rod is studied numerically. A helical screw-tape is inserted in the diffuser to create swirl flow that helps to enhance the temperature distribution rate with inlet Reynolds number 4.3 x 104. Three pitch lengths ratios (Y/L = 0.153, 0.23 and 0.307) for the helical screw-tape with and without center-rod are simulated and compared. The geometry of the conical diffuser and the inlet condition for both arrangements are kept constant. Numerical findings show that the helical screw-tape inserts without center-rod perform significantly better than the helical tape inserts with center-rod in the conical diffuser.

Keywords: diffuser, temperature distribution, CFD, pitch ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
248 Lifetime Assessment of Highly Efficient Metal-Based Air-Diffuser through Accelerated Degradation Test

Authors: Jinyoung Choi, Tae-Ho Yoon, Sunmook Lee

Abstract:

Degradation of standard oxygen transfer efficiency (SOTE) with time was observed for the assessment of lifetime of metal-based air-diffuser, which displaced a polymer composite-based air-diffuser in order to attain a longer lifetime in the actual field. The degradation of air-diffuser occurred due to the failure of the formation of small and uniform air bubbles since the patterns formed on the disc of air-diffuser deteriorated and/or changed from their initial shapes while they were continuously exposed to the air blowing condition during the operation in the field. Therefore, the lifetime assessment of metal-based air-diffuser was carried out through an accelerated degradation test by accelerating the air-blowing conditions in 200 L/min, 300 L/min, and 400 L/min and the lifetime of normal operating condition at 120 L/min was predicted. It was found that Weibull distribution was the most proper one for describing the lifetime distribution of metal-based air-diffuser in the present study. The shape and scale parameters indicated that the accelerated blowing conditions were all within the acceleration domain. The lifetime was predicted by adopting inverse power model for a stress-life relationship and estimated to be B10=94,004 hrs with CL=95%. Acknowledgement: This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (Grant number: N0001475).

Keywords: accelerated degradation test, air-diffuser, lifetime assessment, SOTE

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
247 Experimental Characterization and Modelling of Microfluidic Radial Diffusers

Authors: Eric Chappel, Dimitry Dumont-Fillon, Hugo Musard, Harald van Lintel

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A microfluidic radial diffuser typically comprises a hole in a membrane, a small gap and pillar centred with the hole. The fluid is forced to flow radially in this gap between the membrane and the pillar. Such diffusers are notably used to form flow control valves, wherein several holes are machined into a flexible membrane progressively deflecting against pillars as the pressure increases. The fluidic modelling of such diffuser is made difficult by the presence of a transition region between the hole and the diffuser itself. An experimental investigation has been conducted using SOI wafers to form membranes with only one centred hole and Pyrex wafers for the substrate and pillars, both wafers being anodically bonded after alignment. A simple fluidic model accounting for the specific geometry of the diffuser is proposed and compared to experimental results. A good match is obtained, for Reynolds number in the range 0.5 to 35 using the analytical formula of a radial diffuser in the laminar regime with an effective inner radius that is 40% smaller than the real radius, in order to simulate correctly the flow constriction at the entrance of the diffuser.

Keywords: radial diffuser, flow control valve, numerical modelling, drug delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
246 3D Numerical Simulation on Annular Diffuser Temperature Distribution Enhancement by Different Twist Arrangement

Authors: Ehan Sabah Shukri, Wirachman Wisnoe

Abstract:

The influence of twist arrangement on the temperature distribution in an annular diffuser fitted with twisted rectangular hub is investigated. Different pitches (Y = 120 mm, 100 mm, 80 mm, and 60 mm) for the twist arrangements are simulated to be compared. The geometry of the annular diffuser and the inlet condition for the hub arrangements are kept constant. The result reveals that using twisted rectangular hub insert with different pitches will force the temperature to distribute in a circular direction. However, temperature distribution will be enhanced with the length pitch increases.

