Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Sri Rahayu

23 The Design of Broadband 8x2 Phased Array 5G Antenna MIMO 28 GHz for Base Station

Authors: Muhammad Saiful Fadhil Reyhan, Yusnita Rahayu, Fadhel Muhammadsyah

Abstract:

This paper proposed a design of 16 elements, 8x2 linear fed patch antenna array with 16 ports, for 28 GHz, mm-wave band 5G for base station. The phased array covers along the azimuth plane to provide the coverage to the users in omnidirectional. The proposed antenna is designed RT Duroid 5880 substrate with the overall size of 85x35.6x0.787 mm3. The array is operating from 27.43 GHz to 28.34 GHz with a 910 MHz impedance bandwidth. The gain of the array is 18.3 dB, while the suppression of the side lobes is -1.0 dB. The main lobe direction of the array is 15 deg. The array shows a high array gain throughout the impedance bandwidth with overall of VSWR is below 1.12. The design will be proposed in single element and 16 elements antenna.

Keywords: Broadband, mimo, base station, omnidirectional, phased array

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
22 The Interaction between Human and Environment on the Perspective of Environmental Ethics

Authors: Mella Ismelina Farma Rahayu

Abstract:

Environmental problems could not be separated from unethical human perspectives and behaviors toward the environment. There is a fundamental error in the philosophy of people’s perspective about human and nature and their relationship with the environment, which in turn will create an inappropriate behavior in relation to the environment. The aim of this study is to investigate and to understand the ethics of the environment in the context of humans interacting with the environment by using the hermeneutic approach. The related theories and concepts collected from literature review are used as data, which were analyzed by using interpretation, critical evaluation, internal coherence, comparisons, and heuristic techniques. As a result of this study, there will be a picture related to the interaction of human and environment in the perspective of environmental ethics, as well as the problems of the value of ecological justice in the interaction of humans and environment. We suggest that the interaction between humans and environment need to be based on environmental ethics, in a spirit of mutual respect between humans and the natural world.

Keywords: Environment, Interaction, Value, Environmental Ethics

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
21 Operator Efficiency Study for Assembly Line Optimization at Semiconductor Assembly and Test

Authors: Rohana Abdullah, Md Nizam Abd Rahman, Seri Rahayu Kamat

Abstract:

Operator efficiency aspect is gaining importance in ensuring optimized usage of resources especially in the semi-automated manufacturing environment. This paper addresses a case study done to solve operator efficiency and line balancing issue at a semiconductor assembly and test manufacturing. A Man-to-Machine (M2M) work study technique is used to study operator current utilization and determine the optimum allocation of the operators to the machines. Critical factors such as operator activity, activity frequency and operator competency level are considered to gain insight on the parameters that affects the operator utilization. Equipment standard time and overall equipment efficiency (OEE) information are also gathered and analyzed to achieve a balanced and optimized production.

Keywords: operator efficiency, optimized production, line balancing, industrial and manufacturing engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 563
20 The Effectivity of Lime Juice on the Cooked Rice's Shelf-Life

Authors: Novriyanti Lubis, Riska Prasetiawati, Nuriani Rahayu

Abstract:

The effectivity of lime juice on the cooked rice’s shelf-life was investigated. This research was proposed to get the optimal condition, such as concentration lime juice as the preservatives, and shelf-life cooked rice’s container to store using rice warmer. The effectivity was analysed total colony bacteriology, and physically. The variation of lime juice’s concentration that have been used were 0%, 0,46%, 0,93%, 1,40%, and 1,87%. The observation of cooked rice’s quality was done every 12 hours, including colour, smell, flavour, and total colony every 24 hours. Based on the result of the research considered from the cooked rice’s quality through observing the total of the colony bacteriology and physically, it showed the optimum concentrate which is effective preserve the cooked rise’s level concentrate was 0.93%.

