Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12593

Search results for: inertial effect

12593 Low Cost Inertial Sensors Modeling Using Allan Variance

Authors: A. A. Hussen, I. N. Jleta


Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers and gyroscopes are suitable for the inertial navigation system (INS) of many applications due to the low price, small dimensions and light weight. The main disadvantage in a comparison with classic sensors is a worse long term stability. The estimation accuracy is mostly affected by the time-dependent growth of inertial sensor errors, especially the stochastic errors. In order to eliminate negative effect of these random errors, they must be accurately modeled. Where the key is the successful implementation that depends on how well the noise statistics of the inertial sensors is selected. In this paper, the Allan variance technique will be used in modeling the stochastic errors of the inertial sensors. By performing a simple operation on the entire length of data, a characteristic curve is obtained whose inspection provides a systematic characterization of various random errors contained in the inertial-sensor output data.

Keywords: Allan variance, accelerometer, gyroscope, stochastic errors

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12592 Combining Laws of Mechanics and Hydrostatics in Non Inertial Reference Frames

Authors: M. Blokh


Method of combined teaching laws of classical mechanics and hydrostatics in non-inertial reference frames for undergraduate students is proposed. Pressure distribution in a liquid (or gas) moving with acceleration is considered. Combined effect of hydrostatic force and force of inertia on a body immersed in a liquid can lead to paradoxical results, in a motion of pendulum in particular. The body motion under Stokes force influence and forces in rotating reference frames are investigated as well. Problems and difficulties in student perceptions are analyzed.

Keywords: hydrodynamics, mechanics, non-inertial reference frames, teaching

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12591 Influence of Inertial Forces of Large Bearings Utilized in Wind Energy Assemblies

Authors: S. Barabas, F. Sarbu, B. Barabas, A. Fota


Main objective of this paper is to establish a link between inertial forces of the bearings used in construction of wind power plant and its behavior. Using bearings with lower inertial forces has the immediate effect of decreasing inertia rotor system, with significant results in increased energy efficiency, due to decreased friction forces between rollers and raceways. The FEM analysis shows the appearance of uniform contact stress at the ends of the rollers, demonstrated the necessity of production of low mass bearings. Favorable results are expected in the economic field, by reducing material consumption and by increasing the durability of bearings. Using low mass bearings with hollow rollers instead of solid rollers has an impact on working temperature, on vibrations and noise which decrease. Implementation of types of hollow rollers of cylindrical tubular type, instead of expensive rollers with logarithmic profile, will bring significant inertial forces decrease with large benefits in behavior of wind power plant.

Keywords: inertial forces, Von Mises stress, hollow rollers, wind turbine

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12590 CFD-DEM Modelling and Analysis of the Continuous Separation of Sized Particles Using Inertial Microfluidics

Authors: Hui Zhu, Yuan Wang, Shibo Kuang, Aibing Yu


The inertial difference induced by the microfluidics inside a curved micro-channel has great potential to provide a fast, inexpensive, and portable solution to the separation of micro- and sub-micro particles in many applications such as aerosol collections, airborne bacteria and virus detections, as well as particle sortation. In this work, the separation behaviors of different sized particles inside a reported curved micro-channel have been studied by a combined approach of computational fluid dynamics for gas and discrete element model for particles (CFD-DEM). The micro-channel is operated by controlling the gas flow rates at all of its branches respectively used to load particles, introduce gas streams, collect particles of various sizes. The validity of the model has been examined by comparing by the calculated separation efficiency of different sized particles against the measurement. On this basis, the separation mechanisms of the inertial microfluidic separator are elucidated in terms of the interactions between particles, between particle and fluid, and between particle and wall. The model is then used to study the effect of feed solids concentration on the separation accuracy and efficiency. The results obtained from the present study demonstrate that the CFD-DEM approach can provide a convenient way to study the particle separation behaviors in micro-channels of various types.

Keywords: CFD-DEM, inertial effect, microchannel, separation

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12589 Influence of Pile Radius on Inertial Response of Pile Group in Fundamental Frequency of Homogeneous Soil Medium

Authors: Faghihnia Torshizi Mostafa, Saitoh Masato


An efficient method is developed for the response of a group of vertical, cylindrical fixed-head, finite length piles embedded in a homogeneous elastic stratum, subjected to harmonic force atop the pile group cap. Pile to pile interaction is represented through simplified beam-on-dynamic-Winkler-foundation (BDWF) with realistic frequency-dependent springs and dashpots. Pile group effect is considered through interaction factors. New closed-form expressions for interaction factors and curvature ratios atop the pile are extended by considering different boundary conditions at the tip of the piles (fixed, hinged). In order to investigate the fundamental characteristics of inertial bending strains in pile groups, inertial bending strains at the head of each pile are expressed in terms of slenderness ratio. The results of parametric study give valuable insight in understanding the behavior of fixed head pile groups in fundamental natural frequency of soil stratum.