Keywords: numerical simulation, twist arrangement, annular diffuser, temperature distribution, swirl flow, pitches

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
245 Development of Ultrasounf Probe Holder for Automatic Scanning Asymmetric Reflector

Authors: Nabilah Ibrahim, Hafiz Mohd Zaini, Wan Fatin Liyana Mutalib

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Ultrasound equipment or machine is capable to scan in two dimensional (2D) areas. However there are some limitations occur during scanning an object. The problem will occur when scanning process that involving the asymmetric object. In this project, the ultrasound probe holder for asymmetric reflector scanning in 3D image is proposed to make easier for scanning the phantom or object that has asymmetric shape. Initially, the constructed asymmetric phantom that construct will be used in 2D scanning. Next, the asymmetric phantom will be interfaced by the movement of ultrasound probe holder using the Arduino software. After that, the performance of the ultrasound probe holder will be evaluated by using the various asymmetric reflector or phantom in constructing a 3D image

Keywords: ultrasound 3D images, axial and lateral resolution, asymmetric reflector, Arduino software

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
244 Influence of Different Asymmetric Rolling Processes on Shear Strain

Authors: Alexander Pesin, Denis Pustovoytov, Mikhail Sverdlik

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Materials with ultrafine-grained structure and unique physical and mechanical properties can be obtained by methods of severe plastic deformation, which include processes of asymmetric rolling (AR). Asymmetric rolling is a very effective way to create ultrafine-grained structures of metals and alloys. Since the asymmetric rolling is a continuous process, it has great potential for industrial production of ultrafine-grained structure sheets. Basic principles of asymmetric rolling are described in detail in scientific literature. In this work finite element modeling of asymmetric rolling and metal forming processes in multiroll gauge was performed. Parameters of the processes which allow achieving significant values of shear strain were defined. The results of the study will be useful for the research of the evolution of ultra-fine metal structure in asymmetric rolling.

Keywords: asymmetric rolling, equivalent strain, FEM, multiroll gauge, profile, severe plastic deformation, shear strain, sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
243 Flow Behavior and Performances of Centrifugal Compressor Stage Vaneless Diffusers

Authors: Y.Galerkin, O. Solovieva

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Flow parameters are calculated in vaneless diffusers with relative width 0,014 – 0,10 constant along radii. Inlet flow angles and similarity criteria were varied. Information about flow structure is presented – meridian streamlines configuration, information on flow full development, flow separation. Polytrophic efficiency, loss and recovery coefficient are used to compare diffusers’ effectiveness. The sample of narrow diffuser optimization by conical walls application is presented. Three tampered variants of a wide diffuser are compared too. The work is made in the R&D laboratory “Gas dynamics of turbo machines” of the TU SPb.

Keywords: vaneless diffuser, relative width, flow angle, flow separation, loss coefficient, similarity criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
242 Asymmetric Information and Composition of Capital Inflows: Stock Market Microstructure Analysis of Asia Pacific Countries

Authors: Farid Habibi Tanha, Hawati Janor, Mojtaba Jahanbazi

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The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of asymmetric information on the composition of capital inflows. This study uses the stock market microstructure to capture the asymmetric information. Such an approach allows one to capture the level and extent of the asymmetric information from a firm’s perspective. This study focuses on the two-dimensional measure of the market microstructure in capturing asymmetric information. The composition of capital inflows is measured by running six models simultaneously. By employing the panel data technique, the main finding of this research shows an increase in the asymmetric information of the stock market, in any of the two dimensions of width and depth. This leads to the reduction of foreign investments in both forms of foreign portfolio investment (FPI) and foreign direct investment (FDI), while the reduction in FPI is higher than that of the FDI. The significant effect of asymmetric information on capital inflows implicitly suggests for policymakers to control the changes of foreign capital inflows through transparency in the level of the market.

