Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: jackfruit

10 A Process for Prevention of Browning in Fresh Cut Tender Jackfruit

Authors: Ramachandra Pradhan, Sandeep Singh Rama, Sabyasachi Mishra

Abstract:

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) in its tender form is consumed as a vegetable and popular for its flavour, colour and meat like texture. In South Asian countries like Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Indonesia the market value for tender jackfruit is very high. However, due to lack of technology the marketing and transportation of the fruit is a challenge. The processing activities like washing, sorting, peeling and cutting enhances oxidative stress in fresh cut jackfruit. It is also having the ill effects on quality of fresh cut tender jackfruit by an increase in microbial contaminations, excessive tissue softening, and depletion of phytochemicals and browning. Hence, this study was conducted as a solution to the above problem. Fresh cut tender Jackfruit slices were processed by using the independent parameters such as concentration of CaCl2 (2-5%), concentration of citric acid (1-2.5%) and treatment time (4-10 min.) and the depended variables were Browning index (BI), colour change (ΔE), Firmness (F) and Overall all acceptability (OAA) after the treatment. From the response variables the best combination of independent variables was resulted as 3% concentration of CaCl2 and 2% concentration of citric acid for 6 minutes. At these optimised processing treatments, the browning can be prevented for fresh cut tender jackfruit. This technology can be used by the researcher, scientists, industries, etc. for further processing of tender jackfruit.

Keywords: tender jackfruit, browning index, firmness, texture

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9 High Pressure Processing of Jackfruit Bulbs: Effect on Color, Nutrient Profile and Enzyme Inactivation

Authors: Jyoti Kumari, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

Jackfruit (ArtocarpusheterophyllusL.) is an underutilized yet highly nutritious fruit with unique flavour, known for its therapeutic and culinary properties. Fresh jackfruit bulb has a very short shelf life due to high moisture and sugar content leading to microbial and enzymatic browning, hindering its consumer acceptability and marketability. An attempt has been made for the preservation of the ripe jackfruit bulbs, by the application of high pressure (HP) over a range of 200-500 MPa at ambient temperature for dwell times ranging from 5 to 20 min. The physicochemical properties of jackfruit bulbs such as the pH, TSS, and titrable acidity were not affected by the pressurization process. The ripening index of the fruit bulb also decreased following HP treatment. While the ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity of jackfruit bulb were well retained by high pressure processing (HPP), the total phenols and carotenoids showed a slight increase. The HPP significantly affected the colour and textural properties of jackfruit bulb. High pressure processing was highly effective in reducing the browning index of jackfruit bulbs in comparison to untreated bulbs. The firmness of the bulbs improved upon the pressure treatment with longer dwelling time. The polyphenol oxidase has been identified as the most prominent oxidative enzyme in the jackfruit bulb. The enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase were significantly reduced by up to 40% following treatment at 400 MPa/15 min. HPP of jackfruit bulbs at ambient temperatures is shown to be highly beneficial in improving the shelf stability, retaining its nutrient profile, color, and appearance while ensuring the maximum inactivation of the spoilage enzymes.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, color, HPP-high pressure processing, jackfruit bulbs, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, total phenolic content

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8 Utilization of Jackfruit Seed Flour (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) as a Food Additive

Authors: C. S. D. S. Maduwage, P. W. Jeewanthi, W. A. J. P. Wijesinghe

Abstract:

This study investigated the use of Jackfruit Seed Flour (JSF) as a thickening agent in tomato sauce production. Lye peeled mature jackfruit seeds were used to obtain JSF. Flour was packed in laminated bags and stored for further studies. Three batches of tomato sauce samples were prepared according to the Sri Lankan Standards for tomato sauce by adding JSF, corn flour and without any thickening agent. Samples were stored at room temperature for 8 weeks in glass bottles. The physicochemical properties such as pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and water activity were measured during the storage period. Microbial analysis and sensory evaluation were done to determine the quality of tomato sauce. JSF showed the role of a thickening agent in tomato sauce with lowest serum separation and highest viscosity during the storage period. This study concludes that JSF can be successfully used as a thickening agent in food industry.

