Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1861

Search results for: antinutrient compounds

1861 Influence of Thermal Processing Methods on Antinutrient of Artocarpus heterophyllus Seeds

Authors: Marina Zulkifli, Mohd Faizal Mashhod, Noriham Abdullah

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the antinutrient compounds of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seeds as affected by thermal processes. Two types of heat treatments were applied namely boiling and microwave cooking. Results of this study showed that boiling caused a significant decrease in phytate content (30.01%), oxalate content (33.22%), saponin content (35.69%) and tannin content (44.58%) as compared to microwave cooking and raw seed. The percentage loss of antinutrient compounds in microwaved seed was: phytate 24.58%, oxalate 27.28%, saponin 16.50% and tannin 32.21%. Hence, these findings suggested that boiling is an effective treatment to reduce the level of toxic compounds in foods.

Keywords: jackfruit, heat treatments, antinutrient compounds, thermal processing

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1860 Effect of Roasting Temperature on the Proximate, Mineral and Antinutrient Content of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Ready-to-Eat Snack

Authors: Olaide Ruth Aderibigbe, Oluwatoyin Oluwole

Abstract:

Pigeon pea is one of the minor leguminous plants; though underutilised, it is used traditionally by farmers to alleviate hunger and malnutrition. Pigeon pea is cultivated in Nigeria by subsistence farmers. It is rich in protein and minerals, however, its utilisation as food is only common among the poor and rural populace who cannot afford expensive sources of protein. One of the factors contributing to its limited use is the high antinutrient content which makes it indigestible, especially when eaten by children. The development of value-added products that can reduce the antinutrient content and make the nutrients more bioavailable will increase the utilisation of the crop and contribute to reduction of malnutrition. This research, therefore, determined the effects of different roasting temperatures (130 0C, 140 0C, and 150 0C) on the proximate, mineral and antinutrient component of a pigeon pea snack. The brown variety of pigeon pea seeds were purchased from a local market- Otto in Lagos, Nigeria. The seeds were cleaned, washed, and soaked in 50 ml of water containing sugar and salt (4:1) for 15 minutes, and thereafter the seeds were roasted at 130 0C, 140 0C, and 150 0C in an electric oven for 10 minutes. Proximate, minerals, phytate, tannin and alkaloid content analyses were carried out in triplicates following standard procedures. The results of the three replicates were polled and expressed as mean±standard deviation; a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Least Significance Difference (LSD) were carried out. The roasting temperatures significantly (P<0.05) affected the protein, ash, fibre and carbohydrate content of the snack. Ready-to-eat snack prepared by roasting at 150 0C significantly had the highest protein (23.42±0.47%) compared the ones roasted at 130 0C and 140 0C (18.38±1.25% and 20.63±0.45%, respectively). The same trend was observed for the ash content (3.91±0.11 for 150 0C, 2.36±0.15 for 140 0C and 2.26±0.25 for 130 0C), while the fibre and carbohydrate contents were highest at roasting temperature of 130 0C. Iron, zinc, and calcium were not significantly (P<0.5) affected by the different roasting temperatures. Antinutrients decreased with increasing temperature. Phytate levels recorded were 0.02±0.00, 0.06±0.00, and 0.07±0.00 mg/g; tannin levels were 0.50±0.00, 0.57±0.00, and 0.68±0.00 mg/g, while alkaloids levels were 0.51±0.01, 0.78±0.01, and 0.82±0.01 mg/g for 150 0C, 140 0C, and 130 0C, respectively. These results show that roasting at high temperature (150 0C) can be utilised as a processing technique for increasing protein and decreasing antinutrient content of pigeon pea.

Keywords: antinutrients, pigeon pea, protein, roasting, underutilised species

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1859 Investigation of Mutagenicity and DNA Binding Properties of Metal-Free and Metallophthalocyanines Containing α-Napththolbenzein Groups on the Peripheral Positions

Authors: Meltem Betül Sağlam, Halil İbrahim Güler, Aykut Sağlam

Abstract:

In this work, phthalocyanine compounds containing α-naphtholbenzeinunits have been synthesized. Mutagenicity and DNA binding properties of the compounds were investigated by Salmonella/Microsome Assay and spectrophotometer. According to the results of the preliminary range finding tests, the compounds gave no toxic effect to all tester strain S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 at doses of 500, 1100, 350, 500 and 750 µg/plate in the presence and absence of S9, respectively. This study showed that all compounds exhibited efficient DNA-binding activity. In conclusion, these non-toxic compounds may be used as effective DNA dyes for molecular biology studies.