Keywords: Winkler-foundation, fundamental frequency of soil stratum, normalized inertial bending strain, harmonic excitation

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12588 Using Lagrange Equations to Study the Relative Motion of a Mechanism

Authors: R. A. Petre, S. E. Nichifor, A. Craifaleanu, I. Stroe


The relative motion of a robotic arm formed by homogeneous bars of different lengths and masses, hinged to each other is investigated. The first bar of the mechanism is articulated on a platform, considered initially fixed on the surface of the Earth, while for the second case the platform is considered to be in rotation with respect to the Earth. For both analyzed cases the motion equations are determined using the Lagrangian formalism, applied in its traditional form, valid with respect to an inertial reference system, conventionally considered as fixed. However, in the second case, a generalized form of the formalism valid with respect to a non-inertial reference frame will also be applied. The numerical calculations were performed using a MATLAB program.

Keywords: Lagrange equations, relative motion, inertial reference frame, non-inertial reference frame

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12587 Realization of Hybrid Beams Inertial Amplifier

Authors: Somya Ranjan Patro, Abhigna Bhatt, Arnab Banerjee


Inertial amplifier has recently gained increasing attention as a new mechanism for vibration control of structures. Currently, theoretical investigations are undertaken by researchers to reveal its fundamentals and to understand its underline principles in altering the structural response of structures against dynamic loadings. This paper investigates experimental and analytical studies on the dynamic characteristics of hybrid beam inertial amplifier (HBIA). The analytical formulation of the HBIA has been derived by implementing the spectral element method and rigid body dynamics. This formulation gives the relation between dynamic force and the response of the structure in the frequency domain. Further, for validation of the proposed HBIA, the experiments have been performed. The experimental setup consists of a 3D printed HBIA of polylactic acid (PLA) material screwed at the base plate of the shaker system. Two numbers of accelerometers are used to study the response, one at the base plate of the shaker second one placed at the top of the inertial amplifier. A force transducer is also placed in between the base plate and the inertial amplifier to calculate the total amount of load transferred from the base plate to the inertial amplifier. The obtained time domain response from the accelerometers have been converted into the frequency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. The experimental transmittance values are successfully validated with the analytical results, providing us essential confidence in our proposed methodology.

Keywords: inertial amplifier, fast fourier transform, natural frequencies, polylactic acid, transmittance, vibration absorbers

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12586 Ultrasound Therapy: Amplitude Modulation Technique for Tissue Ablation by Acoustic Cavitation

Authors: Fares A. Mayia, Mahmoud A. Yamany, Mushabbab A. Asiri


In recent years, non-invasive Focused Ultrasound (FU) has been utilized for generating bubbles (cavities) to ablate target tissue by mechanical fractionation. Intensities >10 kW/cm² are required to generate the inertial cavities. The generation, rapid growth, and collapse of these inertial cavities cause tissue fractionation and the process is called Histotripsy. The ability to fractionate tissue from outside the body has many clinical applications including the destruction of the tumor mass. The process of tissue fractionation leaves a void at the treated site, where all the affected tissue is liquefied to particles at sub-micron size. The liquefied tissue will eventually be absorbed by the body. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive treatment modality. This paper presents a technique for generating inertial cavities at lower intensities (< 1 kW/cm²). The technique (patent pending) is based on amplitude modulation (AM), whereby a low frequency signal modulates the amplitude of a higher frequency FU wave. Cavitation threshold is lower at low frequencies; the intensity required to generate cavitation in water at 10 kHz is two orders of magnitude lower than the intensity at 1 MHz. The Amplitude Modulation technique can operate in both continuous wave (CW) and pulse wave (PW) modes, and the percentage modulation (modulation index) can be varied from 0 % (thermal effect) to 100 % (cavitation effect), thus allowing a range of ablating effects from Hyperthermia to Histotripsy. Furthermore, changing the frequency of the modulating signal allows controlling the size of the generated cavities. Results from in vitro work demonstrate the efficacy of the new technique in fractionating soft tissue and solid calcium carbonate (Chalk) material. The technique, when combined with MR or Ultrasound imaging, will present a precise treatment modality for ablating diseased tissue without affecting the surrounding healthy tissue.

