Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2597

Search results for: safety cube

2597 Incorporation of Safety into Design by Safety Cube

Authors: Mohammad Rajabalinejad


Safety is often seen as a requirement or a performance indicator through the design process, and this does not always result in optimally safe products or systems. This paper suggests integrating the best safety practices with the design process to enrich the exploration experience for designers and add extra values for customers. For this purpose, the commonly practiced safety standards and design methods have been reviewed and their common blocks have been merged forming Safety Cube. Safety Cube combines common blocks for design, hazard identification, risk assessment and risk reduction through an integral approach. An example application presents the use of Safety Cube for design of machinery.

Keywords: safety, safety cube, product, system, machinery, design

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
2596 A Robotic Cube to Preschool Children for Acquiring the Mathematical and Colours Concepts

Authors: Ahmed Amin Mousa, Tamer M. Ismail, M. Abd El Salam


This work presents a robot called Conceptual Robotic Cube, CR-Cube. The robot can be used as an educational tool for children from the age of three. It has a cube shape attached with a camera colours sensor. In addition, it contains four wheels to move smoothly. The researchers prepared a questionnaire to measure the efficiency of the robot. The design and the questionnaire was presented to 11 experts who agreed that the robot is appropriate for learning numbering and colours for preschool children.

Keywords: CR-Cube, robotic cube, conceptual robot, conceptual cube, colour concept, early childhood education

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
2595 Maximum Induced Subgraph of an Augmented Cube

Authors: Meng-Jou Chien, Jheng-Cheng Chen, Chang-Hsiung Tsai


Let maxζG(m) denote the maximum number of edges in a subgraph of graph G induced by m nodes. The n-dimensional augmented cube, denoted as AQn, a variation of the hypercube, possesses some properties superior to those of the hypercube. We study the cases when G is the augmented cube AQn.

Keywords: interconnection network, augmented cube, induced subgraph, bisection width

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
2594 The Possibility of Solving a 3x3 Rubik’s Cube under 3 Seconds

Authors: Chung To Kong, Siu Ming Yiu


Rubik's cube was invented in 1974. Since then, speedcubers all over the world try their best to break the world record again and again. The newest record is 3.47 seconds. There are many factors that affect the timing, including turns per second (tps), algorithm, finger trick, hardware of the cube. In this paper, the lower bound of the cube solving time will be discussed using convex optimization. Extended analysis of the world records will be used to understand how to improve the timing. With the understanding of each part of the solving step, the paper suggests a list of speed improvement techniques. Based on the analysis of the world record, there is a high possibility that the 3 seconds mark will be broken soon.

Keywords: Rubik's Cube, speed, finger trick, optimization

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2593 Ag-Cu and Bi-Cd Eutectics Ribbons under Superplastic Tensile Test Regime

Authors: Edgar Ochoa, G. Torres-Villasenor


Superplastic deformation is shown by materials with a fine grain size, usually less than 10 μm, when they are deformed within the strain rate range 10-5 10-1 s-1 at temperatures greater than 0.5Tm, where Tm is the melting point in Kelvin. According to the constitutive equation for superplastic flow, refinement of the grain size would be expected to increase the optimum strain rate and decrease the temperature required for superplastic flow. Ribbons of eutectic Ag-Cu and Bi-Cd alloys were manufactured by using a single roller melt-spinning technique to obtain a fine grain structure for later test in superplastic regime. The eutectics ribbons were examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction, and the grain size was determined using the image analysis software ImageJ. The average grain size was less than 1 μm. Tensile tests were carried out from 10-4 to 10-1 s-1, at room temperature, to evaluate the superplastic behavior. The largest deformation was shown by the Bi-Cd eutectic ribbons, Ɛ=140 %, despite that these ribbons have a hexagonal unit cell. On the other hand, Ag-Cu eutectic ribbons have a minor grain size and cube unit cell, however they showed a lower deformation in tensile test under the same conditions than Bi-Cd ribbons. This is because the Ag-Cu grew in a strong cube-cube orientation relationship.

