Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 644

Search results for: ACN solvent

644 Olefin and Paraffin Separation Using Simulations on Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah


Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with respect to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent shows an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator; moreover NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99 % pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1 : 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column, previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the proposed plates were 30, which can economize the separation process.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, Aspen Plus, ACN solvent

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643 Process Simulation of 1-Butene Separation from C4 Mixture by Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah, Wasif Mughees


Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with regard to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent plays an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator. Moreover, NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99% pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1: 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column. Previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the number of proposed plates were 30, which shows that the separation process can be economized.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, aspen plus, ACN solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
642 Improvement of Egyptian Vacuum Distillates by Solvent Dewaxing

Authors: Ehssan M. R. Nassef


De-waxing of vacuum distillates by using solvent was investigated in the present study. The present work deals with studying solvent dewaxing system which have been developed to give better dewaxing performance with respect to the important factors in the choice of solvents which are good solubility of oil in the solvent and low solubility of wax in the solvent. In this study, solvent dewaxing process using Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) and toluene are used for Egyptian vacuum distillates using two types of distillates. The effect of varying the composition of(MEK to toluene) on the percent yield of the oil, percent of wax, pour point, refractive index at 20 and 70°C, viscosity at 40 and 100°C, viscosity index and specific gravity of the oil produced for the two types of distillates (I & II) were evaluated. In the present study, the operating conditions of solvent dewaxing using MEK toluene mixture achieved the best pour point at -15°C for distillate I at (1:1) solvent composition mixture. At the same ratio of MEK to toluene the best specific gravity of oil produced changed from 0.871 to 0.8802, with refractive index of 1.84. Percent yield of 65% for oil was obtained. The results for distillate II, of higher specific gravity, are comparatively higher than those for distillate I. The effect of temperature was also investigated and the best temperature was -20°C.

Keywords: dewaxing, solvent dewaxing, pour point, lubricating oil production, wax

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641 Investigation of Solvent Effect on Viscosity of Lubricant in Disposable Medical Devices

Authors: Hamed Bagheri, Seyd Javid Shariati


The effects of type and amount of solvent on lubricant which is used in disposable medical devices are investigated in this article. Two kinds of common solvent, n-Hexane and n-Heptane, are used. The mechanical behavior of syringe has shown that n-Heptane has better mixing ratio and also more effective spray process in the barrel of syringe than n-Hexane because of similar solubility parameter to silicon oil. The results revealed that movement of plunger in the barrel increases when pure silicone is used because non-uniform film is created on the surface of barrel, and also, it seems that the form of silicon is converted from oil to gel due to sterilization process. The results showed that the convenient mixing ratio of solvent/lubricant oil is 80/20.

Keywords: disposal medical devices, lubricant oil, solvent effect, solubility parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
640 First Approach on Lycopene Extraction Using Limonene

Authors: M. A. Ferhat, M. N. Boukhatem, F. Chemat


Lycopene extraction with petroleum derivatives as solvents has caused safety, health, and environmental concerns everywhere. Thus, finding a safe alternative solvent will have a strong and positive impact on environments and general health of the world population. d-limonene from the orange peel was extracted through a steam distillation procedure followed by a deterpenation process and combining this achievement by using it as a solvent for extracting lycopene from tomato fruit as a substitute of dichloromethane. Lycopene content of fresh tomatoes was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after extraction. Yields obtained for both extractions showed that yields of d-limonene’s extracts were almost equivalent to those obtained using dichloromethane. The proposed approach using a green solvent to perform extraction is useful and can be considered as a nice alternative to conventional petroleum solvent where toxicity for both operator and environment is reduced.