Keywords: dye, mutagenicity, phthalocyanine, toxicity

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1858 Future Trends in Sources of Natural Antioxidants from Indigenous Foods

Authors: Ahmed El-Ghorab

Abstract:

Indigenous foods are promising sources of various chemical bioactive compounds such as vitamins, phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Therefore, the presence o different bioactive compounds in fruits could be used to retard or prevent various diseases such as cardiovascular and cancer. This is an update report on nutritional compositions and health promoting phytochemicals of different indigenous food . This different type of fruits and/ or other sources such as spices, aromatic plants, grains by-products, which containing bioactive compounds might be used as functional foods or for nutraceutical purposes. most common bioactive compounds are vitamin C, polyphenol, β- carotene and lycopene contents. In recent years, there has been a global trend toward the use of natural phytochemical as antioxidants and functional ingredients, which are present in natural resources such as vegetables, fruits, oilseeds and herbs.. Our future trend the Use of Natural antioxidants as a promising alternative to use of synthetic antioxidants and the Production of natural antioxidant on commercial scale to maximize the value addition of indigenous food waste as a good source of bioactive compounds such as antioxidants.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, antioxidants, by-product, indigenous foods, phenolic compounds

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1857 Synthesis of [1-(Substituted-Sulfonyl)-Piperidin-4-yl]-(2,4-Difluoro-Phenyl)-Methanone Oximes and Their Biological Activity

Authors: L. Mallesha, C. S. Karthik, P. Mallu

Abstract:

A series of new [1-(substituted-benzoyl)-piperidin-4-yl]-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-methanone oxime derivatives, 3(a-f) were synthesized and characterized by different spectral studies. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against bacterial strains. These compounds were screened for their antioxidant activity by DPPH• and Fe2+ chelating assay. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated using the MTT assay method against two human cancer cell lines and one astrocytoma brain tumor cell line. Compound 3b exhibited moderate antibacterial activity when compared with other compounds. All the compounds showed antioxidant activity, where compound 3f was the best radical scavenger and Fe2+ ion scavenger. Compounds, 3b, and 3d showed good activity on all cell lines, whereas the other compounds in the series exhibited moderate activity.

Keywords: Piperidine, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiproliferative

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1856 The Relations of Volatile Compounds, Some Parameters and Consumer Preference of Commercial Fermented Milks in Thailand

Authors: Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Rawichar Chaipojjana, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

Abstract:

The aim of research was to define the relations between volatile compounds, some parameters (pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solid (TSS), lactic acid bacteria count) and consumer preference of commercial fermented milks. These relations tend to be used for controlling and developing new fermented milk product. Three leading commercial brands of fermented milks in Thailand were evaluated by consumers (n=71) using hedonic scale for four attributes (sweetness, sourness, flavour, and overall liking), volatile compounds using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS, pH, TA, TSS and LAB count. Then the relations were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA data showed that all of four attributes liking scores were related to each other. They were also related to TA, TSS and volatile compounds. The related volatile compounds were mainly on fermented produced compounds including acetic acid, furanmethanol, furfural, octanoic acid and the volatiles known as artificial fruit flavour (beta pinene, limonene, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin). These compounds were provided the information about flavour addition in commercial fermented milk in Thailand.

Keywords: fermented milk, volatile compounds, preference, PCA

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1855 An Ab Initio Molecular Orbital Theory and Density Functional Theory Study of Fluorous 1,3-Dion Compounds

Authors: S. Ghammamy, M. Mirzaabdollahiha

Abstract:

Quantum mechanical calculations of energies, geometries, and vibrational wavenumbers of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds are carried out using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with LANL2DZ basis sets. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs in the molecules. The thermodynamic functions of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have been performed at B3LYP/LANL2DZ basis sets. The theoretical spectrograms for F NMR spectra of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have also been constructed. The F NMR nuclear shieldings of fluoride ligands in fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have been studied quantum chemical.