Keywords: Bacteriology, cooked rice's, lime juice, preservative

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19 The Effect of Emotional Support towards Quality of Work Life on Balinese Working Women

Authors: Komang Rahayu Indrawati, I. Ketut Yoga Adityawira, Putu Ayu Novia Viorica

Abstract:

In addition to work and take care of the family, Balinese women also have a role to participate in social activities in Bali. So this will have an impact on the quality of work life of Balinese women. One way to reduce the impact of the fulfillment of the role of Balinese women namely through emotional support. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of emotional support towards the quality of work life on Balinese working women. Data were retrieved by quasi-experimental method with pretest-posttest design. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) through SPSS 17.0 for Windows. The number of subjects in this research is 30 people with the criteria: Balinese Women, aged 27 to 55 years old, have a minimum of two years experience of work and has been married. The analysis showed that there is no effect of emotional support towards the quality of work life on Balinese working women, with information there is no significant of probability value p = 0.304 (p > 0.05).

Keywords: Working Women, Emotional support, quality of work life, Balinese women

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18 Role of Emotional Support and Work Motivation for Quality of Work Life on Balinese Working Women

Authors: Ni Wayan Sinthia Widiastuti, Komang Rahayu Indrawati, Ratna Dewi Santosa

Abstract:

Today the career of Balinese working women has been highly developed where able to work with loyalty and high professionalism. Career for a woman is one conscious choice and a call of conscience, which provides financial support for her family. Career for women can develop their own potencies, intellectually, and socially, so women feel that their role is meaningful and beneficial for herself and others. Emotional support becomes important to understand certainly for women who have multirole like Balinese working women to meet the demands of their role and also enhancing their work motivation and the quality of work life. This research used quantitative research method with questionnaires dissemination to 120 respondents and analyzed using Multiple Regression Analysis. The purpose of this study was to see the role of emotional support for work motivation and quality of work life in working Balinese women. The results of this study showed that emotional support and work motivation give a significant role in the quality of work life on Balinese working women.

Keywords: Emotional support, quality of work life, work motivation, Balinese working women

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
17 The Effect of Fermented Organic Feed into Nutritive Contents of Kampong Chicken Meat

Authors: Wahyu Widodo, Imbang Dwi Rahayu, Adi Sutanto

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of the fermented organic feed to dry matter, ash, organic matter, protein, fat and crude fiber contents of kampong chicken meat. The research had conducted at January until June, 2016. One hundreds chickens were used in this research. Experimental method and completely randomized design were used to support this research. We had 4 treatment namely P0: organic feed without fermentation, P1: Organic feed with fermented rice bran, P2: Organic feed with fermented corn, P3: Organic feed with fermented rice bran and corn with 5 replication. The conclusion was the treatment had not a significant effect in the dry matter, ash, organic matter and protein contents of chicken meat. On the other hand, it had a significant effect in the fat and crude fiber contents of chicken meat.

Keywords: corn, rice bran, fermented organic feed, nutritive contents

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
16 The Effects of Rumah Panggung Environment, Social Culture, and Behavior on Malaria Incidence in Kori Village, Indonesia

Authors: Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani, Sri Ratna Rahayu, Lourensiana Y. S. Ngaga, Imade Sudana, Irwan Budiono

Abstract:

Malaria is an infectious disease that still cannot be solved in Kori village, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, where the most of people live in rumah panggung (Stilts House). The purpose of this study was to know whether there were the effects of rumah panggung environment, social culture, and behavior on malaria incidence in the Kori village. A cross-sectional study was performed to explore the effects of rumah panggung environment, social culture and behavior on malaria incidence. This study recruited 280 respondents, who live in the rumah panggung, permanent residents in Kori village, were age above 17 years old, and suffered from malaria in the past year. The collected data were analyzed with path analysis. The results of this study showed that the environment of rumah panggung and behavior have a direct effect on the incidence of malaria (p < 0.05). It could be concluded that improvement of environmental conditions of rumah panggung, sociocultural, and behavioral changes to maintain a healthy environment are needed to reduce the malaria incidence.