Keywords: alternative solvent, d-limonene, extraction, lycopene

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639 Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Abu Ghalaga Ilmenite Ore

Authors: I. A. Ibrahim, T. A. Elbarbary, N. Abdelaty, A. T. Kandil, H. K. Farhan


The present work aims to study the leaching of Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore by hydrochloric acid and simultaneous reduction by iron powder method to dissolve its titanium and iron contents. Iron content in the produced liquor is separated by solvent extraction using TBP as a solvent. All parameters affecting the efficiency of the dissolution process were separately studied including the acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio which controls the ilmenite/acid molar ratio, temperature, time and grain size. The optimum conditions at which maximum leaching occur are 30% HCl acid with a solid/liquid ratio of 1/30 at 80 °C for 4 h using ore ground to -350 mesh size. At the same time, all parameters affecting on solvent extraction and stripping of iron content from the produced liquor were studied. Results show that the best extraction is at solvent/solution 1/1 by shaking at 240 RPM for 45 minutes at 30 °C whereas best striping of iron at H₂O/solvent 2/1.

Keywords: ilmenite ore, leaching, titanium solvent extraction, Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
638 Ultrathin NaA Zeolite Membrane in Solvent Recovery: Preparation and Application

Authors: Eng Toon Saw, Kun Liang Ang, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna


Solvent recovery process is receiving utmost attention in recent year due to the scarcity of natural resource and consciousness of circular economy in chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Solvent dehydration process is one of the important process to recover and to purify the solvent for reuse. Due to the complexity of solvent waste or wastewater effluent produced in pharmaceutical industry resulting the wastewater treatment process become complicated, thus an alternative solution is to recover the valuable solvent in solvent waste. To treat solvent waste and to upgrade solvent purity, membrane pervaporation process is shown to be a promising technology due to the energy intensive and low footprint advantages. Ceramic membrane is adopted as solvent dehydration membrane owing to the chemical and thermal stability properties as compared to polymeric membrane. NaA zeolite membrane is generally used as solvent dehydration process because of its narrow and distinct pore size and high hydrophilicity. NaA zeolite membrane has been mainly applied in alcohol dehydration in fermentation process. At this stage, the membrane performance exhibits high separation factor with low flux using tubular ceramic membrane. Thus, defect free and ultrathin NaA membrane should be developed to increase water flux. Herein, we report a simple preparation protocol to prepare ultrathin NaA zeolite membrane supported on tubular ceramic membrane by controlling the seed size synthesis, seeding methods and conditions, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection and secondary growth conditions. The microstructure and morphology of NaA zeolite membrane will be examined and reported. Moreover, the membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported in isopropanol dehydration, ketone dehydration and ester dehydration particularly for the application in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, NaA zeolite, pharmaceutical industry, solvent recovery

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637 The Mechanism Study of Degradative Solvent Extraction of Biomass by Liquid Membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: W. Ketren, J. Wannapeera, Z. Heishun, A. Ryuichi, K. Toshiteru, M. Kouichi, O. Hideaki


Degradative solvent extraction is the method developed for biomass upgrading by dewatering and fractionation of biomass under the mild condition. However, the conversion mechanism of the degradative solvent extraction method has not been fully understood so far. The rice straw was treated in 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at a different solvent-treatment temperature varied from 250 to 350 oC with the residence time for 60 min. The liquid membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique is applied to study the processing mechanism in-depth without separation of the solvent. It has been found that the strength of the oxygen-hydrogen stretching  (3600-3100 cm-1) decreased slightly with increasing temperature in the range of 300-350 oC. The decrease of the hydroxyl group in the solvent soluble suggested dehydration reaction taking place between 300 and 350 oC. FTIR spectra in the carbonyl stretching region (1800-1600 cm-1) revealed the presence of esters groups, carboxylic acid and ketonic groups in the solvent-soluble of biomass. The carboxylic acid increased in the range of 200 to 250 oC and then decreased. The prevailing of aromatic groups showed that the aromatization took place during extraction at above 250 oC. From 300 to 350 oC, the carbonyl functional groups in the solvent-soluble noticeably decreased. The removal of the carboxylic acid and the decrease of esters into the form of carbon dioxide indicated that the decarboxylation reaction occurred during the extraction process.

