Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: H. M. Nayana

7 Noise Reduction by Energising the Boundary Layer

Authors: Kiran P. Kumar, H. M. Nayana, R. Rakshitha, S. Sushmitha

Abstract:

Aircraft noise is a highly concerned problem in the field of the aviation industry. It is necessary to reduce the noise in order to be environment-friendly. Air-frame noise is caused because of the quick separation of the boundary layer over an aircraft body. So, we have to delay the boundary layer separation of an air-frame and engine nacelle. By following a certain procedure boundary layer separation can be reduced by converting laminar into turbulent and hence early separation can be prevented that leads to the noise reduction. This method has a tendency to reduce the noise of the aircraft hence it can prove efficient and environment-friendly than the present Aircraft.

Keywords: airframe, boundary layer, noise, reduction

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6 Personality Based Adaptive E-Learning 3D Game

Authors: Yasith Nayana, Janani Manamperuma, Lalindi Amarasinghe, Sasanka Kodithuwakku

Abstract:

Educational games are popular among current e-learning systems. The approach to education through interactive media is expected to motivate students and encourage participation and engagement. ‘Kalayathra’ is an adaptive, player centered e-learning 3D game. The game identifies the player’s personality and adapt the gaming environment according to the player’s preference. Our platform measures the student’s performance and support learning through player assessment. Player experience is a good measure of the level of fun and education presented to players. To assess the level of playability we introduce an educational playability model. ‘Kalayathra’ is developed according to the GCE O/L syllabus and teaching guide in Sri Lankan education system. The game is capable of guiding players into the environment and aid them in tasks and activities depending on how much the player requires help.

Keywords: e-learning, games, adaptive, personality, gamification, player experience

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5 Breeding Biology of Priacanthus hamrur (Forsskal) off Mangalore Coast, Karnataka, India

Authors: H. N. Anjanayappa, S. Benakappa, A. T. Ramachandra Naik, P. Nayana, D. P. Rajesh

Abstract:

Fishes of the family Priacanthidae, popularly called big eye or bulls eye. Priacanthus hamrur is an important deep-water inhabitant of great commercial value. High percentage of landings of Priancanthids used as raw material for surimi, sausage and other fishery by-products. Presently, it has great demand in Singapore Thailand, Taiwan, Hong Kong and other countries. For the maturation studies, samples were collected from commercial landing centre, Mangalore. Studies on reproductive biology showed that Priacanthus hamrur spawns twice in a year, the spawning season extending from March to May and October to November. Based on the percentage occurrence of mature fishes in various size group it was inferred that male attained maturity at smaller size than female. This study will enable us to understand the spawning periodicity, cyclic morphological changes in male, female gonads and also it helps to improve stock size by enforcing fishing ban in particular season by assessing spawning periodicity.

Keywords: breeding biology, Mangalore, morphological changes, Priacanthus hamrur

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4 Reproductive Biology of Fringe-Lipped Carp, Labeo fimbriatus (Bloch) from Vanivilas Sagar Reservoir of Karnataka, India

Authors: K. B. Rajanna, P. Nayana, H. N. Anjanayappa, N. Chethan

Abstract:

The ‘fringed - lipped’ peninsula carp Labeo fimbriatus is a potential and an abundant fish species in rivers and reservoirs of peninsular India. It contributes a part of the inland fish production and also plays a role in the rural economy in major carp deficient regions of India. The fish is locally called as ‘Kemmeenu’ in Karnataka. Month wise samples were collected from the Vanivilasa Sagar Reservoir fish landing centre and fishing villages around the reservoir. Present investigation on the reproductive biology showed the occurrence of ripe gonads more during October, November, December and January. Thus it is concluded that spawning season coinciding with monsoon season and the size at maturity was found to be 36 and 37 cm total length (M and F). This study will throw light on reproductive biology of fish for captive brood stock development, breeding and rearing of Labeo fimbriatus. Since this fish is commercial important the study would help to take up hatchery production.

Keywords: inland, maturity, peninsula carp, reservoir

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3 Length Weight Relationship and Relative Condition Factor of Atropus atropos (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from Mangalore Coast, India

Authors: D. P. Rajesh, H. N. Anjanayappa, P. Nayana, S. Benakappa

Abstract:

The present study deals with length-weight relationship of Atropus atropos for which no information is available on this aspect from Mangalore coast. Therefore the present investigation was undertaken. Fish samples were collected from fish landing center (Mangalore) and fish market. The regression co-efficient of male was found to be lower than female. From this observation it may be opined that female gained more weight with increase in length compared to male. Data on seasonal variation in condition factor (Kn) showed that Kn values were more or less similar in both the sexes, indicating almost identical metabolic activity. Gonadal development and high feeding intensity are the factors which influenced the condition factor. The seasonal fluctuations in the relative condition factor of both the sexes could be attributed to the sexual cycle, food intake and environmental factors. From the present study, it can be inferred that the variation in the condition of Atropus atropos was due to feeding activity and gonadal maturity.