Keywords: focused ultrasound therapy, histotripsy, inertial cavitation, mechanical tissue ablation

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12585 Realization of Wearable Inertial Measurement Units-Sensor-Fusion Harness to Control Therapeutic Smartphone Applications

Authors: Svilen Dimitrov, Manthan Pancholi, Norbert Schmitz, Didier Stricker


This paper presents the end-to-end development of a wearable motion sensing harness consisting of computational unit and four inertial measurement units to control three smartphone therapeutic games for children. The inertial data is processed in real time to obtain lower body motion information like knee raises, feet taps and squads. By providing a Wi-Fi connection interface the sensor harness acts wireless remote control for smartphone applications. By performing various lower body movements the users provoke corresponding game state changes. In contrary to the current similar offers, like Nintendo Wii Remote, Xbox Kinect and Playstation Move, this product, consisting of the sensor harness and the applications on top of it, are fully wearable, which means they do not rely on the user to be bound to concrete soft- or hardwareequipped space.

Keywords: wearable harness, inertial measurement units, smartphone therapeutic games, motion tracking, lower-body activity monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
12584 Simplified INS\GPS Integration Algorithm in Land Vehicle Navigation

Authors: Othman Maklouf, Abdunnaser Tresh


Land vehicle navigation is subject of great interest today. Global Positioning System (GPS) is the main navigation system for positioning in such systems. GPS alone is incapable of providing continuous and reliable positioning, because of its inherent dependency on external electromagnetic signals. Inertial Navigation (INS) is the implementation of inertial sensors to determine the position and orientation of a vehicle. The availability of low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) inertial sensors is now making it feasible to develop INS using an inertial measurement unit (IMU). INS has unbounded error growth since the error accumulates at each step. Usually, GPS and INS are integrated with a loosely coupled scheme. With the development of low-cost, MEMS inertial sensors and GPS technology, integrated INS/GPS systems are beginning to meet the growing demands of lower cost, smaller size, and seamless navigation solutions for land vehicles. Although MEMS inertial sensors are very inexpensive compared to conventional sensors, their cost (especially MEMS gyros) is still not acceptable for many low-end civilian applications (for example, commercial car navigation or personal location systems). An efficient way to reduce the expense of these systems is to reduce the number of gyros and accelerometers, therefore, to use a partial IMU (ParIMU) configuration. For land vehicular use, the most important gyroscope is the vertical gyro that senses the heading of the vehicle and two horizontal accelerometers for determining the velocity of the vehicle. This paper presents a field experiment for a low-cost strap down (ParIMU)\GPS combination, with data post processing for the determination of 2-D components of position (trajectory), velocity and heading. In the present approach, we have neglected earth rotation and gravity variations, because of the poor gyroscope sensitivities of our low-cost IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) and because of the relatively small area of the trajectory.

Keywords: GPS, IMU, Kalman filter, materials engineering

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12583 Comparative Study between Inertial Navigation System and GPS in Flight Management System Application

Authors: Othman Maklouf, Matouk Elamari, M. Rgeai, Fateh Alej


In modern avionics the main fundamental component is the flight management system (FMS). An FMS is a specialized computer system that automates a wide variety of in-flight tasks, reducing the workload on the flight crew to the point that modern civilian aircraft no longer carry flight engineers or navigators. The main function of the FMS is in-flight management of the flight plan using various sensors such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) to determine the aircraft's position and guide the aircraft along the flight plan. GPS which is satellite based navigation system, and INS which generally consists of inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes). GPS is used to locate positions anywhere on earth, it consists of satellites, control stations, and receivers. GPS receivers take information transmitted from the satellites and uses triangulation to calculate a user’s exact location. The basic principle of an INS is based on the integration of accelerations observed by the accelerometers on board the moving platform, the system will accomplish this task through appropriate processing of the data obtained from the specific force and angular velocity measurements. Thus, an appropriately initialized inertial navigation system is capable of continuous determination of vehicle position, velocity and attitude without the use of the external information. The main objective of article is to introduce a comparative study between the two systems under different conditions and scenarios using MATLAB with SIMULINK software.