Keywords: Behavior, Socio-cultural, Malaria, Rumah panggung

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15 Knowledge, Attitudes and Readiness of Students towards Higher Order Thinking Skills

Authors: Mohd Aderi Che Noh, Tuan Rahayu Tuan Lasan

Abstract:

Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) is an important skill in the Malaysian education system to produce a knowledgeable generation, able to think critically and creatively in order to face the challenges in the future. Educational challenges of the 21st century require that all students to have the HOTS. Therefore, this study aims to identify the level of knowledge, attitude and readiness of students towards HOTS. The respondents were 127 form four students from schools in the Federal Territory of Putrajaya. This study is quantitative survey using a questionnaire to collect data. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 23.0. The results showed that knowledge, attitudes and readiness of students towards HOTS lam were at a high level. Inferential analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between knowledge with attitude and readiness towards HOTS. This study provides information to the schools and teachers to improve the teaching and learning to increase students HOTS and fulfilling the hope of Ministry of Education to produce human capital who can be globally competitive.

Keywords: Education, Teaching, Malaysia, high order thinking skills

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14 The Pursuit of Marital Sustainability Inspiring by Successful Matrimony of Two Distinguishable Indonesian Ethnics as a Learning Process

Authors: Mutiara Amalina Khairisa, Purnama Arafah, Rahayu Listiana Ramli

Abstract:

In recent years, so many cases of divorce increasingly occur. Betrayal in form of infidelity, less communication one another, economically problems, selfishness of two sides, intervening parents from both sides which frequently occurs in Asia, especially in Indonesia, the differences of both principles and beliefs, “Sense of Romantism” depletion, role confict, a large difference in the purpose of marriage,and sex satisfaction are expected as the primary factors of the causes of divorce. Every couple of marriage wants to reach happy life in their family but severe problems brought about by either of those main factors come as a reasonable cause of failure marriage. The purpose of this study is to find out how marital adjustment and supporting factors in ensuring the success of that previous marital adjusment are inseparable two things assumed as a framework can affect the success in marriage becoming a resolution to reduce the desires to divorce. Those two inseparable things are able to become an aspect of learning from the success of the different ethnics marriage to keep holding on wholeness.

Keywords: learning process, marital adjustment, marital sustainability, successful ethnicity differences marriage, basical cultural values

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13 Cultural Environment, Behavior and Diabetes Melitus Incident in Urban Area of Semarang, Indonesia

Authors: Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani, Efa Nugroho, Sri Ratna Rahayu, Berta Kalswahermawati

Abstract:

Diabetes occurs 10 years faster in the Southeast Asian region than the European region, which occurs in the most productive periods. Cultural differences as well as cultural transitions can be determinant factors of health cases in urban and rural areas. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of the cultural environment, behavior and the occurrence of diabetes mellitus in urban areas of Semarang, Indonesia. The research was conducted in the area of Semarang Regency, using a quantitative approach and supported by qualitative data, the population is DM type 2 patients, sample size of 200 people, with a purposive sampling technique. The independent variable consists of cultural environment, behavior, and the dependent variable is DM. The data is analyzed with regression test method. Cultural environment affects behavior positively, with t value of 4,690 and p (sig.) 0.000, this means sig <0.05, while the effect of behavior on Diabetes Mellitus obtained t value 2.950 with p-value (sig.) 0.003 this means that sig <0.05, thus it can be interpreted that the behavior has a significant effect on Diabetes Mellitus. The cultural environment directly affects the incidence of DM. It can also shape a person's behavior or lifestyle or habit, whether healthy or unhealthy one, which in turn causes symptoms of DM.