Keywords: capital flows composition, asymmetric information, stock market microstructure, foreign portfolio investment, foreign direct investment

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
241 Cryptosystems in Asymmetric Cryptography for Securing Data on Cloud at Various Critical Levels

Authors: Sartaj Singh, Amar Singh, Ashok Sharma, Sandeep Kaur

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With upcoming threats in a digital world, we need to work continuously in the area of security in all aspects, from hardware to software as well as data modelling. The rise in social media activities and hunger for data by various entities leads to cybercrime and more attack on the privacy and security of persons. Cryptography has always been employed to avoid access to important data by using many processes. Symmetric key and asymmetric key cryptography have been used for keeping data secrets at rest as well in transmission mode. Various cryptosystems have evolved from time to time to make the data more secure. In this research article, we are studying various cryptosystems in asymmetric cryptography and their application with usefulness, and much emphasis is given to Elliptic curve cryptography involving algebraic mathematics.

Keywords: cryptography, symmetric key cryptography, asymmetric key cryptography

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240 CFD Simulation Research on a Double Diffuser for Wind Turbines

Authors: Krzysztof Skiba, Zdzislaw Kaminski

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Wind power is based on a variety of construction solutions to convert wind energy into electrical energy. These constructions are constrained by the correlation between their energy conversion efficiency and the area they occupy. Their energy conversion efficiency can be improved by wind tunnel tests of a rotor as a diffuser to optimize shapes of aerodynamic elements, to adapt these elements to changing conditions and to increase airflow intensity. This paper discusses the results of computer simulations and aerodynamic analyzes of this innovative diffuser design. The research aims at determining the aerodynamic phenomena triggered by the airflow inside this construction, and developing a design to improve the efficiency of the wind turbine. The research results enable us to design a diffuser with a double Venturi nozzle and specially shaped blades. The design of this type uses Bernoulli’s law on the behavior of the flowing medium in the tunnel of a decreasing diameter. The air flowing along the tunnel changes its velocity so the rotor inside such a decreased tunnel diameter rotates faster in this airflow than does the wind outside this tunnel, which makes the turbine more efficient. Additionally, airflow velocity is improved by applying aerodynamic rings with extended trailing edges to achieve controlled turbulent vortices.

Keywords: wind turbine, renewable energy, cfd, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
239 Leverage Effect for Volatility with Generalized Laplace Error

Authors: Farrukh Javed, Krzysztof Podgórski

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We propose a new model that accounts for the asymmetric response of volatility to positive ('good news') and negative ('bad news') shocks in economic time series the so-called leverage effect. In the past, asymmetric powers of errors in the conditionally heteroskedastic models have been used to capture this effect. Our model is using the gamma difference representation of the generalized Laplace distributions that efficiently models the asymmetry. It has one additional natural parameter, the shape, that is used instead of power in the asymmetric power models to capture the strength of a long-lasting effect of shocks. Some fundamental properties of the model are provided including the formula for covariances and an explicit form for the conditional distribution of 'bad' and 'good' news processes given the past the property that is important for the statistical fitting of the model. Relevant features of volatility models are illustrated using S&P 500 historical data.

Keywords: heavy tails, volatility clustering, generalized asymmetric laplace distribution, leverage effect, conditional heteroskedasticity, asymmetric power volatility, GARCH models

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
238 An Experimental Study of Diffuser-Enhanced Propeller Hydrokinetic Turbines

Authors: Matheus Nunes, Rafael Mendes, Taygoara Felamingo Oliveira, Antonio Brasil Junior

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Wind tunnel experiments of horizontal axis propeller hydrokinetic turbines model were carried out, in order to determine the performance behavior for different configurations and operational range. The present experiments introduce the use of two different geometries of rear diffusers to enhance the performance of the free flow machine. The present paper reports an increase of the power coefficient about 50%-80%. It represents an important feature that has to be taken into account in the design of this kind of machine.