Keywords: flight management system, GPS, IMU, inertial navigation system

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12582 The Design, Development, and Optimization of a Capacitive Pressure Sensor Utilizing an Existing 9DOF Platform

Authors: Andrew Randles, Ilker Ocak, Cheam Daw Don, Navab Singh, Alex Gu


Nine Degrees of Freedom (9 DOF) systems are already in development in many areas. In this paper, an integrated pressure sensor is proposed that will make use of an already existing monolithic 9 DOF inertial MEMS platform. Capacitive pressure sensors can suffer from limited sensitivity for a given size of membrane. This novel pressure sensor design increases the sensitivity by over 5 times compared to a traditional array of square diaphragms while still fitting within a 2 mm x 2 mm chip and maintaining a fixed static capacitance. The improved design uses one large diaphragm supported by pillars with fixed electrodes placed above the areas of maximum deflection. The design optimization increases the sensitivity from 0.22 fF/kPa to 1.16 fF/kPa. Temperature sensitivity was also examined through simulation.

Keywords: capacitive pressure sensor, 9 DOF, 10 DOF, sensor, capacitive, inertial measurement unit, IMU, inertial navigation system, INS

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12581 Performance Evaluation of GPS/INS Main Integration Approach

Authors: Othman Maklouf, Ahmed Adwaib


This paper introduces a comparative study between the main GPS/INS coupling schemes, this will include the loosely coupled and tightly coupled configurations, several types of situations and operational conditions, in which the data fusion process is done using Kalman filtering. This will include the importance of sensors calibration as well as the alignment of the strap down inertial navigation system. The limitations of the inertial navigation systems are investigated.

Keywords: GPS, INS, Kalman filter, sensor calibration, navigation system

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12580 Simulation for the Magnetized Plasma Compression Study

Authors: Victor V. Kuzenov, Sergei V. Ryzhkov


Ongoing experimental and theoretical studies on magneto-inertial confinement fusion (Angara, C-2, CJS-100, General Fusion, MagLIF, MAGPIE, MC-1, YG-1, Omega) and new constructing facilities (Baikal, C-2W, Z300 and Z800) require adequate modeling and description of the physical processes occurring in high-temperature dense plasma in a strong magnetic field. This paper presents a mathematical model, numerical method, and results of the computer analysis of the compression process and the energy transfer in the target plasma, used in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The computer simulation of the compression process of the magnetized target by the high-power laser pulse and the high-speed plasma jets is presented. The characteristic patterns of the two methods of the target compression are being analysed.

Keywords: magnetized target, magneto-inertial fusion, mathematical model, plasma and laser beams

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12579 Characterization of Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets Based on Transmission Holographic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

Authors: B. Zare-Farsani, M. Valieghbal, M. Tarkashvand, A. H. Farahbod


To provide the conditions for nuclear fusion by high energy and powerful laser beams, it is required to have a high degree of symmetry and surface uniformity of the spherical capsules to reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities. In this paper, we have used the digital microscopic holography based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer to study the quality of targets for inertial fusion. The interferometric pattern of the target has been registered by a CCD camera and analyzed by Holovision software. The uniformity of the surface and shell thickness are investigated and measured in reconstructed image. We measured shell thickness in different zone where obtained non uniformity 22.82 percent.  

Keywords: inertial confinement fusion, mach-zehnder interferometer, digital holographic microscopy, image reconstruction, holovision

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12578 A Robust and Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter for the Air Fine Alignment of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System/GPS

Authors: Jian Shi, Baoguo Yu, Haonan Jia, Meng Liu, Ping Huang


Adapting to the flexibility of war, a large number of guided weapons launch from aircraft. Therefore, the inertial navigation system loaded in the weapon needs to undergo an alignment process in the air. This article proposes the following methods to the problem of inaccurate modeling of the system under large misalignment angles, the accuracy reduction of filtering caused by outliers, and the noise changes in GPS signals: first, considering the large misalignment errors of Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS)/GPS, a more accurate model is made rather than to make a small-angle approximation, and the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) algorithms are used to estimate the state; then, taking into account the impact of GPS noise changes on the fine alignment algorithm, the innovation adaptive filtering algorithm is introduced to estimate the GPS’s noise in real-time; at the same time, in order to improve the anti-interference ability of the air fine alignment algorithm, a robust filtering algorithm based on outlier detection is combined with the air fine alignment algorithm to improve the robustness of the algorithm. The algorithm can improve the alignment accuracy and robustness under interference conditions, which is verified by simulation.

Keywords: air alignment, fine alignment, inertial navigation system, integrated navigation system, UKF

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12577 Location Detection of Vehicular Accident Using Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Inertial Measurement Units Navigator

Authors: Neda Navidi, Rene Jr. Landry


Vehicle tracking and accident recognizing are considered by many industries like insurance and vehicle rental companies. The main goal of this paper is to detect the location of a car accident by combining different methods. The methods, which are considered in this paper, are Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Inertial Measurement Units (GNSS/IMU)-based navigation and vehicle accident detection algorithms. They are expressed by a set of raw measurements, which are obtained from a designed integrator black box using GNSS and inertial sensors. Another concern of this paper is the definition of accident detection algorithm based on its jerk to identify the position of that accident. In fact, the results convinced us that, even in GNSS blockage areas, the position of the accident could be detected by GNSS/INS integration with 50% improvement compared to GNSS stand alone.