Keywords: eutectic ribbon, fine grain, superplastic deformation, cube-cube orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
2592 Hamiltonian Related Properties with and without Faults of the Dual-Cube Interconnection Network and Their Variations

Authors: Shih-Yan Chen, Shin-Shin Kao


In this paper, a thorough review about dual-cubes, DCn, the related studies and their variations are given. DCn was introduced to be a network which retains the pleasing properties of hypercube Qn but has a much smaller diameter. In fact, it is so constructed that the number of vertices of DCn is equal to the number of vertices of Q2n +1. However, each vertex in DCn is adjacent to n + 1 neighbors and so DCn has (n + 1) × 2^2n edges in total, which is roughly half the number of edges of Q2n+1. In addition, the diameter of any DCn is 2n +2, which is of the same order of that of Q2n+1. For selfcompleteness, basic definitions, construction rules and symbols are provided. We chronicle the results, where eleven significant theorems are presented, and include some open problems at the end.

Keywords: dual-cubes, dual-cube extensive networks, dual-cube-like networks, hypercubes, fault-tolerant hamiltonian property

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
2591 Assessing Female Students' Understanding of the Solar System Concepts by Implementing I-Cube Technology

Authors: Elham Ghazi Mohammad


This study examined the female students’ understanding for the solar system concepts through the utilization of the I-Cube technology as a virtual reality technology. The study conducted in Qatar University for samples of students of eighth and ninth preparatory grade students in the State of Qatar. The research framework comprises designated quantitative research designs and methods of data collection and analysis including pre- and post-conceptual exams. This research based on experimental method design that focuses on students’ performance and conceptual questions. A group of 120 students from the eighth and ninth groups were divided into two pools of 60 students each, where the two 60-student groups represent the designated control and treatment groups. It must be mentioned that the students were selected randomly from the eighth and ninth grades. The solar system lesson of interest was taught by teacher candidates (senior students at the college of Education at QU), who taught both the experimental group (integrating I-cube) in virtual lab in Qatar University and control group (without integrating this technology) in one of independent school in the State of Qatar. It is noteworthy to mention that the students usually face some difficulties to learn by imagining real situation such as solar system and inner planet lesson. Collected data was statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and one-way ANCOVA using SPSS Statistics. The obtained results revealed that integrating I-Cube technology has significantly enhanced female students’ conceptual understanding of the solar system. Interestingly, our findings demonstrated the applicability of utilizing integrating I-Cube technology toward enhancing the students’ understanding regarding subjects of interests within the landscapes of basic sciences.

Keywords: virtual lab, integrating technology, I-Cube, solar system

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2590 Sparsity-Based Unsupervised Unmixing of Hyperspectral Imaging Data Using Basis Pursuit

Authors: Ahmed Elrewainy


Mixing in the hyperspectral imaging occurs due to the low spatial resolutions of the used cameras. The existing pure materials “endmembers” in the scene share the spectra pixels with different amounts called “abundances”. Unmixing of the data cube is an important task to know the present endmembers in the cube for the analysis of these images. Unsupervised unmixing is done with no information about the given data cube. Sparsity is one of the recent approaches used in the source recovery or unmixing techniques. The l1-norm optimization problem “basis pursuit” could be used as a sparsity-based approach to solve this unmixing problem where the endmembers is assumed to be sparse in an appropriate domain known as dictionary. This optimization problem is solved using proximal method “iterative thresholding”. The l1-norm basis pursuit optimization problem as a sparsity-based unmixing technique was used to unmix real and synthetic hyperspectral data cubes.

Keywords: basis pursuit, blind source separation, hyperspectral imaging, spectral unmixing, wavelets

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
2589 An Investigation on the Relationship between Taxi Company Safety Climate and Safety Performance of Taxi Drivers in Iloilo City

Authors: Jasper C. Dioco


The study was done to investigate the relationship of taxi company safety climate and drivers’ safety motivation and knowledge on taxi drivers’ safety performance. Data were collected from three Taxi Companies with taxi drivers as participants (N = 84). The Hiligaynon translated version of Transportation Companies’ Climate Scale (TCCS), Safety Motivation and Knowledge Scale, Occupational Safety Motivation Questionnaire and Global Safety Climate Scale were used to study the relationships among four parameters: (a) Taxi company safety climate; (b) Safety motivation; (c) Safety knowledge; and (d) Safety performance. Correlational analyses found that there is no relation between safety climate and safety performance. A Hierarchical regression demonstrated that safety motivation predicts the most variance in safety performance. The results will greatly impact how taxi company can increase safe performance through the confirmation of the proximity of variables to organizational outcome. A strong positive safety climate, in which employees perceive safety to be a priority and that managers are committed to their safety, is likely to increase motivation to be safety. Hence, to improve outcomes, providing knowledge based training and health promotion programs within the organization must be implemented. Policy change might include overtime rules and fatigue driving awareness programs.