Keywords: Atropus atropos, length-weight relationship, Mangalore coast, relative condition factor, Kn

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2 Rupture in the Paradigm of the International Policy of Illicit Drugs in the Field of Public Health and within the Framework of the World Health Organization, 2001 to 2016

Authors: Emy Nayana Pinto, Denise Bomtempo Birche De Carvalho

Abstract:

In the present study, the harmful use of illicit drugs is seen as a public health problem and as one of the expressions of the social question, since its consequences fall mainly on the poorer classes of the population. This perspective is a counterpoint to the dominant paradigm on illicit drug policy at the global level, whose centrality lies within the criminal justice arena. The 'drug problem' is internationally combated through fragmented approaches that focus its actions on banning and criminalizing users. In this sense, the research seeks to answer the following key questions: What are the influences of the prohibitionism in the recommendations of the United Nations (UN), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the formulation of drug policies in member countries? What are the actors that have been provoking the prospect of breaking with the prohibitionist paradigm? What is the WHO contribution to the rupture with the prohibitionist paradigm and the displacement of the drug problem in the field of public health? The general objective of this work is to seek evidence from the perspective of rupture with the prohibitionist paradigm in the field of drugs policies at the global and regional level, through analysis of documents of the World Health Organization (WHO), between the years of 2001 to 2016. The research was carried out in bibliographical and documentary sources. The bibliographic sources contributed to the approach with the object and the theoretical basis of the research. The documentary sources served to answer the research questions and evidence the existence of the perspective of change in drug policy. Twenty-two documents of the UN system were consulted, of which fifteen had the contribution of the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the documents that directly relate to the subject of the research, documents from various agencies, programs, and offices, such as the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), which also has drugs as the central or transversal theme of its performance. The results showed that from the 2000s it was possible to find in the literature review and in the documentary analysis evidence of the critique of the prohibitionist paradigm parallel to the construction of a new perspective for drug policy at the global level and the displacement of criminal justice approaches for the scope of public health, with the adoption of alternative and pragmatic interventions based on human rights, scientific evidence and the reduction of social damages and health by the misuse of illicit drugs.

Keywords: illicit drugs, international organizations, prohibitionism, public health, World Health Organization

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1 Highly Selective Phosgene Free Synthesis of Methylphenylcarbamate from Aniline and Dimethyl Carbonate over Heterogeneous Catalyst

Authors: Nayana T. Nivangune, Vivek V. Ranade, Ashutosh A. Kelkar

Abstract:

Organic carbamates are versatile compounds widely employed as pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, dyes, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and in the synthesis of polyurethanes. Carbamates can be easily transformed into isocyanates by thermal cracking. Isocyantes are used as precursors for manufacturing agrochemicals, adhesives and polyurethane elastomers. Manufacture of polyurethane foams is a major application of aromatic ioscyanates and in 2007 the global consumption of polyurethane was about 12 million metric tons/year and the average annual growth rate was about 5%. Presently Isocyanates/carbamates are manufactured by phosgene based process. However, because of high toxicity of phoegene and formation of waste products in large quantity; there is a need to develop alternative and safer process for the synthesis of isocyanates/carbamates. Recently many alternative processes have been investigated and carbamate synthesis by methoxycarbonylation of aromatic amines using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as a green reagent has emerged as promising alternative route. In this reaction methanol is formed as a by-product, which can be converted to DMC either by oxidative carbonylation of methanol or by reacting with urea. Thus, the route based on DMC has a potential to provide atom efficient and safer route for the synthesis of carbamates from DMC and amines. Lot of work is being carried out on the development of catalysts for this reaction and homogeneous zinc salts were found to be good catalysts for the reaction. However, catalyst/product separation is challenging with these catalysts. There are few reports on the use of supported Zn catalysts; however, deactivation of the catalyst is the major problem with these catalysts. We wish to report here methoxycarbonylation of aniline to methylphenylcarbamate (MPC) using amino acid complexes of Zn as highly active and selective catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, IR, solid state NMR and XPS analysis. Methoxycarbonylation of aniline was carried out at 170 °C using 2.5 wt% of the catalyst to achieve >98% conversion of aniline with 97-99% selectivity to MPC as the product. Formation of N-methylated products in small quantity (1-2%) was also observed. Optimization of the reaction conditions was carried out using zinc-proline complex as the catalyst. Selectivity was strongly dependent on the temperature and aniline:DMC ratio used. At lower aniline:DMC ratio and at higher temperature, selectivity to MPC decreased (85-89% respectively) with the formation of N-methylaniline (NMA), N-methyl methylphenylcarbamate (MMPC) and N,N-dimethyl aniline (NNDMA) as by-products. Best results (98% aniline conversion with 99% selectivity to MPC in 4 h) were observed at 170oC and aniline:DMC ratio of 1:20. Catalyst stability was verified by carrying out recycle experiment. Methoxycarbonylation preceded smoothly with various amine derivatives indicating versatility of the catalyst. The catalyst is inexpensive and can be easily prepared from zinc salt and naturally occurring amino acids. The results are important and provide environmentally benign route for MPC synthesis with high activity and selectivity.

Keywords: aniline, heterogeneous catalyst, methoxycarbonylation, methylphenyl carbamate

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