Keywords: diffuser-enhanced turbines, hydrokinetic turbine, wind tunnel experiments, micro hydro

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
237 The Effect of Swirl on the Flow Distribution in Automotive Exhaust Catalysts

Authors: Piotr J. Skusiewicz, Johnathan Saul, Ijhar Rusli, Svetlana Aleksandrova, Stephen. F. Benjamin, Miroslaw Gall, Steve Pierson, Carol A. Roberts

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The application of turbocharging in automotive engines leads to swirling flow entering the catalyst. The behaviour of this type of flow within the catalyst has yet to be adequately documented. This work discusses the effect of swirling flow on the flow distribution in automotive exhaust catalysts. Compressed air supplied to a moving-block swirl generator allowed for swirling flow with variable intensities to be generated. Swirl intensities were measured at the swirl generator outlet using single-sensor hot-wire probes. The swirling flow was fed into diffusers with total angles of 10°, 30° and 180°. Downstream of the diffusers, a wash-coated diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) of length 143.8 mm, diameter 76.2 mm and nominal cell density of 400 cpsi was fitted. Velocity profiles were measured at the outlet sleeve about 30 mm downstream of the monolith outlet using single-sensor hot-wire probes. Wall static pressure was recorded using a multi-tube manometer connected to pressure taps positioned along the diffuser walls. The results show that as swirl is increased, more of the flow is directed towards the diffuser walls. The velocity decreases around the centre-line and maximum velocities are observed close to the outer radius of the monolith for all flow rates. At the maximum swirl intensity, reversed flow was recorded near the centre of the monolith. Wall static pressure measurements in the 180° diffuser indicated no pressure recovery as the flow enters the diffuser. This is indicative of flow separation at the inlet to the diffuser. To gain insight into the flow structure, CFD simulations have been performed for the 180° diffuser for a flow rate of 63 g/s. The geometry of the model consists of the complete assembly from the upstream swirl generator to the outlet sleeve. Modelling of the flow in the monolith was achieved using the porous medium approach, where the monolith with parallel flow channels is modelled as a porous medium that resists the flow. A reasonably good agreement was achieved between the experimental and CFD results downstream of the monolith. The CFD simulations allowed visualisation of the separation zones and central toroidal recirculation zones that occur within the expansion region at certain swirl intensities which are highlighted.

Keywords: catalyst, computational fluid dynamics, diffuser, hot-wire anemometry, swirling flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
236 Temperature Distribution Simulation of Divergent Fluid Flow with Helical Arrangement

Authors: Ehan Sabah Shukri, Wirachman Wisnoe

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Numerical study is performed to investigate the temperature distribution in an annular diffuser fitted with helical tape hub. Different pitches (Y = 20 mm, and Y = 30 mm) for the helical tape are studied with different heights (H = 20 mm, 22 mm, and 24 mm) to be compared. The geometry of the annular diffuser and the inlet condition for both hub arrangements are kept constant. The result obtains that using helical tape insert with different pitches and different heights will force the temperature to distribute in a helical direction; however the use of helical tape hub with height (H = 22 mm) for both pitches enhance the temperature distribution in a good manner.

Keywords: helical tape, divergent fluid flow, temperature distribution, swirl flow, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
235 Investigation and Perfection of Centrifugal Compressor Stages by CFD Methods

Authors: Y. Galerkin, L. Marenina

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Stator elements «Vane diffuser + crossover + return channel» of stages with different specific speed were investigated by CFD calculations. The regime parameter was introduced to present efficiency and loss coefficient performance of all elements together. Flow structure demonstrated advantages and disadvantages of design. Flow separation in crossovers was eliminated by its shape modification. Efficiency increased visibly. Calculated CFD performances are in acceptable correlation with predicted ones by engineering design method. The information obtained is useful for design method better calibration.