Keywords: Behavior, Urban, cultural environment, Diebetes Millitus

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12 Developing Local Wisdom to Integrate Etnobiology and Biodiversity Conservation in Mount Ungaran, Central Java Indonesia

Authors: Margareta Rahayuningsih, Nur Rahayu Utami, Tsabit A. M., Muh. Abdullah

Abstract:

Mount Ungaran is one area that has remaining natural forest in Central Java, Indonesia. Mount Ungaran consists of several habitats that supporting appropriate areas for flora, fauna, and microorganisms biodiversity, particularly of it is protected by government law and IUCN red list data. Therefore, Mount Ungaran also settled up as AZE (Alliance for Zero Extinction) and IBA (Important Bird Area). The land use for agriculture and plantation reduces forest covered areas. It is serious threat to the existence of biodiversity in Moun Ungaran. This research has been identified community local wisdom that possible to be integrated as ethno-biological research and biodiversity conservation. The result showed at least four local wisdom that possible to be integrated to ethno-biological and biodiversity conservation were Wit Weh Woh (a ceremony of life-giving tree), Grebeg Alas Susuk Wangan (a ceremony for forest protection), Iriban (a ceremony of clean water resource protection), and tingkep tandur (a ceremony for ready-harvested plant protection). It is needed ethno-biological researches of local wisdom-contained values, which essential to be developed as a strategy for biodiversity conservation in Mount Ungaran.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Fragmentation, local wisdom, Mount Ungaran

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11 The Correlation of Total Phenol Content with Free Radicals Scavenging Activity and Effect of Ethanol Concentration in Extraction Process of Mangosteen Rind (Garcinia mangostana)

Authors: Ririn Lestari Sri Rahayu, Mustofa Ahda

Abstract:

The use of synthetic antioxidants often causes a negative effect on health and increases the incidence of carcinogenesis. Development of the natural antioxidants should be investigated. However, natural antioxidants have a low toxicity and are safe for human consumption. Ethanol extract of mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana) contains natural antioxidant compounds that have various pharmacological activities. Antioxidants from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind have free radicals scavenging activities. The scavenging activity of ethanol extract of mangosteen rind was determined by DPPH method. The phenolic compound from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind is determined with Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results showed that the absolute ethanol extract of mangosteen rind has IC50 of 40.072 ug/mL. The correlation of total phenols content with free radical scavenging activity has an equation y: 5.207x + 205.51 and determination value (R2) of 0.9329. Total phenols content from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind has a good correlation with free radicals scavenging activity of DPPH.

Keywords: antioxidant, phenolic, Garcinia mangostana, Inhibition concentration 50%

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10 Protein and MDA (Malondialdehyde) Profil of Bull Sperm and Seminal Plasma After Freezing

Authors: Sri Rahayu, M. Dwi Susan, Aris Soewondo, W. M. Agung Pramana

Abstract:

Semen is an organic fluid (seminal plasma) that contain spermatozoa. Proteins are one of the major seminal plasma components that modulate sperm functionality, influence sperm capacitation and maintaining the stability of the membrane. Semen freezing is a procedure to preserve sperm cells. The process causes decrease in sperm viability due to temperature shock and oxidation stress. Oxidation stress is a disturbance on phosphorylation that increases ROS concentration, and it produces lipid peroxide in spermatozoa membrane resulted in high MDA (malondialdehyde) concentration. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of freezing on protein and MDA profile of bovine sperm cell and seminal plasma after freezing. Protein and MDA of sperm cell and seminal plasma were isolated from 10 sample. Protein profiles was analyzed by SDS PAGE with separating gel 12,5 %. The concentration of MDA was measured by spectrophotometer. The results of the research indicated that freezing of semen cause lost of the seminal plasma proteins with molecular with 20, 10, and 9 kDa. In addition, the result research showed that protein of the sperm (26, 10, 9, 7, and 6 kDa) had been lost. There were difference MDA concentration of seminal plasma and sperm cell were increase after freezing. MDA concentration of seminal plasma before and after freezing were 2.2 and 2.4 nmol, respectively. MDA concentration of sperm cell before and after freezing were 1,5 and 1.8 nmol, respectively. In conclusion, there were differences protein profiles of spermatozoa before and after semen freezing and freezing cause increasing of the MDA concentration.