Keywords: density function theory, natural bond orbital, HOMO, LOMO, fluorous

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1854 Removal of Chloro-Compounds from Pulp and Paper Industry Wastewater Using Electrocoagulation

Authors: Chhaya Sharma, Dushyant Kumar

Abstract:

The present work deals with the treatment of wastewater generated by paper industry by using aluminium as anode material. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of chloropenolics have been carried out by using primary clarifier effluent with the help of gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Sixteen chlorophenolics compounds have been identified and estimated. Results indicated that among 16 identified compounds, 7 are 100% removed and overall 66% reduction in chorophenolics compounds have been detected. Moreover, during the treatment, the biodegradability index of wastewater significantly increases, along with 70 % reduction in chemical oxygen demand and 99 % in color.

Keywords: aluminium anode, chlorophenolics, electrocoagulation, pollution load, wastewater

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1853 Preliminary Study on the Removal of Solid Uranium Compound in Nuclear Fuel Production System

Authors: Bai Zhiwei, Zhang Shuxia

Abstract:

By sealing constraint, the system of nuclear fuel production penetrates a trace of air in during its service. The vapor in the air can react with material in the system and generate solid uranium compounds. These solid uranium compounds continue to accumulate and attached to the production equipment and pipeline of system, which not only affects the operation reliability of production equipment and give off radiation hazard as well after system retired. Therefore, it is necessary to select a reasonable method to remove it. Through the analysis of physicochemical properties of solid uranium compounds, halogenated fluoride compounds are selected as a cleaning agent, which can remove solid uranium compounds effectively. This paper studied the related chemical reaction under the condition of static test and results show that the selection of high fluoride halogen compounds can be removed solid uranium compounds completely. The study on the influence of reaction pressure with the reaction rate discovered a phenomenon that the higher the pressure, the faster the reaction rate.

Keywords: fluoride halogen compound, remove, radiation, solid uranium compound

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1852 Volatile Composition of Sucuks: A Traditional Dry-Fermented Sausage Affected by Meat and Fat Types

Authors: Mina Kargozari, Isabel Revilla Martin, Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina, Antoni Szumny

Abstract:

The profiles of volatile compounds of differently formulated sausages including CH (camel meat-hump), CB (camel meat-beef fat), BH (beef-hump) and BB (beef-beef fat) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using a solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) in order to investigate the role of meat and fat type in aroma compounds release. A total of 47 compounds identified, were consisted of 3 acids, 1 ester, 3 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 5 sulphur compounds, and 27 terpenes. The significant differences were observed in the aroma compounds among four batches. The CH sucuk samples containing the highest (p<0.05) fat amount among the others showed higher amounts of volatiles in consequence. The sausages prepared with hump showed higher amounts of aldehydes and lower amounts of terpenes compared to the sausages made with beef fat (p<0.05). It seemed that meat type had an inconsiderable effect on the volatile profile of the sausages.

Keywords: aromatic compounds, camel meat, hump, SPME

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1851 In vitro Bioacessibility of Phenolic Compounds from Fruit Spray Dried and Lyophilized Powder

Authors: Carolina Beres, Laurine Da Silva, Danielle Pereira, Ana Ribeiro, Renata Tonon, Caroline Mellinger-Silva, Karina Dos Santos, Flavia Gomes, Lourdes Cabral

Abstract:

The health benefits of bioactive compounds such as phenolics are well known. The main source of these compounds are fruits and derivates. This study had the objective to study the bioacessibility of phenolic compounds from grape pomace and juçara dried extracts. For this purpose both characterized extracts were submitted to a simulated human digestion and the total phenolic content, total anthocyanins and antioxidant scavenging capacity was determinate in digestive fractions (oral, gastric, intestinal and colonic). Juçara had a higher anthocianins bioacessibility (17.16%) when compared to grape pomace (2.08%). The opposite result was found for total phenolic compound, where the higher bioacessibility was for grape (400%). The phenolic compound increase indicates a more accessible compound in the human gut. The lyophilized process had a beneficial impact in the final accessibility of the phenolic compounds being a more promising technique.

Keywords: bioacessibility, phenolic compounds, grape, juçara

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1850 Synthesis and Pharmacological Activity of Some Oxyindole Derivatives

Authors: Vivek Singh Bhadauria, Abhishek Pandey

Abstract:

Indole-2,3-diones are known for their various biological activities. By suitable control of a substituent, different novel indole-2,3-diones were synthesized. In this present study, various Schiff and Mannich bases were synthesized and characterized, and evaluated their for different pharmacological activities. The compounds were prepared by reacting indole-2,3-dione with benzyl chloride and 4-substituted thiosemicarbazides. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by the TLC, MP, Elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. The compounds have been evaluated for their anticancer, antituberculosis, anticonvulsant, antiinflammatory as well as anti-SARS activity and the results are presented. Some of compounds possessed different pharmacological activity at a concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight and even at lower concentration.