Keywords: vane diffuser, return channel, crossover, efficiency, loss coefficient, inlet flow angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
234 Assessment of Hypersaline Outfalls via Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations: A Case Study of the Gold Coast Desalination Plant Offshore Multiport Brine Diffuser

Authors: Mitchell J. Baum, Badin Gibbes, Greg Collecutt

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This study details a three-dimensional field-scale numerical investigation conducted for the Gold Coast Desalination Plant (GCDP) offshore multiport brine diffuser. Quantitative assessment of diffuser performance with regard to trajectory, dilution and mapping of seafloor concentration distributions was conducted for 100% plant operation. The quasi-steady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a k-ω shear stress transport turbulence closure scheme. The study compliments a field investigation, which measured brine plume characteristics under similar conditions. CFD models used an iterative mesh in a domain with dimensions 400 m long, 200 m wide and an average depth of 24.2 m. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements conducted in the companion field study exhibited considerable variability over the water column. The effect of this vertical variability on simulated discharge outcomes was examined. Seafloor slope was also accommodated into the model. Ambient currents varied predominantly in the longshore direction – perpendicular to the diffuser structure. Under these conditions, the alternating port orientation of the GCDP diffuser resulted in simultaneous subjection to co-propagating and counter-propagating ambient regimes. Results from quiescent ambient simulations suggest broad agreement with empirical scaling arguments traditionally employed in design and regulatory assessments. Simulated dynamic ambient regimes showed the influence of ambient crossflow upon jet trajectory, dilution and seafloor concentration is significant. The effect of ambient flow structure and the subsequent influence on jet dynamics is discussed, along with the implications for using these different simulation approaches to inform regulatory decisions.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, desalination, field-scale simulation, multiport brine diffuser, negatively buoyant jet

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
233 Design and Evaluation on Sierpinski-Triangle Acoustic Diffusers Based on Fractal Theory

Authors: Lingge Tan, Hongpeng Xu, Jieun Yang, Maarten Hornikx

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Acoustic diffusers are important components in enhancing the quality of room acoustics. This paper provides a type of modular diffuser based on the Sierpinski Triangle of the plane and combines it with fractal theory to expand the effective frequency range. In numerical calculations and full-scale model experiments, the effect of fractal design elements on normal-incidence diffusion coefficients is examined. It is demonstrated the reasonable times of iteration of modules is three, and the coverage density is 58.4% in the design frequency from 125Hz to 4kHz.

Keywords: acoustic diffuser, fractal, Sierpinski-triangle, diffusion coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
232 Performance Assessment of the Gold Coast Desalination Plant Offshore Multiport Brine Diffuser during ‘Hot Standby’ Operation

Authors: M. J. Baum, B. Gibbes, A. Grinham, S. Albert, D. Gale, P. Fisher

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Alongside the rapid expansion of Seawater Reverse Osmosis technologies there is a concurrent increase in the production of hypersaline brine by-products. To minimize environmental impact, these by-products are commonly disposed into open-coastal environments via submerged diffuser systems as inclined dense jet outfalls. Despite the widespread implementation of this process, diffuser designs are typically based on small-scale laboratory experiments under idealistic quiescent conditions. Studies concerning diffuser performance in the field are limited. A set of experiments were conducted to assess the near field characteristics of brine disposal at the Gold Coast Desalination Plant offshore multiport diffuser. The aim of the field experiments was to determine the trajectory and dilution characteristics of the plume under various discharge configurations with production ranging 66 – 100% of plant operative capacity. The field monitoring system employed an unprecedented static array of temperature and electrical conductivity sensors in a three-dimensional grid surrounding a single diffuser port. Complimenting these measurements, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers were also deployed to record current variability over the depth of the water column and wave characteristics. Recorded data suggested the open-coastal environment was highly active over the experimental duration with ambient velocities ranging 0.0 – 0.5 m∙s-1, with considerable variability over the depth of the water column observed. Variations in background electrical conductivity corresponding to salinity fluctuations of ± 1.7 g∙kg-1 were also observed. Increases in salinity were detected during plant operation and appeared to be most pronounced 10 – 30 m from the diffuser, consistent with trajectory predictions described by existing literature. Plume trajectories and respective dilutions extrapolated from salinity data are compared with empirical scaling arguments. Discharge properties were found to adequately correlate with modelling projections. Temporal and spatial variation of background processes and their subsequent influence upon discharge outcomes are discussed with a view to incorporating the influence of waves and ambient currents in the design of brine outfalls into the future.