Keywords: MDA, semen freezing, SDS PAGE, protein profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
9 The Use of Voice in Online Public Access Catalog as Faster Searching Device

Authors: Maisyatus Suadaa Irfana, Nove Eka Variant Anna, Dyah Puspitasari Sri Rahayu

Abstract:

Technological developments provide convenience to all the people. Nowadays, the communication of human with the computer is done via text. With the development of technology, human and computer communications have been conducted with a voice like communication between human beings. It provides an easy facility for many people, especially those who have special needs. Voice search technology is applied in the search of book collections in the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog), so library visitors will find it faster and easier to find books that they need. Integration with Google is needed to convert the voice into text. To optimize the time and the results of searching, Server will download all the book data that is available in the server database. Then, the data will be converted into JSON format. In addition, the incorporation of some algorithms is conducted including Decomposition (parse) in the form of array of JSON format, the index making, analyzer to the result. It aims to make the process of searching much faster than the usual searching in OPAC because the data are directly taken to the database for every search warrant. Data Update Menu is provided with the purpose to enable users perform their own data updates and get the latest data information.

Keywords: Searching, opac, voice, faster

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8 The Magnification of Early Detect Nutrition Case through Local Potential Utilization in Urban Region, Indonesia

Authors: Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani, Efa Nugroho, Bertakalswa Hermawati, Sri Ratna Rahayu

Abstract:

The double burden of nutrition problem must be faced by Indonesia as developing country. The implemented program did not improve the nutritional status, therefore need to consider to utilize local potential. The objective of this research was to find out the effectivity of magnification model of early detect through local potential utilization in urban region, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The research used an experimental design with the quantitative-qualitative approach. The population was all toddlers under five within the research region, sample determination by purposive sampling, as many as 216 toddlers. Quantitative data analysis used effectively criteria by Sugiono. Qualitative data was analyzed using NVivo. The optimization of local potential in the effort of nutrition status improvement shows number of nutrition case found was increased 225% (very effective), number of cases treated was increased 175% (very effective), number of cases counselled was increased 200% (effective), and number of cases that have improvement increase 75% (effective). The local potential need to be utilized in the effort of nutrition program improvement one of it is through the community empowerment, particularly health care and health high education institution as partner.

Keywords: Early Detection, nutrition status, local potential, health cadre

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7 The Inhibition of Relapse of Orthodontic Tooth Movement by NaF Administration in Expressions of TGF-β1, Runx2, Alkaline Phosphatase and Microscopic Appearance of Woven Bone

Authors: R. Sutjiati, Rubianto, I. B. Narmada, I. K. Sudiana, R. P. Rahayu

Abstract:

The prevalence of post-treatment relapse in orthodontics in the community is high enough; therefore, relapses in orthodontic treatment must be prevented well. The aim of this study is to experimentally test the inhibition of relapse of orthodontics tooth movement in NaF of expression TGF-β1, Runx2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and microscopic of woven bone. The research method used was experimental laboratory research involving 30 rats, which were divided into three groups. Group A: rats were not given orthodontic tooth movement and without NaF. Group B: rats were given orthodontic tooth movement and without 11.5 ppm by topical application. Group C: rats were given orthodontic tooth movement and 11.75 ppm by topical application. Orthodontic tooth movement was conducted by applying ligature wires of 0.02 mm in diameter on the molar-1 (M-1) of left permanent maxilla and left insisivus of maxilla. Immunohistochemical examination was conducted to calculate the number of osteoblast to determine TGF β1, Runx2, ALP and haematoxylin to determine woven bone on day 7 and day 14. Results: It was shown that administrations of Natrium Fluoride topical application proved effective to increase the expression of TGF-β1, Runx2, ALP and to increase woven bone in the tension area greater than administration without natrium fluoride topical application (p < 0.05), except the expression of ALP on day 7 and day 14 which was significant. The results of the study show that NaF significantly increases the expressions of TGF-β1, Runx2, ALP and woven bone. The expression of the variables enhanced on day 7 compared on that on day 14, except ALP. Thus, it can be said that the acceleration of woven bone occurs on day 7.