Keywords: indoles, isatin, NMR, biological activities

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1849 Effects of Additives on Thermal Decompositions of Carbon Black/High Density Polyethylene Compounds

Authors: Orathai Pornsunthorntawee, Wareerom Polrut, Nopphawan Phonthammachai

Abstract:

In the present work, the effects of additives, including contents of the added antioxidants and type of the selected metallic stearates (either calcium stearate (CaSt) or zinc stearate (ZnSt)), on the thermal stabilities of carbon black (CB)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) compounds were studied. The results showed that the AO contents played a key role in the thermal stabilities of the CB/HDPE compounds—the higher the AO content, the higher the thermal stabilities. Although the CaSt-containing compounds were slightly superior to those with ZnSt in terms of the thermal stabilities, the remaining solid residue of CaSt after heated to the temperature of 600 °C (mainly calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique) seemed to catalyze the decomposition of CB in the HDPE-based compounds. Hence, the quantification of CB in the CaSt-containing compounds with a muffle furnace gave an inaccurate CB content—much lower than actual value. However, this phenomenon was negligible in the ZnSt-containing system.

Keywords: antioxidant, stearate, carbon black, polyethylene

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1848 Separation and Purification of Oligostilbenes Using HPLC with Dereplication Strategy

Authors: Nurhuda Manshoor, Mohd Fazirulrahman Fathil, Muhammad Hakim Jaafar, Mohd Amirul S. A. Jalil

Abstract:

The leaves of Neobalanocarpus heimii were investigated for their oligostilbene contents. Prior to isolation process, the determinations of compounds were based on mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns. Three compounds, heimiol B, hopeaphenol, and vaticaphenol A were identified directly from the crude extract. Preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to isolate and purify the other compounds. The purified compounds were then analyzed using NMR spectroscopy to identify the compound structure and stereochemistry. The method employed for the research modified to comply with different HPLC techniques such as preparative and analytical techniques. The crude sample was injected into preparative HPLC to obtain several fractions which consist of oligostilbene mixture. The fractions were further isolated using analytical HPLC to obtain four pure compounds. The compounds then were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The result shows that the leaves extract of Neobalanocarpus heimii contain three oligostilbenes, namely vaticanol A, balanocarpol, and vaticaphenol A, and a galactopyranose.

Keywords: balanocarpol, hemiol B, hopeaphenol, vaticanol A, vaticaphenol A

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1847 Olive Oils from Algeria: Phenolic Compounds Composition and Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Firdaousse Laincer, Rahima Laribi, Abderazak Tamendjari, Rovellini Venturini

Abstract:

Phenolic compounds present in olive oil have received much attention in recent years due to their beneficial functional and nutritional effects. Phenolic composition, antibacterial activity of phenolic extracts of olive oil varieties from Algeria were investigated. The analysis of polyphenols was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC. As a result, many phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by using HPLC; derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, flavonoids, and lignans reporting unique and characteristic phenolic profile. These phenolic fractions also differentiate the total antibacterial activity. Among the bacteria tested, S. aureus and, to a lesser extent, B. subtilis showed the highest sensitivity; the MIC varied from 0.6 to 1.6 mg•mL-1 and 1.2 to 1.8 mg•mL-1, respectively. The results obtained denote that Algerian olive oils may constitute a good source of healthy compounds, phenolics compounds, in the diet, suggesting that their consumption could be useful in the prevention of diseases.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, olive oil, phenols, HPLC

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1846 Analysis of Coal Tar Compositions Produced from Sub-Bituminous Kalimantan Coal Tar

Authors: Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti, Astrilia Damayanti

Abstract:

Coal tar is a liquid by-product of coal pyrolysis processes. This liquid oil mixture contains various kind of useful compounds such as benzoic aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. The coal tar was collected by pyrolysis process of coal obtained from PT Kaltim Prima Coal and Arutmin-Kalimantan. The experiments typically occurred at the atmospheric pressure in a laboratory furnace at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min and a holding time of 1 hour at the pyrolysis temperature. Nitrogen gas has been used to obtain the inert condition and to carry the gaseous pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis transformed organic materials into gaseous components, small quantities of liquid, and a solid residue (coke) containing fixed amount of carbon and ash. The composition of gas which is produced from the pyrolysis is carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, and other hydrocarbon compounds. The gas was condensed and the liquid containing oil/tar and water was obtained. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to analyze the coal tar components. The obtained coal tar has the viscosity of 3.12 cp, the density of 2.78 g/cm3, the calorific value of 11,048.44 cal/g, and the molecular weight of 222.67. The analysis result showed that the coal tar contained more than 78 chemical compounds such as benzene, cresol, phenol, xylene, naphtalene, etc. The total phenolic compounds contained in coal tar is 33.25% (PT KPC) and 17.58% (Arutmin-Kalimantan). The total naphtalene compounds contained in coal tar is 14.15% (PT KPC) and 17.13% (Arutmin-Kalimantan).

Keywords: coal tar, pyrolysis, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy

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1845 Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Cytotoxic Activity of Novel Triazolopyridazine Derivatives

Authors: Azza T. Tahera, Eman M. Ahmeda, Nadia A. Khalila, Yassin M. Nissanb

Abstract:

New 3-(pyridin-4-yl)-[1,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazine derivatives 2a-i, 4a,b and 6a,b were designed, synthesized and evaluated as cytotoxic agents. All compounds were investigated for their in vitro cytotoxicity at a single dose 10-5M concentration towards 60 cancer cell lines according to USA NCI protocol. The preliminary screening results showed that the majority of tested compounds exhibited remarkable activity against SR (leukemia) cell panel. Molecular docking for all synthesized compounds was performed on the active site of c-Met kinase. The most active compounds, 2f and 4a were further evaluated at a seven dose level screening and their IC50 as a c-Met kinase inhibitors were determined in vitro.

Keywords: triazolopyridazines, pyridazines, cytotoxic activity, cell panel

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1844 Preparation and Characterization of Maltodextrin Microcapsules Containing Walnut Green Husk Extract

Authors: Fatemeh Cheraghali, Saeedeh Shojaee-Aliabadi, Seyede Marzieh Hosseini, Leila Mirmoghtadaie

Abstract:

In recent years, the field of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds is one of the main research topics in the food industry. Application of agricultural residues is mainly cheap, and available resources are receiving increased attention. Walnut green husk is one of the agricultural residues that is considered as natural compounds with biological properties because of phenolic compounds. In this study, maltodextrin 10% was used for microencapsulation of walnut green husk extract. At first, the extract was examined to consider extraction yield, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activation. The results showed the extraction yield of 81.43%, total phenolic compounds of 3997 [mg GAE/100 g], antioxidant activity [DPPH] of 84.85% for walnut green husk extract. Antioxidant activity is about 75%-81% and by DPPH. At the next stage, microencapsulation was done by spry-drying method. The microencapsulation efficiency was 72%-79%. The results of SEM tests confirmed this microencapsulation process. In addition, microencapsulated and free extract was more effective on gram-positive bacteria’s rather than the gram-negative ones. According to the study, walnut green husk can be used as a cheap antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds due to sufficient value of phenolic compounds.

Keywords: biopolymer, microencapsulation, spray-drying, walnut green husk

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1843 Pharmacological Active Compounds of Sponges and a Gorgonian Coral from the Andaman Sea, Thailand

Authors: Patchara Pedpradab, Kietisak Yoksang, Kosin Pattanamanee

Abstract:

In our ongoing search for pharmacological significant of compounds from marine organisms, we investigated the active constituents of two sponges (Xestospongia sp., Halichondria sp.) and a gorgonian coral (Juncella sp.) from the Andaman Sea, Thailand. Several compounds were isolated from those of marine organisms. A marine sponge, Xestospongia sp. contained an isoqinoline compound namely aureol and cytotoxic thiophenen sesterterpene while Halichondria sp. produced C-28 sterols. The white gorgonian coral, Juncella sp. contained anti-tuberculosis diterpenes namely, junceellin and praelolide. All of the isolated compounds were analyzed by spectroscopic methods, extensively.

Keywords: Xestospongia sp., Halichondria sp., gorgonian, Juncella sp. biological activity

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1842 Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Industrial Wastewater Using Sequencing Batch Reactor: The Effects of React Time

Authors: Ali W. Alattabi, Khalid S. Hashim, Hassnen M. Jafer, Ali Alzeyadi

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This study was performed to optimise the react time (RT) and study its effects on the removal rates of nitrogen compounds in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating synthetic industrial wastewater. The results showed that increasing the RT from 4 h to 10, 16 and 22 h significantly improved the nitrogen compounds’ removal efficiency, it was increased from 69.5% to 95%, 75.7 to 97% and from 54.2 to 80.1% for NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the RT of 22 h was the optimum for nitrogen compounds removal efficiency.