Keywords: safety climate, safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety performance, taxi drivers

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
2588 Reconstruction Spectral Reflectance Cube Based on Artificial Neural Network for Multispectral Imaging System

Authors: Iwan Cony Setiadi, Aulia M. T. Nasution


The multispectral imaging (MSI) technique has been used for skin analysis, especially for distant mapping of in-vivo skin chromophores by analyzing spectral data at each reflected image pixel. For ergonomic purpose, our multispectral imaging system is decomposed in two parts: a light source compartment based on LED with 11 different wavelenghts and a monochromatic 8-Bit CCD camera with C-Mount Objective Lens. The software based on GUI MATLAB to control the system was also developed. Our system provides 11 monoband images and is coupled with a software reconstructing hyperspectral cubes from these multispectral images. In this paper, we proposed a new method to build a hyperspectral reflectance cube based on artificial neural network algorithm. After preliminary corrections, a neural network is trained using the 32 natural color from X-Rite Color Checker Passport. The learning procedure involves acquisition, by a spectrophotometer. This neural network is then used to retrieve a megapixel multispectral cube between 380 and 880 nm with a 5 nm resolution from a low-spectral-resolution multispectral acquisition. As hyperspectral cubes contain spectra for each pixel; comparison should be done between the theoretical values from the spectrophotometer and the reconstructed spectrum. To evaluate the performance of reconstruction, we used the Goodness of Fit Coefficient (GFC) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE). To validate reconstruction, the set of 8 colour patches reconstructed by our MSI system and the one recorded by the spectrophotometer were compared. The average GFC was 0.9990 (standard deviation = 0.0010) and the average RMSE is 0.2167 (standard deviation = 0.064).

Keywords: multispectral imaging, reflectance cube, spectral reconstruction, artificial neural network

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2587 Building a Hierarchical, Granular Knowledge Cube

Authors: Alexander Denzler, Marcel Wehrle, Andreas Meier


A knowledge base stores facts and rules about the world that applications can use for the purpose of reasoning. By applying the concept of granular computing to a knowledge base, several advantages emerge. These can be harnessed by applications to improve their capabilities and performance. In this paper, the concept behind such a construct, called a granular knowledge cube, is defined, and its intended use as an instrument that manages to cope with different data types and detect knowledge domains is elaborated. Furthermore, the underlying architecture, consisting of the three layers of the storing, representing, and structuring of knowledge, is described. Finally, benefits as well as challenges of deploying it are listed alongside application types that could profit from having such an enhanced knowledge base.

Keywords: granular computing, granular knowledge, hierarchical structuring, knowledge bases

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
2586 Characterization of Agroforestry Systems in Burkina Faso Using an Earth Observation Data Cube