Keywords: biomass waste, degradative solvent extraction, mechanism, upgrading

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636 Layer by Layer Coating of Zinc Oxide/Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposite on Ceramic Support for Solvent/Solvent Separation Using Pervaporation Method

Authors: S. A. A. Nabeela Nasreen, S. Sundarrajan, S. A. Syed Nizar, Seeram Ramakrishna


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted considerable interest due to its diverse pore size tunability, fascinating topologies and extensive uses in fields such as catalysis, membrane separation, chemical sensing, etc. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a class of MOF with porous crystals containing extended three-dimensional structures of tetrahedral metal ions (e.g., Zn) bridged by Imidazolate (Im). Selected ZIFs are used to separate solvent/solvent mixtures. A layer by layer formation of the nanocomposite of Zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZIF on a ceramic support using a solvothermal method was engaged and tested for target solvent/solvent separation. Metal oxide layer was characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM to confirm the smooth and continuous coating for the separation process. The chemical composition of ZIF films was studied by using X-Ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The obtained ceramic tube with metal oxide and ZIF layer coating were tested for its packing density, thickness, distribution of seed layers and variation of permeation rate of solvent mixture (isopropyl alcohol (IPA)/methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Pervaporation technique was used for the separation to achieve a high permeation rate with separation ratio of > 99.5% of the solvent mixture.

Keywords: metal oxide, membrane, pervaporation, solvothermal, ZIF

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635 Impact of Flavor on Food Product Quality, A Case Study of Vanillin Stability during Biscuit Preparation

Authors: N. Yang, R. Linforth, I. Fisk


The influence of food processing and choice of flavour solvent was investigated using biscuits prepared with vanillin flavour as an example. Powder vanillin either was added directly into the dough or dissolved into flavour solvent then mixed into the dough. The impact of two commonly used flavour solvents on food quality was compared: propylene glycol (PG) or triacetin (TA). The analytical approach for vanillin detection was developed by chromatography (HPLC-PDA), and the standard extraction method for vanillin was also established. The results indicated the impact of solvent choice on vanillin level during biscuit preparation. After baking, TA as a more heat resistant solvent retained more vanillin than PG, so TA is a better solvent for products that undergo a heating process. The results also illustrated the impact of mixing and baking on vanillin stability in the matrices. The average loss of vanillin was 33% during mixing and 13% during baking, which indicated that the binding of vanillin to fat or flour before baking might cause larger loss than evaporation loss during baking.

Keywords: biscuit, flavour stability, food quality, vanillin

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634 Solvent Extraction of Rb and Cs from Jarosite Slag Using t-BAMBP

Authors: Zhang Haiyan, Su Zujun, Zhao Fengqi


Lepidolite after extraction of Lithium by sulfate produced many jarosite slag which contains a lot of Rb and Cs.The separation and recovery of Rubidium(Rb) and Cesium(Cs) can make full of use of Lithium mica. XRF analysis showed that the slag mainly including K Rb Cs Al and etc. Fractional solvent extraction tests were carried out; the results show that using20% t-BAMBP plus 80% sulfonated kerosene, the separation of Rb and Cs can be achieved by adjusting the alkalinity. Extraction is the order of Cs Rb, ratio of Cs to Rb and ratio of Rb to K can reach above 1500 and 2500 respectively.

Keywords: cesium, jarosite slag, rubidium, solvent extraction, t-BAMBP

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
633 Salting Effect in Partially Miscible Systems of Water/Acétic Acid/1-Butanol at 298.15k: Experimental Study and Estimation of New Solvent-Solvent and Salt-Solvent Binary Interaction Parameters for NRTL Model