Keywords: ammonia-nitrogen, retention time, nitrate, nitrite, sequencing batch reactor, sludge characteristics

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1841 Design and Synthesis of Novel Benzamides as Non-Ulcerogenic Anti-Inflammatory Agents

Authors: Khadse Saurabh, Talele Gokul, Surana Sanjay

Abstract:

In an endeavor to find a new class of anti-inflammatory agents, a series of novel benzamides (ab1-ab16) were synthesized by utilizing some arylideneoxazolones (az1-az4) having 2-acetyloxyphenyl substitution on their second position. Structures of these synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS. Among the tested benzamide compounds 3ab1, 3ab2, 3ab11, and 3ab16 showed promising anti-inflammatory activity with lessened propensity to cause gastro-intestinal hypermotility and ulceration when compared with standard Indomethacin. Virtual screening was performed by docking the designed compounds into the ATP binding site of COX-2 receptor to predict if these compounds have analogous binding mode to the COX-2 inhibitor.

Keywords: benzamides, anti-inflammatory, gastro-intestinal hypermotility, ulcerogenic activity, docking

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1840 Identification and Quantification of Phenolic Compounds In Cassia tora Collected from Three Different Locations Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography – Electro Spray Ionization – Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS-MS)

Authors: Shipra Shukla, Gaurav Chaudhary, S. K. Tewari, Mahesh Pal, D. K. Upreti

Abstract:

Cassia tora L. is widely distributed in tropical Asian countries, commonly known as sickle pod. Various parts of the plant are reported for their medicinal value due to presence of anthraquinones, phenolic compounds, emodin, β-sitosterol, and chrysophanol. Therefore a sensitive analytical procedure using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of five phenolic compounds in leaf, stem and root extracts of Cassia tora. Rapid chromatographic separation of compounds was achieved on Acquity UHPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm×2.1 mm id, 1.7µm) column in 2.5 min. Quantification was carried out using negative electrospray ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9985) over the concentration range of 0.5-200 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions and accuracy were within RSDs ≤ 1.93% and ≤ 1.90%, respectively. The developed method was applied to investigate variation of five phenolic compounds in the three geographical collections. Results indicated significant variation among analyzed samples collected from different locations in India.

Keywords: Cassia tora, phenolic compounds, quantification, UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS

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1839 Design and Facile Synthesis of New Amino Acid Derivatives with Anti-Tumor and Antimicrobial Activities

Authors: Hoda Sabry Othman, Randa Helmy Swellem, Galal Abd El-Moein Nawwar

Abstract:

N-cyanoacetyl glycine is a reactive polyfunctional precursor for synthesis of new difficult accessible compounds including pyridones, thiazolopyridine and others. The key step of this protocol is the formation of different ylidines which underwent Michael addition with carbon nucleophiles affording various heterocyclic compounds. Selected compounds underwent pharmacological evaluation, in vitro against two cell lines; breast cell line (MCF-7),and liver cell line(HEPG2). Compounds 14, 15a and 16 showed IC50 values 8.93, 8.18 and 8.03 (µ/ml) respectively for breast cell line (MCF-7), while the standard drug (Tamoxifen) revealed IC50 8.31. With respect to the liver cell line (HEPG2), compounds 14 and 15a revealed IC50 18.4 and 13.6(µ/ml) respectively while the IC50 of the standard drug(5-Flurouracil) is 25(µ/ml). The antimicrobial activity was also screened and revealed that oxime 7 and ylidine 9f showed a broad-spectrum activity.

Keywords: antitumor, cyanoacetyl glycine, heterocycles, pyridones

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1838 Volatile Organic Compounds from Decomposition of Local Food Waste and Potential Health Risk

Authors: Siti Rohana Mohd Yatim, Ku Halim Ku Hamid, Kamariah Noor Ismail, Zulkifli Abdul Rashid

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The aim of this study is to investigate odour emission profiles from storage of food waste and to assess the potential health risk caused by exposure to volatile compounds. Food waste decomposition process was conducted for 14 days and kept at 20°C and 30°C in self-made bioreactor. VOCs emissions from both samples were collected at different stages of decomposition starting at day 0, day 1, day 3, day 5, day 7, day 10, day 12 and day 14. It was analyzed using TD-GC/MS. Findings showed that various VOCs were released during decomposition of food waste. Compounds produced were influenced by time, temperature and the physico-chemical characteristics of the compounds. The most abundant compound released was dimethyl disulfide. Potential health risk of exposure to this compound is represented by hazard ratio, HR, calculated at 1.6 x 1011. Since HR equal to or less than 1.0 is considered negligible risk, this indicates that the compound posed a potential risk to human health.