Keywords: driver behavior monitoring, integration, IMU, GNSS, monitoring, tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
12576 The Dynamics of a 3D Vibrating and Rotating Disc Gyroscope

Authors: Getachew T. Sedebo, Stephan V. Joubert, Michael Y. Shatalov


Conventional configuration of the vibratory disc gyroscope is based on in-plane non-axisymmetric vibrations of the disc with a prescribed circumferential wave number. Due to the Bryan's effect, the vibrating pattern of the disc becomes sensitive to the axial component of inertial rotation of the disc. Rotation of the vibrating pattern relative to the disc is proportional to the inertial angular rate and is measured by sensors. In the present paper, the authors investigate a possibility of making a 3D sensor on the basis of both in-plane and bending vibrations of the disc resonator. We derive equations of motion for the disc vibratory gyroscope, where both in-plane and bending vibrations are considered. Hamiltonian variational principle is used in setting up equations of motion and the corresponding boundary conditions. The theory of thin shells with the linear elasticity principles is used in formulating the problem and also the disc is assumed to be isotropic and obeys Hooke's Law. The governing equation for a specific mode is converted to an ODE to determine the eigenfunction. The resulting ODE has exact solution as a linear combination of Bessel and Neumann functions. We demonstrate how to obtain an explicit solution and hence the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions for annular disc with fixed inner boundary and free outer boundary. Finally, the characteristics equations are obtained and the corresponding eigenvalues are calculated. The eigenvalues are used for the calculation of tuning conditions of the 3D disc vibratory gyroscope.

Keywords: Bryan’s effect, bending vibrations, disc gyroscope, eigenfunctions, eigenvalues, tuning conditions

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12575 Comparison of Number of Waves Surfed and Duration Using Global Positioning System and Inertial Sensors

Authors: João Madureira, Ricardo Lagido, Inês Sousa, Fraunhofer Portugal


Surf is an increasingly popular sport and its performance evaluation is often qualitative. This work aims at using a smartphone to collect and analyze the GPS and inertial sensors data in order to obtain quantitative metrics of the surfing performance. Two approaches are compared for detection of wave rides, computing the number of waves rode in a surfing session, the starting time of each wave and its duration. The first approach is based on computing the velocity from the Global Positioning System (GPS) signal and finding the velocity thresholds that allow identifying the start and end of each wave ride. The second approach adds information from the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) of the smartphone, to the velocity thresholds obtained from the GPS unit, to determine the start and end of each wave ride. The two methods were evaluated using GPS and IMU data from two surfing sessions and validated with similar metrics extracted from video data collected from the beach. The second method, combining GPS and IMU data, was found to be more accurate in determining the number of waves, start time and duration. This paper shows that it is feasible to use smartphones for quantification of performance metrics during surfing. In particular, detection of the waves rode and their duration can be accurately determined using the smartphone GPS and IMU.

Keywords: inertial measurement unit (IMU), global positioning system (GPS), smartphone, surfing performance

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12574 Effective Training System for Riding Posture Using Depth and Inertial Sensors

Authors: Sangseung Kang, Kyekyung Kim, Suyoung Chi


A good posture is the most important factor in riding. In this paper, we present an effective posture correction system for a riding simulator environment to provide position error detection and customized training functions. The proposed system detects and analyzes the rider's posture using depth data and inertial sensing data. Our experiments show that including these functions will help users improve their seat for a riding.

Keywords: posture correction, posture training, riding posture, riding simulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
12573 Inertial Particle Focusing Dynamics in Trapezoid Straight Microchannels: Application to Continuous Particle Filtration

Authors: Reza Moloudi, Steve Oh, Charles Chun Yang, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani, May Win Naing


