Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: eisenia bicyclis

5 Accumulation of Phlorotannins in Abalone Haliotis discus Hannai after Feeding with Eisenia bicyclis

Authors: Bangoura Issa, Ji-Young Kang, M. T. H. Chowdhury, Ji-Eun Lee, Yong-Ki Hong

Abstract:

Investigation was carried out for the production of value-added abalone Haliotis discus hannai containing bioactive phlorotannin by feeding phlorotannin-rich seaweed Eisenia bicyclis 2 weeks prior to harvesting. Accumulation of phlorotannins was proceded by feeding with E. bicyclis after 4 days of starvation. HPLC purification afforded two major phlorotannins. Mass spectrometry and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis clarified their structures to be as 7-phloroeckol and eckol. Throughout the feeding period of 20 days, 7-phloroeckolol was accumulated in the muscle (foot muscle tissue) up to 0.18±0.12 mg g-1 dry weight of tissue after 12 days. Eckol reached 0.21±0.03 mg g-1 dry weight of tissue after 18 days. By feeding Laminaria japonica as reference, abalone showed no detection of phlorotannins in the muscle tissue. Seaweed consumption and growth rate of abalone revealed almost similar when feed with E. bicyclis or L. japonicain 20 days. Phlorotannins reduction to half-maximal accumulation values took 1.0 day and 2.7 days for 7-phloroeckol and eckol respectively, after replacing the feed to L. japonica.

Keywords: abalone, accumulation, eisenia bicyclis, phlorotannins

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4 Vermicomposting of Textile Industries’ Dyeing Sludge by Using Eisenia foetida

Authors: Kunwar D. Yadav, Dayanand Sharma

Abstract:

Surat City in India is famous for textile and dyeing industries which generate textile sludge in huge quantity. Textile sludge contains harmful chemicals which are poisonous and carcinogenic. The safe disposal and reuse of textile dyeing sludge are challenging for owner of textile industries and government of the state. The aim of present study was the vermicomposting of textile industries dyeing sludge with cow dung and Eisenia foetida as earthworm spices. The vermicompost reactor of 0.3 m3 capacity was used for vermicomposting. Textile dyeing sludge was mixed with cow dung in different proportion, i.e., 0:100 (C1), 10:90 (C2), 20:80 (C3), 30:70 (C4). Vermicomposting duration was 120 days. All the combinations of the feed mixture, the pH was increased to a range 7.45-7.78, percentage of total organic carbon was decreased to a range of 31-33.3%, total nitrogen was decreased to a range of 1.15-1.32%, total phosphorus was increased in the range of 6.2-7.9 (g/kg).

Keywords: cow dung, Eisenia foetida, textile sludge, vermicompost

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3 Comparative Analysis of Pit Composting and Vermicomposting in a Tropical Environment

Authors: E. Ewemoje Oluseyi, T. A. Ewemoje, A. A. Adedeji

Abstract:

Biodegradable solid waste disposal and management has been a major problem in Nigeria and indiscriminate dumping of this waste either into watercourses or drains has led to environmental hazards affecting public health. The study investigated the nutrients level of pit composting and vermicomposting. Wooden bins 60 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm3 in size were constructed and bedding materials (sawdust, egg shell, paper and grasses) and red worms (Eisenia fetida) introduced to facilitate the free movement and protection of the worms against harsh weather. A pit of 100 cm × 100 cm × 100 cm3 was dug and worms were introduced into the pit, which was turned every two weeks. Food waste was fed to the red worms in the bin and pit, respectively. The composts were harvested after 100 days and analysed. The analyses gave: nitrogen has average value 0.87 % and 1.29 %; phosphorus 0.66 % and 1.78 %; potassium 4.35 % and 6.27 % for the pit and vermicomposting, respectively. Higher nutrient status of vermicomposting over pit composting may be attributed to the secretions in the intestinal tracts of worms which are more readily available for plant growth. However, iron and aluminium were more in the pit compost than the vermin compost and this may be attributed to the iron and aluminium already present in the soil before the composting took place. Other nutrients in ppm concentrations were aluminium 4,999.50 and 3,989.33; iron 2,131.83 and 633.40 for the pit and vermicomposting, respectively. These nutrients are only needed by plants in small quantities. Hence, vermicomposting has the higher concentration of essential nutrients necessary for healthy plant growth.