Keywords: volatile organic compounds, decomposition process, food waste, health risk

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1837 Effect of Brewing on the Bioactive Compounds of Coffee

Authors: Ceyda Dadali, Yeşim Elmaci

Abstract:

Coffee was introduced as an economic crop during the fifteenth century; nowadays it is the most important food commodity ranking second after crude oil. Desirable sensory properties make coffee one of the most often consumed and most popular beverages in the world. The coffee preparation method has a significant effect on flavor and composition of coffee brews. Three different extraction methodologies namely decoction, infusion and pressure methods have been used for coffee brew preparation. Each of these methods is related to specific granulation (coffee grind) of coffee powder, water-coffee ratio temperature and brewing time. Coffee is a mixture of 1500 chemical compounds. Chemical composition of coffee highly depends on brewing methods, coffee bean species and roasting time-temperature. Coffee contains a wide number of very important bioactive compounds, such as diterpenes: cafestol and kahweol, alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine and trigonelline, melanoidins, phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds of coffee include chlorogenic acids (quinyl esters of hidroxycinnamic acids), caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric acid. In coffee caffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids and di-caffeoylquinic acids are three main groups of chlorogenic acids constitues 6% -10% of dry weight of coffee. The bioavailability of chlorogenic acids in coffee depends on the absorption and metabolization to biomarkers in individuals. Also, the interaction of coffee polyphenols with other compounds such as dietary proteins affects the biomarkers. Since bioactive composition of coffee depends on brewing methods effect of coffee brewing method on bioactive compounds of coffee will be discussed in this study.

Keywords: bioactive compounds of coffee, biomarkers, coffee brew, effect of brewing

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1836 Synthesis and Characterisation of Bio-Based Acetals Derived from Eucalyptus Oil

Authors: Kirstin Burger, Paul Watts, Nicole Vorster

Abstract:

Green chemistry focuses on synthesis which has a low negative impact on the environment. This research focuses on synthesizing novel compounds from an all-natural Eucalyptus citriodora oil. Eight novel plasticizer compounds are synthesized and optimized using flow chemistry technology. A precursor to one novel compound can be synthesized from the lauric acid present in coconut oil. Key parameters, such as catalyst screening and loading, reaction time, temperature, residence time using flow chemistry techniques is investigated. The compounds are characterised using GC-MS, FT-IR, 1H and 13C-NMR techniques, X-ray crystallography. The efficiency of the compounds is compared to two commercial plasticizers, i.e. Dibutyl phthalate and Eastman 168. Several PVC-plasticized film formulations are produced using the bio-based novel compounds. Tensile strength, stress at fracture and percentage elongation are tested. The property of having increasing plasticizer percentage in the film formulations is investigated, ranging from 3, 6, 9 and 12%. The diastereoisomers of each compound are separated and formulated into PVC films, and differences in tensile strength are measured. Leaching tests, flexibility, and change in glass transition temperatures for PVC-plasticized films is recorded. Research objective includes using these novel compounds as a green bio-plasticizer alternative in plastic products for infants. The inhibitory effect of the compounds on six pathogens effecting infants are studied, namely; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas putida, Salmonella choleraesuis and Klebsiella oxytoca.

Keywords: bio-based compounds, plasticizer, tensile strength, microbiological inhibition , synthesis

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1835 Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of 5-Phenyl-N3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4-diamine Derivatives

Authors: L. Mallesha, P. Mallu, B. Veeresh

Abstract:

In the present study, 2, 6-diflurobenzohydrazide and 4-fluorophenylisothiocyanate were used as the starting materials to synthesize 5-phenyl-N3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4H-1, 2, 4-triazole-3, 4-diamine. Further, compound 5-phenyl-N3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4H-1, 2, 4-triazole-3,4-diamine reacted with fluoro substituted benzaldehydes to yield a series of Schiff bases. All the final compounds were characterized using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and elemental analyses. New compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative effect using the MTT assay method against four human cancer cell lines (K562, COLO-205, MDA-MB231, and IMR-32) for the time period of 24 h. Among the series, few compounds showed good activity on all cell lines, whereas the other compounds in the series exhibited moderate activity.