Keywords: ALP, TGF-β1, Runx2, woven bone, natrium fluoride

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6 The Effort of Nutrition Status Improvement through Partnership with Early Age Education Institution on Urban Region, City of Semarang, Indonesia

Authors: Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani, Efa Nugroho, Bertakalswa Hermawati, Sri Ratna Rahayu

Abstract:

In Indonesia, from 2007 until 2013, the prevalence of overnutrition in children under five years and school age tends to increase. Clean and Health Life Behavior of school children supporting nutrition status still below the determined target. On the other side, school institution is an ideal place to educate and form health behavior, that should be initiated as early as possible (Early Age Education/PAUD level). The objective of this research was to find out the effectivity of education model through partnership with school institution in urban region, city of Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research used quantitative approach supported with qualitative data. The population consist of all mother having school children of ages 3-5 years within the research region; sampling technique was purposive sampling, as many as 237 mothers. Research instrument was Clean and Health Life Behavior evaluation questionaire, and video as education media. The research used experimental design. Data analysis used effectivity criteria from Sugiyono and 2 paired sampel t test. Education model optimalization in the effort to improve nutrition status indicates t test result with signification < 0.05 (there was significant effect before and after model intervention), with effectivity test result of 79% (effective), but still below expected target which is 80%. Education model need to be utilized and optimallized the implementation so that expected target reached.

Keywords: nutrition status, early age education, clean dan health life behavior, education model

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5 The Effect of Manggong Bamboo Leaves Extract (Gigantochloa manggong) on Rat (Rattus novergicus) Blood Profile

Authors: Sri Rahayu, Supriyatin, Yuli Rahma Dini

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One of the consequences of excess physical activity is the oxidative stress which resulted in damage to blood cells. Oxidative stress condition can be reduced by an exogenous antioxidant. The natural exogenous antioxidant can be extracted from Manggong bamboo (Gigantochloa manggong). This research was aim to evaluate the effect of physical exercise and Manggong bamboo (Gigantochloa manggong) leaf extract on blood profile of rats. This research was conducted in July 2013 to May 2014 using experimental method with completely randomized design (CRD) with two factors, physical exercise and Manggong bamboo leaf extract. The rats blood profile to be measured were the level of erythrocyte cells, leucocyte cells and hemoglobin. Data were analyzed with parametric statistical 2-way ANOVA test (α = 0.05). Manggong bamboo leaf extract was non toxic and contained flavonoid, triterpenoid, saponin and alkaloid. There was an effect of physical exercise and manggong bamboo leaf extract on blood profile of rats. Data obtained on physical activity, giving erythrocyte cells (2.5 million/µl) and hemoglobin (12,42g/dL) declined compared to the number of leucocyte cells increases (6,500cells/L). Extract treatment was increased the erythrocytes (5,13 million/µl) and hemoglobin level (14,72 g/dL.) while the leukocytes level were decreased (1.591,67 cells/L). The extract and physical activity treatment showed an increase in erythrocytes (2,96 million/µl) and hemoglobin (14,3 g/dL) but decrease the number of leukocytes (1.291,67 cells/L). The conclusion was that physical activity and Manggong bamboo leafs extract gaves effect on the blood profile of white rat.

Keywords: antioxidant, leukocytes, blood profile of rats, Manggong bamboo leaf extract

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4 The Differences in Organizational Citizenship Behavior Based on Work Status of Hotels Employees in Bali in Terms of Quality of Work Life