Authors: Dan Kanmegne


Africa will become the most populated continent by the end of the century, with around 4 billion inhabitants. Food security and climate changes will become continental issues since agricultural practices depend on climate but also contribute to global emissions and land degradation. Agroforestry has been identified as a cost-efficient and reliable strategy to address these two issues. It is defined as the integrated management of trees and crops/animals in the same land unit. Agroforestry provides benefits in terms of goods (fruits, medicine, wood, etc.) and services (windbreaks, fertility, etc.), and is acknowledged to have a great potential for carbon sequestration; therefore it can be integrated into reduction mechanisms of carbon emissions. Particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, the constraint stands in the lack of information about both areas under agroforestry and the characterization (composition, structure, and management) of each agroforestry system at the country level. This study describes and quantifies “what is where?”, earliest to the quantification of carbon stock in different systems. Remote sensing (RS) is the most efficient approach to map such a dynamic technology as agroforestry since it gives relatively adequate and consistent information over a large area at nearly no cost. RS data fulfill the good practice guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change (IPCC) that is to be used in carbon estimation. Satellite data are getting more and more accessible, and the archives are growing exponentially. To retrieve useful information to support decision-making out of this large amount of data, satellite data needs to be organized so to ensure fast processing, quick accessibility, and ease of use. A new solution is a data cube, which can be understood as a multi-dimensional stack (space, time, data type) of spatially aligned pixels and used for efficient access and analysis. A data cube for Burkina Faso has been set up from the cooperation project between the international service provider WASCAL and Germany, which provides an accessible exploitation architecture of multi-temporal satellite data. The aim of this study is to map and characterize agroforestry systems using the Burkina Faso earth observation data cube. The approach in its initial stage is based on an unsupervised image classification of a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series from 2010 to 2018, to stratify the country based on the vegetation. Fifteen strata were identified, and four samples per location were randomly assigned to define the sampling units. For safety reasons, the northern part will not be part of the fieldwork. A total of 52 locations will be visited by the end of the dry season in February-March 2020. The field campaigns will consist of identifying and describing different agroforestry systems and qualitative interviews. A multi-temporal supervised image classification will be done with a random forest algorithm, and the field data will be used for both training the algorithm and accuracy assessment. The expected outputs are (i) map(s) of agroforestry dynamics, (ii) characteristics of different systems (main species, management, area, etc.); (iii) assessment report of Burkina Faso data cube.

Keywords: agroforestry systems, Burkina Faso, earth observation data cube, multi-temporal image classification

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2585 Sphere in Cube Grid Approach to Modelling of Shale Gas Production Using Non-Linear Flow Mechanisms

Authors: Dhruvit S. Berawala, Jann R. Ursin, Obrad Slijepcevic


Shale gas is one of the most rapidly growing forms of natural gas. Unconventional natural gas deposits are difficult to characterize overall, but in general are often lower in resource concentration and dispersed over large areas. Moreover, gas is densely packed into the matrix through adsorption which accounts for large volume of gas reserves. Gas production from tight shale deposits are made possible by extensive and deep well fracturing which contacts large fractions of the formation. The conventional reservoir modelling and production forecasting methods, which rely on fluid-flow processes dominated by viscous forces, have proved to be very pessimistic and inaccurate. This paper presents a new approach to forecast shale gas production by detailed modeling of gas desorption, diffusion and non-linear flow mechanisms in combination with statistical representation of these processes. The representation of the model involves a cube as a porous media where free gas is present and a sphere (SiC: Sphere in Cube model) inside it where gas is adsorbed on to the kerogen or organic matter. Further, the sphere is considered consisting of many layers of adsorbed gas in an onion-like structure. With pressure decline, the gas desorbs first from the outer most layer of sphere causing decrease in its molecular concentration. The new available surface area and change in concentration triggers the diffusion of gas from kerogen. The process continues until all the gas present internally diffuses out of the kerogen, gets adsorbs onto available surface area and then desorbs into the nanopores and micro-fractures in the cube. Each SiC idealizes a gas pathway and is characterized by sphere diameter and length of the cube. The diameter allows to model gas storage, diffusion and desorption; the cube length takes into account the pathway for flow in nanopores and micro-fractures. Many of these representative but general cells of the reservoir are put together and linked to a well or hydraulic fracture. The paper quantitatively describes these processes as well as clarifies the geological conditions under which a successful shale gas production could be expected. A numerical model has been derived which is then compiled on FORTRAN to develop a simulator for the production of shale gas by considering the spheres as a source term in each of the grid blocks. By applying SiC to field data, we demonstrate that the model provides an effective way to quickly access gas production rates from shale formations. We also examine the effect of model input properties on gas production.

Keywords: adsorption, diffusion, non-linear flow, shale gas production

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
2584 Safety Factors for Improvement of Labor's Health and Safety in Construction Industry of Pakistan

Authors: Ahsan Ali Khan


During past few years, researchers are emphasizing more on the need of safety in construction industry. This need of safety is an important issue in developing countries. As due to development they are facing huge construction growth. This research is done to evaluate labor safety condition in construction industry of Pakistan. The research carried out through questionnaire survey at different construction sites. Useful data are gathered from these sites which then factor analyzed resulting in five factors. These factors reflect that most of the workers are aware of the safety need, but they divert this responsibility towards management and claim that the work is more essential for management instead of safety. Moreover, those work force which is unaware of safety state that there is lack of any training and guidance from upper management which lead to many unfavorable events on construction sites. There is need of implementation safety activities by management like training, formulation of rules and policies. This research will be helpful to divert management attention towards safety need so they will make efforts for safety of their manpower—the workers.