Keywords: Schiff bases, MTT assay, antiproliferative activity, human cancer cell lines, 1, 2, 4-triazoles

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1834 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Screening of 3-Hydroxy-2-[3-(2/3/4-Methoxybenzoyl)Thioureido]Butyric Acid

Authors: M. S. M. Yusof, R. Ramli, S. K. C. Soh, N. Ismail, N. Ngah

Abstract:

This study presents the synthesis of a series of methoxybenzoylthiourea amino acid derivatives. The compounds were obtained from the reactions between 2/3/4-methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate with threonine. All of the compounds were characterized via mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and FT-IR spectroscopy. Mass spectra for all of the compounds showed the presence of molecular ion [M]+ peaks at m/z 312, which are in agreement to the calculated molecular weight. For 1H NMR spectra, the presence of OCH3, C=S-NH and C=O-NH protons were observed within range of δH 3.8-4.0 ppm, 11.1-11.5 ppm and 10.0-11.5 ppm, respectively. 13C NMR spectra in all compounds displayed the presence of OCH3, C=O-NH, C=O-OH and C=S carbon resonances within range of δC 55.0-57.0 ppm, 165.0-168.0 ppm, 170.0-171.0 ppm and 180.0-182.0 ppm, respectively. In UV spectra, two absorption bands have been observed and both were assigned to the n-π* and π-π* transitions. Six vibrational modes of v(N-H), v(O-H), v(C=O-OH), v(C=O-NH), v(C=C) aromatic and v(C=S) appeared in the FT-IR spectra within the range of 3241-3467 cm-1, 2976-3302 cm-1, 1720-1768 cm-1, 1655-1672 cm-1, 1519-1525 cm-1 and 754-763 cm-1, respectively. The antibacterial activity for all of the compounds was screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. However, no activity was observed.

Keywords: methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate, amino acid, threonine, antibacterial

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1833 Synthesis of Quinazoline Derivatives as Selective Inhibitors of Cyclooxygenase-1 Enzyme

Authors: Marcela Dvorakova, Lenka Langhansova, Premysl Landa

Abstract:

A series of quinazoline derivatives bearing aromatic rings in 2- and 4-positions were prepared and tested for their biological activity. Firstly, the compounds were evaluated for their potential to inhibit various kinases, such as autophagy activating kinase ULK1, 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1, and TANK-binding kinase 1. None of the compounds displayed any activity on these kinases. Secondly, the compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity expressed as cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition. Three of the compounds showed significant selectivity towards COX-1 isoform (COX-2/COX-1 SI = 20-30). They inhibited COX-1 in a single-digit µM range. There was also one compound that exhibited inhibitory activity towards all three tested enzymes in µM range (IC50COX-1 = 1.9 µM; IC50COX-2 and 5-LOX = 10.1µM. COX-1 inhibition was until recently considered undesirable due to COX-1 constitutive expression in most cell types and tissues. Thus, there are not many compounds known with selective COX-1 activity. However, it is now believed that COX-1 plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several acute and chronic disorders, including cancer or neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the discovery of effective COX-1 selective inhibitors is desirable and important.

Keywords: cyclooxygenases, kinases, lipoxygenases, quinazolines

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1832 Atomic Hydrogen Storage in Hexagonal GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu Rare Earth Compounds: A Comparative Density Functional Theory Study

Authors: A. Kellou, L. Rouaiguia, L. Rabahi

Abstract:

In the present work, the atomic hydrogen absorption trend in the GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu rare earth compounds within the hexagonal CaCu5 type of crystal structure (space group P6/mmm) is investigated. The density functional theory (DFT) combined with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is used to study the site preference of atomic hydrogen at 0K. The octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial sites are considered. The formation energies and structural properties are determined in order to evaluate hydrogen effects on the stability of the studied compounds. The energetic diagram of hydrogen storage is established and compared in GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu. The magnetic properties of the selected compounds are determined using spin polarized calculations. The obtained results are discussed with and without hydrogen addition taking into account available theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords: density functional theory, hydrogen storage, rare earth compounds, structural and magnetic properties

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