Authors: N. Bourayou, A. -H. Meniai, A. Gouaoura


The presence of salt can either raise or lower the distribution coefficient of a solute acetic acid in liquid- liquid equilibria. The coefficient of solute is defined as the ratio of the composition of solute in solvent rich phase to the composition of solute in diluents (water) rich phase. The phenomena are known as salting–out or salting-in, respectively. The effect of monovalent salt, sodium chloride and the bivalent salt, sodium sulfate on the distribution of acetic acid between 1-butanol and water at 298.15K were experimentally shown to be effective in modifying the liquid-liquid equilibrium of water/acetic acid/1-butanol system in favour of the solvent extraction of acetic acid from an aqueous solution with 1-butanol, particularly at high salt concentrations of both salts. All the two salts studied are found to have to salt out effect for acetic acid in varying degrees. The experimentally measured data were well correlated by Eisen-Joffe equation. NRTL model for solvent mixtures containing salts was able to provide good correlation of the present liquid-liquid equilibrium data. Using the regressed salt concentration coefficients for the salt-solvent interaction parameters and the solvent-solvent interaction parameters obtained from the same system without salt. The calculated phase equilibrium was in a quite good agreement with the experimental data, showing the ability of NRTL model to correlate salt effect on the liquid-liquid equilibrium.

Keywords: activity coefficient, Eisen-Joffe, NRTL model, sodium chloride

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632 Producing Lutein Powder from Algae by Extraction and Drying

Authors: Zexin Lei, Timothy Langrish


Lutein is a type of carotene believed to be beneficial to the eyes. This study aims to explore the possibility of using a closed cycle spray drying system to produce lutein. The system contains a spray dryer, a condenser, a heater, and a pressure seal. Hexane, ethanol, and isopropanol will be used as organic solvents to compare the extraction effects. Several physical and chemical methods of cell disruption will be compared. By continuously sweeping the system with nitrogen, the oxygen content will be controlled below 2%, reducing the concentration of organic solvent below the explosion limit and preventing lutein from being oxidized. Lutein powder will be recovered in the collection device. The volatile organic solvent will be cooled in the condenser and deposited in the bottom until it is discharged from the bottom of the condenser.

Keywords: closed cycle spray drying system, Chlorella vulgaris, organic solvent, solvent recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
631 Solvent Extraction in Ionic Liquids: Structuration and Aggregation Effects on Extraction Mechanisms

Authors: Sandrine Dourdain, Cesar Lopez, Tamir Sukhbaatar, Guilhem Arrachart, Stephane Pellet-Rostaing


A promising challenge in solvent extraction is to replace the conventional organic solvents, with ionic liquids (IL). Depending on the extraction systems, these new solvents show better efficiency than the conventional ones. Although some assumptions based on ions exchanges have been proposed in the literature, these properties are not predictable because the involved mechanisms are still poorly understood. It is well established that the mechanisms underlying solvent extraction processes are based not only on the molecular chelation of the extractant molecules but also on their ability to form supra-molecular aggregates due to their amphiphilic nature. It is therefore essential to evaluate how IL affects the aggregation properties of the extractant molecules. Our aim is to evaluate the influence of IL structure and polarity on solvent extraction mechanisms, by looking at the aggregation of the extractant molecules in IL. We compare extractant systems that are well characterized in common solvents and show thanks to SAXS and SANS measurements, that in the absence of IL ion exchange mechanisms, extraction properties are related to aggregation.

Keywords: solvent extraction in Ionic liquid, aggregation, Ionic liquids structure, SAXS, SANS

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630 Ultrafast Ground State Recovery Dynamics of a Cyanine Dye Molecule in Heterogeneous Environment

Authors: Tapas Goswami, Debabrata Goswami


We have studied the changes in ground state recovery dynamics of IR 144 dye using degenerate transient absorption spectroscopy technique when going from homogeneous solution phase to heterogeneous partially miscible liquid/liquid interface. Towards this aim, we set up a partially miscible liquid/liquid interface in which dye is insoluble in one solvent carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) layer and soluble in other solvent dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). A gradual increase in ground state recovery time of the dye molecule is observed from homogenous bulk solution to more heterogeneous environment interface layer. In the bulk solution charge distribution of dye molecule is in equilibrium with polar DMSO solvent molecule. Near the interface micro transportation of non-polar solvent, CCl₄ disturbs the solvent equilibrium in DMSO layer and it relaxes to a new equilibrium state corresponding to a new charge distribution of dye with a heterogeneous mixture of polar and non-polar solvent. In this experiment, we have measured the time required for the dye molecule to relax to the new equilibrium state in different heterogeneous environment. As a result, dye remains longer time in the excited state such that even it can populate more triplet state. The present study of ground state recovery dynamics of a cyanine dye molecule in different solvent environment provides the important characteristics of effect of solvation on excited life time of a dye molecule.