Keywords: labor's safety, management role, Pakistan, safety factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
2583 A Comparative Analysis of Safety Orientation and Safety Performance in Organizations: A Project Management Perspective

Authors: Dina Alfreahat, Zoltan Sebestyen


Safety is considered as one of the project’s success factors. Poor safety management may result in accidents that impact human, economic, and legal issues. Therefore, it is necessary to consider safety and health as a project success factor along with other project success factors, such as time, cost, and quality. Organizations have a knowledge deficit of the implementation of long-term safety practices, and due to cost control, safety problems tend to receive the least priority. They usually assume that safety management involves expenditures unrelated to production goals, thereby considering it unnecessary for profitability and competitiveness. The purpose of this study is to introduce, analysis and identify the correlation between the orientation of the public safety procedures of an organization and the public safety standards applied in the project. Therefore, the authors develop the process and collect the possible mathematical-statistical tools supporting the previously mentioned goal. The result shows that the adoption of management to safety is a major factor in implementing the safety standard in the project and thereby improving safety performance. It may take time and effort to adopt the mindset of safety orientation service development, but at the same time, the higher organizational investment in safety and health programs will contribute to the loyalty of staff to safety compliance.

Keywords: project management perspective, safety orientation, safety performance, safety standards

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
2582 Safety-Security Co-Engineering of Control Systems

Authors: Elena A. Troubitsyna


Designers of modern safety-critical control systems are increasingly relying on networking to provide the systems with advanced functionality and satisfy customer’s needs. However, networking nature of modern control systems also brings new technological challenges associated with ensuring system safety in the presence of openness and hence, potential security threats. In this paper, we propose a methodology that relies on systems-theoretic analysis to enable an integrated analysis of safety and security requirements of controlling software. We demonstrate how to create a safety case – a structured argument about system safety – with explicit representation of both safety and security goals. Our approach provides the designers with a systematic approach to analysing safety and security interdependencies while designing safety-critical control systems.

Keywords: controlling software, integrated analysis, security, safety-security co-engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
2581 Unbreakable Obedience of Safety Regulation: The Study of Authoritarian Leadership and Safety Performance

Authors: Hong-Yi Kuo


Leadership is a key factor of improving workplace safety, and there have been abundant of studies which support the positive effects of appropriate leadership on employee safety performance in the western academic. However, little safety research focus on the Chinese leadership style like paternalistic leadership. To fill this gap, the resent study aims to examine the relationship between authoritarian leadership (one of the ternary mode in paternalistic leadership) and safety outcomes. This study makes hypothesis on different levels. First, on the group level, as an authoritarian leader regards safety value as the most important tasks, there would be positive effect on group safety outcomes through strengthening safety group norms by the emphasis on etiquette. Second, on the cross level, when a leader with authoritarian style has high priority on safety, employees may more obey the safety rules because of fear due to emphasis on absolute authority over the leader. Therefore, employees may show more safety performance and then increase individual safety outcomes. Survey data would be collected from 50 manufacturing groups (each group with more than 5 members and a leader) and a hierarchical linear modeling analysis would be conducted to analyze the hypothesis. Above the predictive result, the study expects to be a cornerstone of safety leadership research in the Chinese academic and practice.

Keywords: safety leadership, authoritarian leadership, group norms, safety behavior, supervisor safety priority

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
2580 An Experimental Investigation of the Cognitive Noise Influence on the Bistable Visual Perception

Authors: Alexander E. Hramov, Vadim V. Grubov, Alexey A. Koronovskii, Maria K. Kurovskaуa, Anastasija E. Runnova