Keywords: brine disposal, desalination, field study, negatively buoyant discharge

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
231 Chiral Diphosphine Ligands and Their Transition Metal Diphosphine Complexes in Asymmetric Catalysis

Authors: Shannen Lorraine, Paul Maragh, Tara Dasgupta, Kamaluddin Abdur-Rashid

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(R)-(4,4',6,6'-tetramethoxybiphenyl-2,2'-diyl)bis(diphenylphosphine) (R-Ph-Garphos), and (S)-(4,4',6,6'-tetramethoxybiphenyl-2,2'-diyl)bis(diphenylphosphine) (S-Ph-Garphos) are novel, nucleophilic, chiral atropisomeric ligands. The research explored the synthesis of chiral transition metal complexes containing these ligands and their applications in various asymmetric catalytic transformations. Herein, the transition metal complexes having ruthenium(II), rhodium(I) and iridium(I) metal centres will be discussed. These are air stable complexes and were characterized by CHN analysis, 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy, and polarimetry. Currently, there is an emphasis on 'greener' catalysts and the need for 'green' solvents in asymmetric catalysis. As such, the Ph-Garphos ligands were demethylated thereby introducing hydroxyl moieties unto the ligand scaffold. The facile tunability of the biaryl diphosphines led to the preparation of the (R)-(4,4',6,6'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl-2,2'-diyl)bis(diphenylphosphine) (R-Ph-Garphos-OH), and (S)-(4,4',6,6'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl-2,2'-diyl)bis(diphenylphosphine) (S-Ph-Garphos-OH) ligands. These were successfully characterized by CHN analysis, 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy, and polarimetry. The use of the Ph-Garphos and Ph-Garphos-OH ligands and their transition metal complexes in asymmetric hydrogenations will be reported. Additionally, the scope of the research will highlight the applicability of the Ph-Garphos-OH ligand and its transitional metal complexes as 'green' catalysts.

Keywords: catalysis, asymmetric hydrogenation, diphosphine transition metal complexes, Ph-Garphos ligands

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230 Chiral Ruthenium Aminophosphine and Phosphine Iminopyridine Complexes: Synthesis and Application to Asymmetric Hydrogenation and Transfer Hydrogenation

Authors: Littlelet N. Scarlet, Kamaluddin Abdur-Rashid, Paul T. Maragh, Tara Dasgupta

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Aminophosphines are a privileged class of ancillary ligands with emerging importance in homogeneous catalysis. The unique combination of soft phosphorus (P) and hard nitrogen (N) centres affords a variety of transition metal complexes as potential pre-catalysts for synthetically useful reactions. Herein three ligand systems will be reported; two bidentate ligands - (S)-8-(diphenyl-phosphino)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-amine, (S)THNANH2, and (Rc)-1-((Sp)-2-diphenylphosphino) ferrocenylethylamine, (RcSp)PPFNH2 - and a tridentate (Rc)-1-((Sp)-2-diphenylphosphino) ferrocenylimino-pyridine, (RcSp)PPFNNH2 ligand; the latter prepared from the condensation of selected ferrocene aminophosphines with pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde. Suitable combinations of these aminophosphine ligands with ruthenium precursors have afforded highly efficient systems for the asymmetric hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation of selected ketones in 2-propanol. The Ru-(S)THNANH2 precatalyst was the most efficient in the asymmetric hydrogenation of selected ketones with 100% conversions within 4 hours at a catalyst loading of 0.1 mol%. The Ru-(RcSp)PPFNNH2 precatalyst was the most efficient in the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of the ketones with conversions as high as 98% with 0.1 mol% catalyst. However, the enantioselectivities were generally low.