Keywords: excited state, ground state recovery, solvation, transient absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
629 Different Methods of Fe3O4 Nano Particles Synthesis

Authors: Arezoo Hakimi, Afshin Farahbakhsh


Herein, we comparison synthesized Fe3O4 using, hydrothermal method, Mechanochemical processes and solvent thermal method. The Hydrothermal Technique has been the most popular one, gathering interest from scientists and technologists of different disciplines, particularly in the last fifteen years. In the hydrothermal method Fe3O4 microspheres, in which many nearly monodisperse spherical particles with diameters of about 400nm, in the mechanochemical method regular morphology indicates that the particles are well crystallized and in the solvent thermal method Fe3O4 nanoparticles have good properties of uniform size and good dispersion.

Keywords: Fe3O4 nanoparticles, hydrothermal method, mechanochemical processes, solvent thermal method

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
628 Typical Characteristics and Compositions of Solvent System in Application of Maceration Technology to Isolate Antioxidative Activated Extract of Natural Products

Authors: Yohanes Buang, Suwari


Increasing interest of society in use and creation of herbal medicines has encouraged scientists/researchers to establish an ideal method to produce the best quality and quantity of pharmaceutical extracts. To have highest the antioxidative extracts, the method used must be at optimum conditions. Hence, the best method is not only able to provide highest quantity and quality of the isolated pharmaceutical extracts but also it has to be easy to do, simple, fast, and cheap. The characterization of solvents in maceration technique, in present study, involved various variables influencing quantity and quality of the pharmaceutical extracts, such as solvent’s optimum acidity-alkalinity (pH), temperature, concentration, and contact time. The shifting polarity of the solvent by combinations of water with ethanol (70:30) and (50:50) were also performed to completely record the best solvent system in application of maceration technology. Among those three solvents threated within Myrmecodia pendens, as a model of natural product, the results showed that water solvent system with conditions of alkalinity pH, optimum temperature, concentration, and contact time, is the best system to perform the maceration in order to have the highest isolated antioxidative activated extracts. The optimum conditions of the water solvent are at the alkalinity pH 9 up, 30 mg/mL of concentration, 40 min of contact time, 100 °C of temperature, and no ethanol used to replace parts of the water solvent. The present study strongly recommended the best conditions of solvent system to isolate the pharmaceutical extracts of natural products in application of the maceration technology.

Keywords: extracts, herbal medicine, natural product, maceration technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
627 Chloroform-Formic Acid Solvent Systems for Nanofibrous Polycaprolactone Webs

Authors: I. Yalcin Enis, J. Vojtech, T. Gok Sadikoglu


In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) was dissolved in chloroform: ethanol solvent system at a concentration of 18 w/v %. 1, 2, 4, and 6 droplets of formic acid were added to the prepared 10ml PCL-chloroform:ethanol solutions separately. Fibrous webs were produced by electrospinning technique. Morphology of the webs was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) whereas fiber diameters were measured by Image J Software System. The effect of formic acid addition to the mostly used chloroform solvent on fiber morphology was examined.

Keywords: chloroform, electrospinning, formic acid polycaprolactone, fiber

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626 Design of Ternary Coatings System to Minimize the Residual Solvent in Polymeric Coatings

Authors: Jyoti Sharma, Raj Kumar Arya


The coatings of homogeneous ternary solution of Poly(styrene)(PS)-Poly(ethyleneglycol)-6000(PEG) Chlorobenzene (CLB) of two different concentrations (5.05%-4.98%-89.97% and 10.05%-5.12%-84.82%) were studied and dried under quiescent conditions. Residual solvent percentage and coatings thickness were calculated by gravimetric weight loss data. Residual solvent remained lower in case of the single thick layer as compared to layer-by-layer assembly technique. The Results suggests the effectiveness of the single thick layer for minimizing the residual solvent. A single thick layer had an initial coating thickness of 1098 µm and the final thickness of 106 µm which is lower as compared to the dried coatings of nearly the same final thickness by layer-by-layer assembly technique.