Inertial microfluidics has emerged recently as a promising tool for high-throughput manipulation of particles and cells for a wide range of flow cytometric tasks including cell separation/filtration, cell counting, and mechanical phenotyping. Inertial focusing is profoundly reliant on the cross-sectional shape of the channel and its impacts not only on the shear field but also the wall-effect lift force near the wall region. Despite comprehensive experiments and numerical analysis of the lift forces for rectangular and non-rectangular microchannels (half-circular and triangular cross-section), which all possess planes of symmetry, less effort has been made on the 'flow field structure' of trapezoidal straight microchannels and its effects on inertial focusing. On the other hand, a rectilinear channel with trapezoidal cross-sections breaks down all planes of symmetry. In this study, particle focusing dynamics inside trapezoid straight microchannels was first studied systematically for a broad range of channel Re number (20 < Re < 800). The altered axial velocity profile and consequently new shear force arrangement led to a cross-laterally movement of equilibration toward the longer side wall when the rectangular straight channel was changed to a trapezoid; however, the main lateral focusing started to move backward toward the middle and the shorter side wall, depending on particle clogging ratio (K=a/Hmin, a is particle size), channel aspect ratio (AR=W/Hmin, W is channel width, and Hmin is smaller channel height), and slope of slanted wall, as the channel Reynolds number further increased (Re > 50). Increasing the channel aspect ratio (AR) from 2 to 4 and the slope of slanted wall up to Tan(α)≈0.4 (Tan(α)=(Hlonger-sidewall-Hshorter-sidewall)/W) enhanced the off-center lateral focusing position from the middle of channel cross-section, up to ~20 percent of the channel width. It was found that the focusing point was spoiled near the slanted wall due to the dissymmetry; it mainly focused near the bottom wall or fluctuated between the channel center and the bottom wall, depending on the slanted wall and Re (Re < 100, channel aspect ratio 4:1). Eventually, as a proof of principle, a trapezoidal straight microchannel along with a bifurcation was designed and utilized for continuous filtration of a broader range of particle clogging ratio (0.3 < K < 1) exiting through the longer wall outlet with ~99% efficiency (Re < 100) in comparison to the rectangular straight microchannels (W > H, 0.3 ≤ K < 0.5).

Keywords: cell/particle sorting, filtration, inertial microfluidics, straight microchannel, trapezoid

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12572 Evaluation of Pile Performance in Different Layers of Soil

Authors: Orod Zarrin, Mohesn Ramezan Shirazi, Hassan Moniri


The use of pile foundations technique is developed to support structures and buildings on soft soil. The most important dynamic load that can affect the pile structure is earthquake vibrations. Pile foundations during earthquake excitation indicate that piles are subject to damage by affecting the superstructure integrity and serviceability. During an earthquake, two types of stresses can damage the pile head, inertial load that is caused by superstructure and deformation which caused by the surrounding soil. Soil deformation and inertial load are associated with the acceleration developed in an earthquake. The acceleration amplitude at the ground surface depends on the magnitude of earthquakes, soil properties and seismic source distance. According to the investigation, the damage is between the liquefiable and non-liquefiable layers and also soft and stiff layers. This damage crushes the pile head by increasing the inertial load which is applied by the superstructure. On the other hand, the cracks on the piles due to the surrounding soil are directly related to the soil profile and causes cracks from small to large. However, the large cracks reason have been listed such as liquefaction, lateral spreading, and inertial load. In the field of designing, elastic response of piles is always a challenge for designer in liquefaction soil, by allowing deflection at top of piles. Moreover, absence of plastic hinges in piles should be insured, because the damage in the piles is not observed directly. In this study, the performance and behavior of pile foundations during liquefaction and lateral spreading are investigated. In addition, emphasize on the soil behavior in the liquefiable and non-liquefiable layers by different aspect of piles damage such as ranking, location and degree of damage are going to discuss.

Keywords: pile, earthquake, liquefaction, non-liquefiable, damage

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12571 Inertial Motion Capture System for Biomechanical Analysis in Rehabilitation and Sports

Authors: Mario Sandro F. Rocha, Carlos S. Ande, Anderson A. Oliveira, Felipe M. Bersotti, Lucas O. Venzel


The inertial motion capture systems (mocap) are among the most suitable tools for quantitative clinical analysis in rehabilitation and sports medicine. The inertial measuring units (IMUs), composed by accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, are able to measure spatial orientations and calculate displacements with sufficient precision for applications in biomechanical analysis of movement. Furthermore, this type of system is relatively affordable and has the advantages of portability and independence from external references. In this work, we present the last version of our inertial motion capture system, based on the foregoing technology, with a unity interface designed for rehabilitation and sports. In our hardware architecture, only one serial port is required. First, the board client must be connected to the computer by a USB cable. Next, an available serial port is configured and opened to establish the communication between the client and the application, and then the client starts scanning for the active MOCAP_S servers around. The servers play the role of the inertial measuring units that capture the movements of the body and send the data to the client, which in turn create a package composed by the ID of the server, the current timestamp, and the motion capture data defined in the client pre-configuration of the capture session. In the current version, we can measure the game rotation vector (grv) and linear acceleration (lacc), and we also have a step detector that can be abled or disabled. The grv data are processed and directly linked to the bones of the 3D model, and, along with the data of lacc and step detector, they are also used to perform the calculations of displacements and other variables shown on the graphical user interface. Our user interface was designed to calculate and present variables that are important for rehabilitation and sports, such as cadence, speed, total gait cycle, gait cycle length, obliquity and rotation, and center of gravity displacement. Our goal is to present a low-cost portable and wearable system with a friendly interface for application in biomechanics and sports, which also performs as a product of high precision and low consumption of energy.