Authors: Ni Wayan Sinthia Widiastuti, Komang Rahayu Indrawati

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The increasing number of tourists coming to Bali, causing accommodation facilities, such as hotels have increased. The existence of hotel needs will be the source of labor and cost efficiency, so that hotel management employs employees with different working status. The hospitality industry is one of the sectors that require organizational citizenship behavior because, the main goal of every hotel, in general, was to provide the best service and quality to tourists. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in organizational citizenship behavior based on work status of employees at the Hotel in Bali in terms of quality of work life. Research sample was chosen randomly through two-stage cluster sampling which succeeds to obtain 126 samples from 11 hotels in Denpasar, Bali. The subjects consisted of 64 employees with Employment Agreement of Uncertain Time or who is often called a permanent employee and 62 employees with Employment Agreement of Certain Time or better known as contract employees, outsourcing, and daily workers. Instruments in this study were the scale of organizational citizenship behavior and the scale of quality of work life. The results of ANCOVA analysis showed there were differences in organizational citizenship behavior based on employee work status in terms of quality of work life. Differences in organizational citizenship behavior and quality of work life based on work status of employees using comparative test was analysis by independent sample t-test shows there were differences in organizational citizenship behavior and quality of work life between employees with different working status in hotels in Bali. The result of the regression analysis showed the functional relationship between quality of work life and organizational citizenship behavior.

Keywords: quality of work life, organizational citizenship behavior, hotel in Bali, work status of employees

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3 The Angiogenic Activity of α-Mangostin in the Development of Zebrafish Embryo In Vivo

Authors: Titis Indah Adi Rahayu

Abstract:

Angiogenesis is the process of generating new capillary from pre-existing blood vessels. VEGFA is a major regulator in angiogenesis that binds and activates two tyrosine kinase receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (Flk-1/KDR) which regulate pathological and physiological angiogenesis. Disruption of VEGFA and VEGFR2 regulation lead to many diseases. The study of α-Mangostin (derivate of xanthone) as anti-oxidant and anti inflammation has been explored recently and both of them have relation to vasculature however the effect of α-Mangostin in blood vessel formation in healthy tissue in vivo has not been studied. Zebrafish is a powerful model in studying angiogenesis and shared many advantages that is a viable whole animal model for screening small molecules that affect blood vessel formation. Therefore the aim of this study is to evaluate angiogenic activity of α-Mangostin in healthy tissue in vivo in zebrafish embryo in relation of patterning blood vessel. Blood vessel patterning is highly characteristic in the developing of zebrafish embryo and the subintestinal vessel (SIV) can be stained and visualized microscopically as a primary screen for α-Mangostin that effect angiogenesis. The zebrafish embryos are divided into 2 groups. Group one consists of the zebrafish embryos at 1 dpf for 4 days which are tested to α-Mangostin in several concentration 2 µM, 4 µM, 6 µM, 8 µM and 10 µM whereas in group two the zebrafish larva at 4 dpf are exposed to α-Mangostin 1,75 µM, 2,3 µM, 2,9 µM, 3,8 µM dan 5 µM for 2 days. DMSO is served as a control for each group. The level expression of vegfa and vegfr2 are observed quantitatively using real time q-PCR and patterning of SIV are then analized via alkaline phospatase staining. Result shows that the level expression of vegfa and vegfr2 is repressed quantitatively as shown in real time q-PCR in the group of 1-4 days of α-Mangostin exposure where it is increased in the group of 4-6 days of α-Mangostin exposure. The result is then compared to alkaline phospatase staining of SIV using stereo microscope. It indicates that α-Mangostin does not disturb the patterning of SIV formation in zebrafish.

Keywords: angiogenesis, Danio rerio, α-Mangostin, SIV, vegfa, vegfr2

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2 Social Protection Reforms in Indonesia: Towards a Life Cycle Based Social Protection System

Authors: Dyah Larasati, Karishma Alize Huda, Sri Kusumastuti Rahayu, Martin Daniel Siyaranamual

Abstract:

Indonesia continues to reform its social protection system to provide the needed protection for its citizen. Indonesia Social Protection consisted of social assistance programs (non-contributory/tax-financed) specifically targeted for the poor and at-risk and social security/insurance program (contributory system). The social assistance programs have mostly been implemented since 1998. The national health insurance has been implemented since 2014 and the employment social insurance since 2015. One major reform implemented has been improving the targeting performance of its major social assistance portfolios including (1) Food Assistance for the poor families (Rastra and BPNT/noncash foods assistance); (2) Education Assistance for poor children; (3) Conditional Cash Transfer for poor families (PKH); and (4) Subsidized beneficiaries of National Health Insurance (JKN-PBI) for the poor and at-risk individuals. For the Social Insurance (through BPJS Employment program), several initiatives have been implemented to expand the program contributing members, although it mostly benefits the formal sector workers. However, major gaps still exist especially for the emerging middle-income groups who typically work at the informal sectors. They have yet to get the protection needed to sustain their social and economic growth. Since 2017, TNP2K (the National Team for Poverty Reduction) under the Vice President office has led the social protection discourse as the government understands the need to address vulnerabilities across the lifecycle and prioritize support to the most at-risk population particularly the elderly, young children and people with disabilities. Discussion and advocacy to recommend for more investment is continuing in order for the government to establish a comprehensive social protection system in the near future (2020-2024) that protects children through an inclusive child benefit program; build a system to benefit more working-age adults (including individuals with disabilities) and a three-tier elderly protection as they reach 65 years.

Keywords: Social Protection, Poverty Reduction, Social Insurance, social assistance

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1 Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation Towards Length of Stay and IL-6 Level on Community-Acquired Pneumonia Patients

Authors: Iin Noor Chozin, Santony Santony, Teguh Rahayu Sartono

Abstract:

Introduction: Pneumonia is acute inflammation on lung parenchyma which is caused by bacteria, virus, fungi, or parasite. In Indonesia, Pneumonia is among the ten inpatient cases. Length of stay is related to the increased morbidity rate, nosocomial infection, and costs. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on the difference in length of stay and the level of Interleukin 6 (IL-6) as an inflammation biomarker for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients in non-intensive rooms. Therefore, pulmonary rehabilitation as adjunctive therapy can be routinely exercised in order to shorten the length of stay, along with the decrease in IL-6 level. Methods: This study was conducted from May to October 2019 at Saiful Anwar General Hospital, Malang. 40 community-acquired pneumonia patients in non-intensive rooms were divided into two groups. 20 patients in the treatment group and 20 patients in the control group, all of them were selected through both inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study used simple consecutive random sampling. In the treatment group, pulmonary rehabilitation performed was composed of breathing exercise, effective coughing technique, clapping (percussion), postural drainage, as well as respiratory muscle training using incentive spirometry device. Pulmonary rehabilitation was conducted twice over five days with a minimum duration of 15 minutes. Blood samples were taken both on the first and the fifth day of the treatment to measure IL-6 level as an inflammation biomarker. Result: For the treatment group, the length of stay was 5.35 days whereas the control group 7.6 days. It can be seen that the treatment group had a shorter length of stay by 2.25 days (P<0,001). The IL-6 level on the first day for the treatment group was 36.27 pg/ml, whereas on the fifth day was 34.36 pg/ml. There was a decrease in IL-6 level on the fifth day of treatment even though it was not statistically significant (P=0.628). IL-6 level on the control group for the first day was 67.76 pg/ml, and after the fifth day, the level decreased to 54.43 pg/ml. There seemed to be a decrease in the IL-6, but it was not statistically significant (P=0.502). On the fifth day, the treatment group showed an average IL-6 level of 34.36 pg/ml. This value was lower than that of the control group which did not receive pulmonary rehabilitation having an IL-6 level of 54.43 pg/ml, even though it was not statistically significant (p=0.221). Conclusion: This study concluded that pulmonary rehabilitation as an adjunctive therapy shortened length of stay by 2.25 days for community-acquired pneumonia patients in a non-intensive room. Both groups experienced a decrease in IL-6 level on the fifth day in comparison with the first day even though it was not statistically significant P>0,05. IL-6 level as an inflammation biomarker decreased on the fifth day of treatment which was in accordance with improvement on pneumonia patients.

Keywords: Pulmonary rehabilitation, community-acquired pneumonia, length of stay, interleukin-6

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