Keywords: films, layer-by-layer assembly, polymeric coatings, ternary system

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625 Plasma-Induced Modification of Biomolecules: A Tool for Analysis of Protein Structures

Authors: Yuting Wu, Faraz Choudhury, Daniel Benjamin, James Whalin, Joshua Blatz, Leon Shohet, Michael Sussman, Mark Richards


Plasma-Induced Modification of Biomolecules (PLIMB) has been developed as a technology, which, together with mass spectrometry, measures three-dimensional structural characteristics of proteins. This technique uses hydroxyl radicals generated by atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge to react with the solvent-accessible side chains of protein in an aqueous solution. In this work, we investigate the three-dimensional structure of hemoglobin and myoglobin using PLIMB. Additional modifications to these proteins, such as oxidation, fragmentations, and conformational changes caused by PLIMB are also explored. These results show that PLIMB, coupled with mass spectrometry, is an effective way to determine solvent access to hemoproteins. Furthermore, we show that many factors, including pH and the electrical parameters used to generate the plasma, have a significant influence on solvent accessibility.

Keywords: plasma, hemoglobin, myoglobin, solvent access

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624 Solvent Dependent Triazole-Appended Glucofuranose-Based Fluorometric Sensor for Detection of Au³⁺ Ions

Authors: Samiul Islam Hazarika, Domngam Boje, Ananta Kumar Atta


It is well familiar that solvents play a significant role in modern chemistry. Solvents can change the reactivity and physicochemical properties of molecules in a solution. Keeping this in mind, we have designed and synthesized a mono-triazolyl-linked pyrenyl-appended xylofuranose derivative for the detection of metal ions with changing solvent systems. The incorporation of a sugar backbone in the sensor increases the water solubility and biocompatibility. The experimental study revealed that the xylofuranose-based fluorescence probe did not exhibit any specific selectivity towards metal ions in acetonitrile (CH₃CN) solvent. Whereas, we revealed that triazole-linked pyrenyl-appended xylofuranose-based fluorescent sensor would exhibit high selectivity and sensitivity towards Au³⁺ ions in CH₃CN-H₂O (1/1, v/v) system. This observation might be explained by the viscosity and polarity differences of CH₃CN and CH₃CN-H₂O solvent systems. The formation of the sensor-Au³⁺ complex was also established by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) data of the complex.

Keywords: triazole, furanose, fluorometric, solvent dependent

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623 Split-Flow Method to Reduce Duty Required in Amine Gas Sweetening Units

Authors: Abdallah Sofiane Berrouk, Dara Satyadileep


This paper investigates the feasibility of retrofitting a middle-east based commercial amine sweetening unit with a split-flow scheme which involves withdrawing a portion of partially stripped semi-lean solvent from the stripping column and re-injecting it in the absorption column to reduce the overall energy consumption of the unit. This method is comprehensively explored by performing parametric analysis of the split fraction of the semi-lean solvent using a kinetics based process simulator ProMax V 3.2. Re-boiler duty, condenser duty, solvent cooling and pumping loads are analysed as functions of a split fraction of the semi-lean solvent from the stripper. It is shown that the proposed method significantly reduces the overall energy consumption of the unit resulting in an annual savings of 325,000 USD. The thorough economic analysis is performed using Aspen Economic Evaluation V 8.4 to reveal that the retrofit scheme pays back the capital cost in less than eight years and is highly recommended for any commercial plant having suitable provisions for solvent inlet/withdrawal on the columns.