The perception of visual signals in the brain was among the first issues discussed in terms of multistability which has been introduced to provide mechanisms for information processing in biological neural systems. In this work the influence of the cognitive noise on the visual perception of multistable pictures has been investigated. The study includes an experiment with the bistable Necker cube illusion and the theoretical background explaining the obtained experimental results. In our experiments Necker cubes with different wireframe contrast were demonstrated repeatedly to different people and the probability of the choice of one of the cubes projection was calculated for each picture. The Necker cube was placed at the middle of a computer screen as black lines on a white background. The contrast of the three middle lines centered in the left middle corner was used as one of the control parameter. Between two successive demonstrations of Necker cubes another picture was shown to distract attention and to make a perception of next Necker cube more independent from the previous one. Eleven subjects, male and female, of the ages 20 through 45 were studied. The choice of the Necker cube projection was detected with the Electroencephalograph-recorder Encephalan-EEGR-19/26, Medicom MTD. To treat the experimental results we carried out theoretical consideration using the simplest double-well potential model with the presence of noise that led to the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density of the stochastic process. At the first time an analytical solution for the probability of the selection of one of the Necker cube projection for different values of wireframe contrast have been obtained. Furthermore, having used the results of the experimental measurements with the help of the method of least squares we have calculated the value of the parameter corresponding to the cognitive noise of the person being studied. The range of cognitive noise parameter values for studied subjects turned to be [0.08; 0.55]. It should be noted, that experimental results have a good reproducibility, the same person being studied repeatedly another day produces very similar data with very close levels of cognitive noise. We found an excellent agreement between analytically deduced probability and the results obtained in the experiment. A good qualitative agreement between theoretical and experimental results indicates that even such a simple model allows simulating brain cognitive dynamics and estimating important cognitive characteristic of the brain, such as brain noise.

Keywords: bistability, brain, noise, perception, stochastic processes

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2579 A Study on the Functional Safety Analysis of Stage Control System Based on International Electronical Committee 61508-2

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Hye-Mi Kim, Sang-Hoon Seo, Jaden Cha


This International standard IEC 61508 sets out a generic approach for all safety lifecycle activities for systems comprised of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic (E/E/PE) elements that are used to perform safety functions. The control unit in stage control system is safety related facilities to control state and speed for stage system running, and it performs safety-critical function by stage control system. The controller unit is part of safety loops corresponding to the IEC 61508 and classified as logic part in the safety loop. In this paper, we analyze using FMEDA (Failure Mode Effect and Diagnostic Analysis) to verification for fault tolerance methods and functional safety of control unit. Moreover, we determined SIL (Safety Integrity Level) for control unit according to the safety requirements defined in IEC 61508-2 based on an analyzed functional safety.

Keywords: safety function, failure mode effect, IEC 61508-2, diagnostic analysis, stage control system

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
2578 Prediction of Solidification Behavior of Al Alloy in a Cube Mold Cavity

Authors: N. P. Yadav, Deepti Verma


This paper focuses on the mathematical modeling for solidification of Al alloy in a cube mould cavity to study the solidification behavior of casting process. The parametric investigation of solidification process inside the cavity was performed by using computational solidification/melting model coupled with Volume of fluid (VOF) model. The implicit filling algorithm is used in this study to understand the overall process from the filling stage to solidification in a model metal casting process. The model is validated with past studied at same conditions. The solidification process are analyzed by including the effect of pouring velocity and temperature of liquid metal, effect of wall temperature as well natural convection from the wall and geometry of the cavity. These studies show the possibility of various defects during solidification process.

Keywords: buoyancy driven flow, natural convection driven flow, residual flow, secondary flow, volume of fluid

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2577 Effect of Zingerone on High-Fructose Diet-Indeuced Metabolic Derangements in Growing Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: Nondumiso Lushozi, Busisani Lembede, Eliton Chivandi


Consumption of fructose increases the risk of obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome in children. Zingerone which is found in ginger has antidiabetic and antiobesogenic properties. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the potential of orally administered zingerone to protect growing Sprague-Dawley rats (mimicking growing children) against high-fructose diet-induced metabolic derangements. Forty, 21-day old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated and administered the following four treatments for 12 weeks: group I: standard rat chow (SR) + plain water (PW) + plain gelatine cube (PC). group II: SR + 20% (w/v) fructose solution (FS) + PC. group III: SR + FS + 100 mg/kg/day of fenofibrate in gelatine cube. group IV: SR+ FS + 20 mg/kg/day of zingerone in gelatine cube. The rats’ triglyceride, cholesterol, insulin & adiponectin concentration, visceral fat liver lipid content, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ability to handle glucose were determined. Oral administration of zingerone significantly increased (P<0.001) visceral fat and liver lipid content (P<0.001), respectively. Results from the study revealed that administration of 20% fructose solution did not induce metabolic dysfunction, however the zingerone treatment increased visceral fat and liver lipid content, all these lipid abnormalities are typical features of the metabolic syndrome, therefore the current study suggests that zingerone has no effect on metabolic dysfunction in adolescent females.