Keywords: biomechanics, inertial sensors, motion capture, rehabilitation

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12570 Integrated Navigation System Using Simplified Kalman Filter Algorithm

Authors: Othman Maklouf, Abdunnaser Tresh


GPS and inertial navigation system (INS) have complementary qualities that make them ideal use for sensor fusion. The limitations of GPS include occasional high noise content, outages when satellite signals are blocked, interference and low bandwidth. The strengths of GPS include its long-term stability and its capacity to function as a stand-alone navigation system. In contrast, INS is not subject to interference or outages, have high bandwidth and good short-term noise characteristics, but have long-term drift errors and require external information for initialization. A combined system of GPS and INS subsystems can exhibit the robustness, higher bandwidth and better noise characteristics of the inertial system with the long-term stability of GPS. The most common estimation algorithm used in integrated INS/GPS is the Kalman Filter (KF). KF is able to take advantages of these characteristics to provide a common integrated navigation implementation with performance superior to that of either subsystem (GPS or INS). This paper presents a simplified KF algorithm for land vehicle navigation application. In this integration scheme, the GPS derived positions and velocities are used as the update measurements for the INS derived PVA. The KF error state vector in this case includes the navigation parameters as well as the accelerometer and gyroscope error states.

Keywords: GPS, INS, Kalman filter, inertial navigation system

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12569 Mathematical Modeling of the Working Principle of Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Hua Mu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokun Cai, Hao Qin


Gravity field is of great significance in geoscience, national economy and national security, and gravitational gradient measurement has been extensively studied due to its higher accuracy than gravity measurement. Gravity gradient sensor, being one of core devices of the gravity gradient instrument, plays a key role in measuring accuracy. Therefore, this paper starts from analyzing the working principle of the gravity gradient sensor by Newton’s law, and then considers the relative motion between inertial and non-inertial systems to build a relatively adequate mathematical model, laying a foundation for the measurement error calibration, measurement accuracy improvement.

Keywords: gravity gradient, gravity gradient sensor, accelerometer, single-axis rotation modulation

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12568 Visualization of Wave Propagation in Monocoupled System with Effective Negative Stiffness, Effective Negative Mass, and Inertial Amplifier

Authors: Abhigna Bhatt, Arnab Banerjee


A periodic system with only a single coupling degree of freedom is called a monocoupled system. Monocoupled systems with mechanisms like mass in the mass system generates effective negative mass, mass connected with rigid links generates inertial amplification, and spring-mass connected with a rigid link generateseffective negative stiffness. In this paper, the representative unit cell is introduced, considering all three mechanisms combined. Further, the dynamic stiffness matrix of the unit cell is constructed, and the dispersion relation is obtained by applying the Bloch theorem. The frequency response function is also calculated for the finite length of periodic unit cells. Moreover, the input displacement signal is given to the finite length of periodic structure and using inverse Fourier transform to visualize the wave propagation in the time domain. This visualization explains the sudden attenuation in metamaterial due to energy dissipation by an embedded resonator at the resonance frequency. The visualization created for wave propagation is found necessary to understand the insights of physics behind the attenuation characteristics of the system.

Keywords: mono coupled system, negative effective mass, negative effective stiffness, inertial amplifier, fourier transform

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12567 Ecological Ice Hockey Butterfly Motion Assessment Using Inertial Measurement Unit Capture System