Keywords: Jackfruit seed flour, food additive, thickening agent, tomato sauce

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7 The Use of Performance Indicators for Evaluating Models of Drying Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.): Page, Midilli, and Lewis

Authors: D. S. C. Soares, D. G. Costa, J. T. S., A. K. S. Abud, T. P. Nunes, A. M. Oliveira Júnior

Abstract:

Mathematical models of drying are used for the purpose of understanding the drying process in order to determine important parameters for design and operation of the dryer. The jackfruit is a fruit with high consumption in the Northeast and perishability. It is necessary to apply techniques to improve their conservation for longer in order to diffuse it by regions with low consumption. This study aimed to analyse several mathematical models (Page, Lewis, and Midilli) to indicate one that best fits the conditions of convective drying process using performance indicators associated with each model: accuracy (Af) and noise factors (Bf), mean square error (RMSE) and standard error of prediction (% SEP). Jackfruit drying was carried out in convective type tray dryer at a temperature of 50°C for 9 hours. It is observed that the model Midili was more accurate with Af: 1.39, Bf: 1.33, RMSE: 0.01%, and SEP: 5.34. However, the use of the Model Midilli is not appropriate for purposes of control process due to need four tuning parameters. With the performance indicators used in this paper, the Page model showed similar results with only two parameters. It is concluded that the best correlation between the experimental and estimated data is given by the Page’s model.

Keywords: drying, models, jackfruit, biotechnology

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6 Development and Characterization of Biscuits Incorporated with Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Seeds and Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

Authors: Elina Brahma Hazarika, Jeuti Basumatary, Deepanka Saikia, Jaydeep Das, Micky Moni D'mary, Fungkha Basumatary

Abstract:

This study includes development of two varieties of biscuits incorporated with: the seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), which post-consumption of it’s pulp, is discarded as a waste, and Cassava (Manihot esculenta) tubers.The jack fruit seeds and cassava were first ground into flour and its proximate and physiochemical properties were studied. The biscuits that were developed incorporating them had 50% wheat flour and 50% jackfruit seed flour and 50% cassava flours as the major composition, apart from the other general ingredients use in making biscuits. Various trials of compositions were made for baking to get the overall desirable acceptability in biscuits through sensory evaluation. Finally, the best composition of ingredients was selected to make the biscuits, and hence studies were done accordingly to compare it with the properties of their respective raw flours. The results showed that the proximate composition of the biscuits fared better than that of their respective flours: There was a decrease in the Moisture content of both Jackfruit Seed Biscuits and Cassava Biscuits to 4.5% and 6.7% than that of their respective raw flours (8 and 12%). Post-baking, there is increase in the percentages of ash, protein, and fibre contents in both Jackfruit Seed Biscuits and Cassava Biscuits; the values being 3% and 3.8%, 13.2% and 3.3%, and 3.2 and 4.1% respectively. Also the total carbohydrate content in Jackfruit Seed Biscuits and Cassava Biscuits were 66.7% and 71.7% respectively. Their sensory evaluation and texture study also yielded a clear review that they have an overall good acceptability.

Keywords: baking, proximate, sensory, texture

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5 Effectiveness of Jackfruit Seed Starch as Coagulant Aid in Landfill Leachate Treatment

Authors: Mohd Suffian Yusoff, Noor Aina Mohamad Zuki, Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad Zamri

Abstract:

Currently, aluminium sulphate (alum), ferric chloride and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) are the most common coagulants being used for leachate coagulation-flocculation treatment. However, the impact of these residual’s coagulants have sparked huge concern ceaselessly. Therefore, development of natural coagulant as an alternative coagulant for treatment process has been given full attentions. In this attempt jackfruit seed starch (JSS) was produce by extraction method. The removal efficiency was determined using jar test method. The removal of organic matter and ammonia were compared between JSS used in powder form and diluted form in leachate. The yield of starch from the extraction method was 33.17 % with light brown in colour. The removal of turbidity was the highest at pH 8 for both diluted and powdered JSS with 38% and 8.7% of removal. While for colour removal the diluted JSS showed 18.19% of removal compared to powdered JSS. The diluted JSS also showed the highest removal of suspended solid with 3.5% compared to powdered JSS with 2.8%. Instead of coagulant, JSS as coagulant aid has succeed to reduce the dosage of PAC from 900 mg/L to 528 mg/L by maintaining colour and turbidity removal up to 94% and 92 % respectively. The JSS coagulant also has decreased the negative charge of the leachate nearly to the neutral charge (0.209 mv). The result proved that JSS was more effective to be used as coagulant aid landfill leachate treatment.

Keywords: landfill leachate, natural coagulant, jackfruit seed starch, coagulant

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4 Influence of Thermal Processing Methods on Antinutrient of Artocarpus heterophyllus Seeds

Authors: Marina Zulkifli, Mohd Faizal Mashhod, Noriham Abdullah

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the antinutrient compounds of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seeds as affected by thermal processes. Two types of heat treatments were applied namely boiling and microwave cooking. Results of this study showed that boiling caused a significant decrease in phytate content (30.01%), oxalate content (33.22%), saponin content (35.69%) and tannin content (44.58%) as compared to microwave cooking and raw seed. The percentage loss of antinutrient compounds in microwaved seed was: phytate 24.58%, oxalate 27.28%, saponin 16.50% and tannin 32.21%. Hence, these findings suggested that boiling is an effective treatment to reduce the level of toxic compounds in foods.

Keywords: jackfruit, heat treatments, antinutrient compounds, thermal processing

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3 Supplementation of Jackfruit By-Product Concentrate in Combination with Two Types of Protein Sources for Growing Kids

Authors: Emely J. Escala, Lolito C. Bestil

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to assess the potential of jackfruit by-product concentrate (JBC) in combination with two types of protein sources, soybean meal (SBM) and liquid acid whey (LAW), given at two different ratios as supplement for growing kids fed a basal diet of 70:30 napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and kakawate (Gliricidia sepium) soilage ratio. The experiment was set-up in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with sex-age combination as basis for blocking, with the following dietary treatments: T1 = 0.50:0.50% BW, DM basis, JBC:SBM, T2 = 0.75:0.25% BW JBC:SBM, T3 = 0.50:0.50% BW, DM basis, JBC:LAW, and T4 = 0.75:0.25% BW JBC:LAW. Analysis of JBC showed high contents of crude fiber with medium levels of crude protein and nitrogen-free extract, appearing to be fitting for ruminants and a potential energy source. Results showed significantly higher voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI), cumulative weight gain (CWG), and average daily gain (ADG) of growing goats supplemented with JBC in combination with SBM than with LAW. The amount of JBC can range from 0.50% to 0.75% BW with SBM making up the difference, but a JBC:SBM ratio of 0.75:0.25% BW, DM basis, is best in promoting highest voluntary dry matter intake and is, therefore, highly recommended in the light of savings in feed cost. A long-term study on the effects of JBC supplementation on meat qualities of growing kids (aroma, marbling characteristics and taste) is also recommended.

Keywords: jackfruit by-product concentrate, liquid acid whey, soybean meal, grower kids

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2 The Impact of the Core Competencies in Business Management to the Existence and Progress of Traditional Foods Business with the Case of Study: Gudeg Sagan Yogyakarta

Authors: Lutfi AuliaRahman, Hari Rizki Ananda

Abstract:

The traditional food is a typical food of a certain region that has a taste of its own unique and typically consumed by a society in certain areas, one of which is Gudeg, a regional specialties traditional food of Yogyakarta and Central Java which is made of young jackfruit cooked in coconut milk, edible with rice and served with thick coconut milk (areh), chicken, eggs, tofu and sambal goreng krecek. However, lately, the image of traditional food has declined among people, so with gudeg, which today's society, especially among young people, tend to prefer modern types of food such as fast food and some other foods that are popular. Moreover, traditional food usually only preferred by consumers of local communities and lack of demand by consumers from different areas for different tastes. Thus, the traditional food producers increasingly marginalized and their consumers are on the wane. This study aimed to evaluate the management used by producers of traditional food with a case study of Gudeg Sagan which located in the city of Yogyakarta, with the ability of their management in creating core competencies, which includes the competence of cost, competence of flexibility, competence of quality, competence of time, and value-based competence. And then, in addition to surviving and continuing to exist with the existing external environment, Gudeg Sagan can increase the number of consumers and also reach a broader segment of teenagers and adults as well as consumers from different areas. And finally, in this paper will be found positive impact on the creation of the core competencies of the existence and progress of the traditional food business based on case study of Gudeg Sagan.

Keywords: Gudeg Sagan, traditional food, core competencies, existence

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1 Effects of Adding Condensed Tannin from Shrub and Tree Leaves in Concentrate on Sheep Production Fed on Elephant Grass as a Basal Diet

Authors: Kusmartono, Siti Chuzaemi, Hartutik dan Mashudi

Abstract:

Two studies were conducted involving an in vitro (Expt 1) and in vivo (Expt 2) measurements. Expt 1. aimed to evaluate effects of adding CT extracts on gas production and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS), Expt 2 aimed to evaluate effects of supplementing shrub/tree leaves as CT source on feed consumption, digestibility, N retention, body weight gain and dressing percentage of growing sheep fed on elephant grass (EG) as a basal diet.Ten shrub and tree leaves used as CT sources were wild sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia), mulberry (Morus macroura), cassava (Manihot utilissima), avicienna (Avicennia marina), calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus), sesbania (Sesbania grandiflora), acacia (acacia vilosa), glyricidia (Glyricidia sepium), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), moringa (Moringa oleifera). The treatments applied in Expt 1 were: T1=Elephant grass (60%)+concentrate (40%); T2 = T1 + CT (3% DM); T3= T2 + PEG; T4 = T1 + CT (3.5% DM); T5 = T4 + PEG; T6 = T1 + CT (4% DM) and T7 = T6 + PEG. Data obtained were analysed using Randomized Block Design. Statistical analyses showed that treatments significanty affected (P<0.05) total gas production and EMPS. The lowest values of total gas production (45.9 ml/500 mg DM) and highest value of EMPS (64.6 g/kg BOTR) were observed in the treatment T4 (3.5% CT from cassava leave extract). Based on this result it was concluded that this treatment was the best and was chosen for further investigation using in vivo method. The treatmets applied for in vivo trial were: T1 = EG (60%) + concentrate (40%); T2 = T1 + dried cassava leave (equivalent to 3.5% CT); T3 = T2 + PEG. 18 growing sheep aging of 8-9 months and weighing of 23.67kg ± 1.23 were used in Expt 2. Results of in vivo study showed that treatments significanty affected (P<0.05) nutrients intake and digestibility (DM, OM and CP). N retention for sheep receiving treatment T2 were significantly higher (P<0.05; 15.6 g/d) than T1 (9.1 g/d) and T3 (8.53 g/d). Similar results were obtained for daily weight gain where T2 were the highest (62.79 g/d), followed by T1 (51.9 g/d) and T3 (52.85 g/d). Dressing percentage of T2 was the highest (51.54%) followed by T1 (49.61%) and T3 (49.32%). It can be concluded that adding adding dried cassava leaves did not reduce palatability due to CT, but rather increased OM digestibility and hence feed consumption was improved. N retention was increased due to the action of CT in the cassava leaves and this may have explained a higher input of N into duodenum which was further led to higer daily weight gain and dressing percentage.

Keywords: in vitro gas production, sheep, shrub and tree leaves, condensed tannin

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