Keywords: food wastes, pit composting, plant nutrient status, tropical environment, vermicomposting

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2 Vermicomposting Amended With Microorganisms and Biochar: Phytopathogen Resistant Seedbeds for Vegetables and Heavy Metal Polluted Waste Treatment

Authors: Fuad Ameen, Ali A. Al-Homaidan

Abstract:

Biochar can be used in numerous biotechnological applications due to its properties to adsorb beneficial nutrients and harmful pollutants. Objectives: We aimed to treat heavy metal polluted organic wastes using vermicomposting process and produce a fertilizer that can be used in agriculture. We improved the process by adding biochar as well as microbial inoculum and biomass into household waste or sewage sludge before vermicomposting. The earthworm Eisenia fetida used in vermicomposting was included to accumulate heavy metals, biochar to adsorb heavy metals, and the microalga Navicula sp. or the mangrove fungus Acrophialophora sp. to promote plant growth in the final product used as a seedbed for Solanaceae vegetables. We carried out vermicomposting treatments to see the effect of different amendments. Final compost quality was analyzed for maturity. The earthworms were studied for their vitality, heavy metal accumulation, and metallothionein protein content to verify their role in the process. The compost was used as a seedbed for vegetables that were inoculated with a phytopathogen Pythium sp. known to cause root rot and destroy seeds. Compost as seedbed promoted plant growth and reduced disease symptoms in leaves. In the treatment where E. fetida, 6% biochar, and Navicula sp. had been added, 90% of the seeds germinated, while less than 20% germinated in the control treatment. The experimental plants had acquired resistance against Pythium sp. The metagenomic profile of microbial communities will be reported.

Keywords: organic wastes, vermicomposting process, biochar, mangrove fungus

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1 Effect of Brown Algae, Ecklonia arborea and Silvetia compressa, in Lipidemic and Hepatic Metabolism in Wistar Rats

Authors: Laura Acevedo-Pacheco, Janet Alejandra Gutierrez-Uribe, Lucia Elizabeth Cruz-Suarez, Segio Othon Serna-Saldivar

Abstract:

Seaweeds can generate changes in the metabolism of lipids; as a consequence, this may diminish cholesterol and other lipids in the blood. However, the consumption of marine algae may also alter the functions of other organs. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study the effect of two different sorts of algae (Ecklonia arborea and Silvetia compressa) in the metabolism of lipids, as well as, in the physiology of the liver. Wistar male rats were fed for two months with independent diets composed of 20% of fat and 2.5% of E. arborea and S. compressa each. Blood parameters (cholesterol, lipoproteins, triglycerides, hepatic enzymes) and triglycerides in the liver were quantified, and also hepatic histology analyses were performed. While S. compressa reduced 18% total cholesterol compared to the positive control, E. arborea increased it 5.8%. Animals fed with S. compressa presented a decrement, compared to the positive control, not only in low density lipoproteins levels (53%) but also in triglycerides (67%). The presence of steatosis in the histologies and the high levels of triglycerides showed an evident lipid accumulation in hepatic tissues of rats fed with both algae. These results indicate that even though S. compressa showed a promising resource to decrease total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins in blood, a detrimental effect was observed in liver physiology. Further investigations should be made to find out if toxic compounds associated with these seaweeds may cause liver damage especially in terms of heavy metals.

Keywords: brown algae, Eisenia arborea, hepatic metabolism, lipidemic metabolism, Pelvetia compressa, steatosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 54