Keywords: antidiabetic, metabolic syndrome, zingerone, antiobesogenic

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2576 Effect of Species and Slaughtering Age on Quality Characteristics of Different Meat Cuts of Humped Cattle and Water Buffalo Bulls

Authors: Muhammad Kashif Yar, Muhammad Hayat Jaspal, Muawuz Ijaz, Zafar Hayat, Iftikhar Hussain Badar, Jamal Nasir


Meat quality characteristics such as ultimate pH (pHu), color, cooking loss and shear force of eight wholesale meat cuts of humped cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls at two age groups were evaluated. A total of 48 animals, 24 of each species and within species 12 from each 18 and 26 months age group were slaughtered. After 24h post-slaughter, eight meat cuts, i.e., tenderloin, sirloin, rump, cube roll, round, topside, silverside and blade were cut from the carcass. The pHu of tenderloin (5.65 vs 5.55), sirloin (5.67 vs 5.60), cube roll (5.68 vs 5.62) and blade (5.88 vs 5.72) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in buffalo than cattle. The tenderloin showed significantly higher (44.63 vs 42.23) and sirloin showed lower (P<0.05) mean L* value (42.28 vs 44.47) in cattle than buffalo whilst the mean L* value of the only tenderloin was affected by animal age. Species had a significant (P<0.05) effect on mean a*, b*, C, and h values of all meat cuts. The shear force of the majority of meat cuts, within species and age groups, varied considerably. The mean shear values of tenderloin, sirloin, cube roll and blade were higher (P<0.05) in buffalo than cattle. The shear values of rump, round, topside and silverside increased significantly (P<0.05) with animal age. In conclusion, primal cuts of cattle showed better meat quality especially tenderness than buffalo. Furthermore, calves should be raised at least up to 26 months of age to maximize profitability by providing better quality meat.

Keywords: buffalo, cattle, meat color, meat quality, slaughtering age, tenderness

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
2575 The Interactive Effects of Leadership on Safety

Authors: Jane E. Mullen, Kevin Kelloway, Ann Rhéaume-Brüning


The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of perceived leader word-action alignment on subordinate extra-role safety behavior. Using survey data gathered from a sample of nurses employed in health care facilities located in Eastern Canada (n = 192), the effects of perceived word-action alignment (measured as the cross product of leaders speaking positively about safety and acting safely) on nurse safety participation was examined. Moderated regression analysis resulted in the significant (p < .01) prediction of nurse safety participation by the interaction term. Analysis of the simple slopes comprising the interaction term suggests that positively speaking about safety only predicted safety participation when leaders were also perceived by subordinates as acting safely. The results provide empirical support for the importance of the perceived alignment between leaders’ words, or espoused safety values and priorities, and their actions. Practical implications for safety leadership training are discussed.

Keywords: leadership, safety participation, safety performance, safety training

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
2574 Comparison Analysis on the Safety Culture between the Executives and the Operators: Case Study in the Aircraft Manufacturer in Taiwan

Authors: Wen-Chen Hwang, Yu-Hsi Yuan


According to the estimation made by researchers of safety and hygiene, 80% to 90% of workplace accidents in enterprises could be attributed to human factors. Nevertheless, human factors are not the only cause for accidents; instead, happening of accidents is also closely associated with the safety culture of the organization. Therefore, the most effective way of reducing accident rate would be to improve the social and the organizational factors that influence organization’s safety performance. Overview the present study is to understand the current level of safety culture in manufacturing enterprises. A tool for evaluating safety culture matching the needs and characteristics of manufacturing enterprises was developed by reviewing literature of safety culture, and taking the special backgrounds of the case enterprises into consideration. Expert validity was also implied for developing the questionnaire. Moreover, safety culture assessment was conducted through the practical investigation of the case enterprises. Total 505 samples were involved, 53 were executives and 452 were operators. The result of this study in comparison of the safety culture level between the executives and the operators was reached the significant level in 8 dimensions: Safety Commitment, Safety System, Safety Training, Safety Involvement, Reward and Motivation, Communication and Reporting, Leadership and Supervision, Learning and Changing. In general, the overall safety culture were executive level higher than operators level (M: 74.98 > 69.08; t=2.87; p < 0.01).