Keywords: split flow, Amine, gas processing, optimization

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622 Electrodeposition of NiO Films from Organic Solvent-Based Electrolytic Solutions for Solar Cell Application

Authors: Thierry Pauporté, Sana Koussi, Fabrice Odobel


The preparation of semiconductor oxide layers and structures by soft techniques is an important field of research. Higher performances are expected from the optimizing of the oxide films and then use of new methods of preparation for a better control of their chemical, morphological, electrical and optical properties. We present the preparation of NiO by electrodeposition from pure polar aprotic medium and mixtures with water. The effect of the solvent, of the electrochemical deposition parameters and post-deposition annealing treatment on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films is investigated. We remarkably show that the solvent is inserted in the deposited layer and act as a blowing agent, giving rise to mesoporous films after elimination by thermal annealing. These layers of p-type oxide have been successfully used, after sensitization by a dye, in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. The effects of the solvent on the layer properties and the application of these layers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells are described.

Keywords: NiO, layer, p-type sensitized solar cells, electrodeposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
621 Microwave Accelerated Simultaneous Distillation –Extraction: Preparative Recovery of Volatiles from Food Products

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid


Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) is routinely used by analysts for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for microwave assisted simultaneous distillation – solvent extraction (MW-SDE) of volatile compounds was developed. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction and concentration of volatile compounds can be carried out in a single step. To demonstrate its feasibility, MW-SDE was compared with the conventional technique, Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile compounds in a fresh orange juice and a dry spice “carvi seeds”. SDE method required long time (3 h) to isolate the volatile compounds, and large amount of organic solvent (200 mL of hexane) for further extraction, while MW-SDE needed little time (only 30 min) to prepare sample, and less amount of organic solvent (10 mL of hexane). These results show that MW-SDE–GC-MS is a simple, rapid and solvent-less method for determination of volatile compounds from aromatic plants.

Keywords: essential oil, extraction, distillation, carvi seeds

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620 Studies of Substituent and Solvent Effect on Spectroscopic Properties Of 6-OH-4-CH3, 7-OH-4-CH3 and 7-OH-4-CF3 Coumarin

Authors: Sanjay Kumar


This paper reports the solvent effects on the electronic absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of 6-OH-4-CH3, 7-OH-4-CH3 and 7-OH-4-CF3 coumarin derivatives having -OH, -CH3 and -CF3 substituent at different positions in various solvents (Polar and Non-Polar). The first excited singlet state dipole moment and ground state dipole moment were calculated using Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt-Dimroth equations and were compared for all the coumarin studied. In all cases the dipole moments were found to be higher in the excited singlet state than in the ground state indicating a substantial redistribution of Π-electron density in the excited state. The angle between the excited singlet state and ground state dipole moment is also calculated. The red shift of the absorption and fluorescence emission bands, observed for all the coumarin studied upon increasing the solvent polarity indicating that the electronic transitions were Π → Π* nature.

Keywords: coumarin, solvent effects, absorption spectra, emission spectra, excited singlet state dipole moment, ground state dipole moment, solvatochromism

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
619 Determination of Antioxidant Activities of Sumac (Rhus Coriaria) Extracts with Different Solvents

Authors: F. T. Senberber, N. Tugrul, E. Moroydor Derun


As a nutraceutical, sumac (Rhus Coriaria) was extracted by using different solvents of methanol, ethanol, and water. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) method of free radical scavenging capacity was used to determine the effects of solvent on antioxidant activities of the plant. The total phenolic content was studied by The Folin Ciocalteu Reagent method. The antioxidant activities of extracts exhibit minor changes in different solvents and varied in the range of 84.3–86.4 %. The total phenolic contents are affected by the selected solvent. The highest total phenolic content was determined at the liquid phase of water and it was estimated as 26.3 mg/g in gallic acid.