Keywords: aminophosphine, asymmetric hydrogenation, homogeneous catalysis, ruthenium (II), transfer hydrogenation

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
229 Numerical Buckling of Composite Cylindrical Shells under Axial Compression Using Asymmetric Meshing Technique (AMT)

Authors: Zia R. Tahir, P. Mandal

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This paper presents the details of a numerical study of buckling and post buckling behaviour of laminated carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) thin-walled cylindrical shell under axial compression using asymmetric meshing technique (AMT) by ABAQUS. AMT is considered to be a new perturbation method to introduce disturbance without changing geometry, boundary conditions or loading conditions. Asymmetric meshing affects both predicted buckling load and buckling mode shapes. Cylindrical shell having lay-up orientation [0°/+45°/-45°/0°] with radius to thickness ratio (R/t) equal to 265 and length to radius ratio (L/R) equal to 1.5 is analysed numerically. A series of numerical simulations (experiments) are carried out with symmetric and asymmetric meshing to study the effect of asymmetric meshing on predicted buckling behaviour. Asymmetric meshing technique is employed in both axial direction and circumferential direction separately using two different methods, first by changing the shell element size and varying the total number elements, and second by varying the shell element size and keeping total number of elements constant. The results of linear analysis (Eigenvalue analysis) and non-linear analysis (Riks analysis) using symmetric meshing agree well with analytical results. The results of numerical analysis are presented in form of non-dimensional load factor, which is the ratio of buckling load using asymmetric meshing technique to buckling load using symmetric meshing technique. Using AMT, load factor has about 2% variation for linear eigenvalue analysis and about 2% variation for non-linear Riks analysis. The behaviour of load end-shortening curve for pre-buckling is same for both symmetric and asymmetric meshing but for asymmetric meshing curve behaviour in post-buckling becomes extraordinarily complex. The major conclusions are: different methods of AMT have small influence on predicted buckling load and significant influence on load displacement curve behaviour in post buckling; AMT in axial direction and AMT in circumferential direction have different influence on buckling load and load displacement curve in post-buckling.

Keywords: CFRP composite cylindrical shell, asymmetric meshing technique, primary buckling, secondary buckling, linear eigenvalue analysis, non-linear riks analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
228 Modelling the Dynamics of Corporate Bonds Spreads with Asymmetric GARCH Models

Authors: Sélima Baccar, Ephraim Clark

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This paper can be considered as a new perspective to analyse credit spreads. A comprehensive empirical analysis of conditional variance of credit spreads indices is performed using various GARCH models. Based on a comparison between traditional and asymmetric GARCH models with alternative functional forms of the conditional density, we intend to identify what macroeconomic and financial factors have driven daily changes in the US Dollar credit spreads in the period from January 2011 through January 2013. The results provide a strong interdependence between credit spreads and the explanatory factors related to the conditions of interest rates, the state of the stock market, the bond market liquidity and the exchange risk. The empirical findings support the use of asymmetric GARCH models. The AGARCH and GJR models outperform the traditional GARCH in credit spreads modelling. We show, also, that the leptokurtic Student-t assumption is better than the Gaussian distribution and improves the quality of the estimates, whatever the rating or maturity.

Keywords: corporate bonds, default risk, credit spreads, asymmetric garch models, student-t distribution

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227 Asymmetric Warfare: Exploratory Study of the Implicit Defense Strategy of the People's Republic of China in 2012-2016

Authors: María Victoria Alvarez Magañini, Lautaro Nahuel Rubbi

Abstract:

According to different theories, the hegemonic war between the United States and the People's Republic of China seems to be imminent. However, nowadays, it is clear that China's conventional military capacity is inferior to that of the United States. Nevertheless, the conditions that in the past were considered to be an indicator of validity in asymmetrical warfare, at present, in a possible asymmetric war scenario, are no longer considered to be taken as such. The military capacity is not the only concept that represents the main indicator of victory. The organisation and the use of forces are also an essential part of it. The present paper aims to analyze the Chinese Defense Strategy in relation to the concept of asymmetric warfare in the face of a possible war with the United States. The starting point will be developed on the basis of application of the theory which corresponds to the concept aforementioned making focus on recent developments of the People’s Republic of China in the field of non-conventional defense. A comparative analysis of the conventional forces of both powers/countries will also be carried out.