Authors: Y. Zhang, J. Perez, S. Marnier


To date, no study on goaltending butterfly motion has been completed in real conditions, during an ice hockey game or training practice, to the author's best knowledge. This motion, performed to save score, is unnatural, intense, and repeated. The target of this research activity is to identify representative biomechanical criteria for this goaltender-specific movement pattern. Determining specific physical parameters may allow to will identify the risk of hip and groin injuries sustained by goaltenders. Four professional or academic goalies were instrumented during ice hockey training practices with five inertial measurement units. These devices were inserted in dedicated pockets located on each thigh and shank, and the fifth on the lumbar spine. A camera was also installed close to the ice to observe and record the goaltenders' activities, especially the butterfly motions, in order to synchronize the captured data and the behavior of the goaltender. Each data recorded began with a calibration of the inertial units and a calibration of the fully equipped goaltender on the ice. Three butterfly motions were recorded out of the training practice to define referential individual butterfly motions. Then, a data processing algorithm based on the Madgwick filter computed hip and knee joints joint range of motion as well as angular specific angular velocities. The developed algorithm software automatically identified and analyzed all the butterfly motions executed by the four different goaltenders. To date, it is still too early to show that the analyzed criteria are representative of the trauma generated by the butterfly motion as the research is only at its beginning. However, this descriptive research activity is promising in its ecological assessment, and once the criteria are found, the tools and protocols defined will allow the prevention of as many injuries as possible. It will thus be possible to build a specific training program for each goalie.

Keywords: biomechanics, butterfly motion, human motion analysis, ice hockey, inertial measurement unit

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12566 The Investigation of Fiber Reinforcement Self-Compacting Concrete and Fiber Reinforcement Concrete

Authors: Orod Zarrin, Mohesn Ramezan Shirazi, Hassan Moniri


The use of pile foundations technique is developed to support structures and buildings on soft soil. The most important dynamic load that can affect the pile structure is earthquake vibrations. From the 1960s the comprehensive investigation of pile foundations during earthquake excitation indicate that, piles are subject to damage by affecting the superstructure integrity and serviceability. The main part of these research has been focused on the behavior of liquefiable soil and lateral spreading load on piles. During an earthquake, two types of stresses can damage the pile head, inertial load that is caused by superstructure and deformation which caused by the surrounding soil. Soil deformation and inertial load are associated with the acceleration developed in an earthquake. The acceleration amplitude at the ground surface depends on the magnitude of earthquakes, soil properties and seismic source distance. According to the investigation, the damage is between the liquefiable and non-liquefiable layers and also soft and stiff layers. This damage crushes the pile head by increasing the inertial load which is applied by the superstructure. On the other hand, the cracks on the piles due to the surrounding soil are directly related to the soil profile and causes cracks from small to large. And researchers have been listed the large cracks reason such as liquefaction, lateral spreading and inertial load. In the field of designing, elastic response of piles are always a challenge for designer in liquefaction soil, by allowing deflection at top of piles. Moreover, absence of plastic hinges in piles should be insured, because the damage in the piles is not observed directly. In this study, the performance and behavior of pile foundations during liquefaction and lateral spreading are investigated. And emphasize on the soil behavior in the liquefiable and non-liquefiable layers by different aspect of piles damage such as ranking, location and degree of damage are going to discuss.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, fiber, tensile strength, post-cracking, direct and inverse technique

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12565 Monte Carlo Neutronic Calculations on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

Authors: Adem Acır


In this study, time dependent neutronic analysis of incineration of minor actinides of a Laser Fusion Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) engine was performed. The calculations were carried out by using MCNP codes with ENDF/B.VI neutron data library. In the neutronic calculations, TRISO particles fueled with minor actinides with natural lithium coolant were performed. The natural lithium cooled LIFE engine used 10 % TRISO fuel minor actinides composition. Tritium breeding ratios (TBR) and energy multiplication factor (M) burnup values were computed as 1.46 and 3.75, respectively. The reactor operation time was calculated as ~ 21 years. The burnup values were obtained as ~1060 GWD/MT, respectively. As a result, the very higher burnup were achieved of LIFE engine.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, minor actinides, nuclear waste, LIFE engine

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12564 Modular Robotics and Terrain Detection Using Inertial Measurement Unit Sensor

Authors: Shubhakar Gupta, Dhruv Prakash, Apoorv Mehta


In this project, we design a modular robot capable of using and switching between multiple methods of propulsion and classifying terrain, based on an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) input. We wanted to make a robot that is not only intelligent in its functioning but also versatile in its physical design. The advantage of a modular robot is that it can be designed to hold several movement-apparatuses, such as wheels, legs for a hexapod or a quadpod setup, propellers for underwater locomotion, and any other solution that may be needed. The robot takes roughness input from a gyroscope and an accelerometer in the IMU, and based on the terrain classification from an artificial neural network; it decides which method of propulsion would best optimize its movement. This provides the bot with adaptability over a set of terrains, which means it can optimize its locomotion on a terrain based on its roughness. A feature like this would be a great asset to have in autonomous exploration or research drones.

Keywords: modular robotics, terrain detection, terrain classification, neural network

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