Keywords: DPPH, solvent, sumac, total phenolic content

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618 Investigation of Type and Concentration Effects of Solvent on Chemical Properties of Saffron Edible Extract

Authors: Sharareh Mohseni


Purpose: The objective of this study was to find a suitable solvent to produce saffron edible extract with improved chemical properties. Design/methodology/approach: Dried and pulverized stigmas of C. sativus L. (10g) was extracted with 300 ml of solvents including: distillated water (DW), ethanol/DW, methanol/DW, propylene glycol/DW, heptan/DW, and hexan/DW, for 3 days at 25°C and then centrifuged at 3000 rpm. Then the extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator at 40°C. The fiber and solvent-free extracts were then analyzed by UV spectrophotometer to detect saffron quality parameters including crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. Findings: Distilled water/ethanol mixture as the extraction solvent, caused larger amounts of the plant constituents to diffuse out to the extract compared to other treatments and also control. Polar solvents including distilled water, ethanol, and propylene glycol (except methanol) were more effective in extracting crocin, picrocrocin, and saffranal than non-polar solvents. Social implications: Due to an enhancement of color and flavor, saffron extract is economical compared to natural saffron. Saffron Extract saves on preparation time and reduces the amount of saffron required for imparting the same flavor, as compared to dry saffron. Liquid extract is easier to use and standardize in food preparations compared to dry stamens and can be dosed precisely compared to natural saffron. Originality/value: No research had been done on production of saffron edible extract using the solvent studied in this survey. The novelty of this research is high and the results can be used industrially.

Keywords: Crocus sativus L., saffron extract, solvent extraction, distilled water

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617 [Keynote Talk]: Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of ZnO of Different Morphologies by Solvent Variation

Authors: Durata Haciu, Berti Manisa, Ozgur Birer


ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation from simple linear alcohols and water/ethanolic mixtures, at 50 oC. By changing the composition of the solvent, the shape could be altered. While no product was obtained from methanolic solutions, in ethanol, sheet like lamellar structures prevail.n-propanol and n-butanol resulted in needle like structures. The morphology of ZnO could be thus tailored in a simple way, by varying the solvent, under ultrasonic irradiation, in a relatively less time consuming method. Variation of the morphology and size of Zn also provides a means for modulating the band-gap. Although the chemical effects of ultrasound do not come from direct interaction with molecular species, the high energy derived from acoustic cavitation creates a unique interaction of energy and matter with great potential for synthesis.

Keywords: ultrasound, ZnO, linear alcohols, morphology

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616 Microencapsulation of Phenobarbital by Ethyl Cellulose Matrix

Authors: S. Bouameur, S. Chirani


The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of EthylCellulose in the preparation of microspheres as a Drug Delivery System for sustained release of phenobarbital. The microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using ethylcellulose as polymer matrix with a ratio 1:2, dichloromethane as solvent and Polyvinyl alcohol 1% as processing medium to solidify the microspheres. Size, shape, drug loading capacity and entrapement efficiency were studied.

Keywords: phenobarbital, microspheres, ethylcellulose, polyvinylacohol

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615 A Computational Study on Solvent Effects on the Keto-Enol Tautomeric Equilibrium of Dimedone and Acetylacetone 1,3- Dicabonyls

Authors: Imad Eddine Charif, Sidi Mohamed Mekelleche, Didier Villemin


The solvent effects on the keto-enol tautomeric equilibriums of acetylacetone and dimedone are theoretically investigated at the correlated Becke-3-parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) and second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) computational levels. The present study shows that the most stable keto tautomer of acetylacetone corresponds to the trans-diketo, E,Z form; while the most stable enol tautomer corresponds to the closed cis-enol,Z,Z form. The keto tautomer of dimedone prefers the trans diketo, E, E form; while the most stable enol tautomer corresponds to trans-enol form. The calculated free Gibbs enthalpies indicate that, in polar solvents, the keto-enol equilibrium of acetylacetone is shifted toward the keto tautomer; whereas the keto-enol equilibrium of dimedone is shifted towards the enol tautomer. The experimental trends of the change of equilibrium constants with respect to the change of solvent polarity are well reproduced by both B3LYP and MP2 calculations.

Keywords: acetylacetone, dimedone, solvent effects, keto-enol equilibrium, theoretical calculations

Procedia PDF Downloads 292