Keywords: asymmetric warfare, China, United States, hegemonic warfare

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226 Plastic Strain Accumulation Due to Asymmetric Cyclic Loading of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C

Authors: R. S. Rajpurohit, N. C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh

Abstract:

Asymmetric stress cycling leads to accumulation of plastic strain which is called as ratcheting strain. The problem is generally associated with nuclear fuel cladding materials used in nuclear power plants and pressurized pipelines. In the present investigation, asymmetric stress controlled fatigue tests were conducted with three different parameters namely, mean stress, stress amplitude and stress rate (keeping two parameters constant and varying third parameter) to see the plastic strain accumulation and its effect on fatigue life and deformation behavior of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C. The tests were conducted with variable mean stress (45-70 MPa), stress amplitude (95-120 MPa) and stress rate (30-750 MPa/s) and tested specimens were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that with the increase in mean stress and stress amplitude, the ratcheting strain accumulation increases with reduction in fatigue life. However, increase in stress rate leads to improvement in fatigue life of the material due to small ratcheting strain accumulation. Fractographs showed a decrease in area fraction of fatigue failed region.

Keywords: asymmetric cyclic loading, ratcheting fatigue, mean stress, stress amplitude, stress rate, plastic strain

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225 Paraplegic Dimensions of Asymmetric Warfare: A Strategic Analysis for Resilience Policy Plan

Authors: Sehrish Qayyum

Abstract:

In this age of constant technology, asymmetrical warfare could not be won. Attuned psychometric study confirms that screaming sometimes is more productive than active retaliation against strong adversaries. Asymmetric warfare is a game of nerves and thoughts with least vigorous participation for large anticipated losses. It creates the condition of paraplegia with partial but permanent immobility, which effects the core warfare operations, being screams rather than active retaliation. When one’s own power is doubted, it gives power to one’s own doubt to ruin all planning either done with superlative cost-benefit analysis. Strategically calculated estimation of asymmetric warfare since the early WWI to WWII, WWII-to Cold War, and then to the current era in three chronological periods exposits that courage makes nations win the battle of warriors to battle of comrades. Asymmetric warfare has been most difficult to fight and survive due to unexpectedness and being lethal despite preparations. Thoughts before action may be the best-assumed strategy to mix Regional Security Complex Theory and OODA loop to develop the Paraplegic Resilience Policy Plan (PRPP) to win asymmetric warfare. PRPP may serve to control and halt the ongoing wave of terrorism, guerilla warfare, and insurgencies, etc. PRPP, along with a strategic work plan, is based on psychometric analysis to deal with any possible war condition and tactic to save millions of innocent lives such that lost in Christchurch New Zealand in 2019, November 2015 Paris attacks, and Berlin market attacks in 2016, etc. Getting tangled into self-imposed epistemic dilemmas results in regret that becomes the only option of performance. It is a descriptive psychometric analysis of war conditions with generic application of probability tests to find the best possible options and conditions to develop PRPP for any adverse condition possible so far. Innovation in technology begets innovation in planning and action-plan to serve as a rheostat approach to deal with asymmetric warfare.

Keywords: asymmetric warfare, psychometric analysis, PRPP, security

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224 Mathematical Model of a Compound Gear Pump

Authors: Hsueh-Cheng Yang

Abstract:

The generation and design of compound involute spur gearings can be used in gear pump. A compound rack cutter with asymmetric involute teeth is presented for determining the mathematical model of compound gear pumps. This paper covers the following topics: (a) generation and geometry of compound rack cutter is presented and used to generate a compound gear and a compound pinion. (b) Based on the developed compound gears, stress analysis was performed for the symmetric gears and the asymmetric gears. Comparing the results of the stress analysis for the asymmetric involute teeth is superior to the symmetric involute teeth. A numerical example that illustrates the developed compound rack cutter is represented.

Keywords: compound, involute teeth, gear pump, rack cutter

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