Keywords: questionnaire survey, safety culture, t-test, media studies

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2573 Effect of Shape and Size of Concrete Specimen and Strength of Concrete Mixture in the Absence and Presence of Fiber

Authors: Sultan Husein Bayqra, Ali Mardani Aghabaglou, Zia Ahmad Faqiri, Hassane Amidou Ouedraogo


In this study, the effect of shape and size of the concrete specimen on the compressive and splitting tensile strength of the concrete mixtures in the absence and presence of steel fiber was investigated. For this aim, ten different concrete mixtures having w/c ratio of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 with and without fiber were prepared. In the mixtures containing steel fibers having aspect ratio (L/D) of 64 were used by 1% of the total mixture volume. In all concrete mixtures, CEM I 42,5R type Portland cement and crushed Lime-stone aggregates having different aggregate size fractions were used. The combined aggregate was obtained by mixing %40 0-5 mm, %30 5-12 mm and %30 12-22 mm aggregate size fraction. The slump values of concrete mixtures were kept constant as 17 ± 2 cm. To provide the desired slump value, a polycarboxylate ether-based high range water reducing admixture was used. In order to investigate the effect of size and shape of concrete specimen on strength properties 10 cm, 15 cm cubic specimens and 10×20 cm, 15×30 cm cylindrical specimens were prepared for each mixture. The specimens were cured under standard conditions until testing days. The 7- and 28-day compressive and splitting tensile strengths of mixtures were determined. The results obtained from the experimental study showed that the strength ratio between the cylinder and the cube specimens increased with the increase of the strength of the concrete. Regardless of the fiber utilization and specimen shape, strength values of concrete mixtures were increased by decreasing specimen size. However, the mentioned behaviour was not observed for the case that the mixtures having high W/C ratio and containing fiber. The compressive strength of cube specimens containing fiber was less affected by the size of the specimen compared to that of cube specimens containing no fibers.

Keywords: compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, fiber reinforced concrete, size effect, shape effect

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2572 Performance Evaluation of Task Scheduling Algorithm on LCQ Network

Authors: Zaki Ahmad Khan, Jamshed Siddiqui, Abdus Samad


The Scheduling and mapping of tasks on a set of processors is considered as a critical problem in parallel and distributed computing system. This paper deals with the problem of dynamic scheduling on a special type of multiprocessor architecture known as Linear Crossed Cube (LCQ) network. This proposed multiprocessor is a hybrid network which combines the features of both linear type of architectures as well as cube based architectures. Two standard dynamic scheduling schemes namely Minimum Distance Scheduling (MDS) and Two Round Scheduling (TRS) schemes are implemented on the LCQ network. Parallel tasks are mapped and the imbalance of load is evaluated on different set of processors in LCQ network. The simulations results are evaluated and effort is made by means of through analysis of the results to obtain the best solution for the given network in term of load imbalance left and execution time. The other performance matrices like speedup and efficiency are also evaluated with the given dynamic algorithms.

Keywords: dynamic algorithm, load imbalance, mapping, task scheduling

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2571 Emotion-Convolutional Neural Network for Perceiving Stress from Audio Signals: A Brain Chemistry Approach

Authors: Anup Anand Deshmukh, Catherine Soladie, Renaud Seguier


Emotion plays a key role in many applications like healthcare, to gather patients’ emotional behavior. Unlike typical ASR (Automated Speech Recognition) problems which focus on 'what was said', it is equally important to understand 'how it was said.' There are certain emotions which are given more importance due to their effectiveness in understanding human feelings. In this paper, we propose an approach that models human stress from audio signals. The research challenge in speech emotion detection is finding the appropriate set of acoustic features corresponding to an emotion. Another difficulty lies in defining the very meaning of emotion and being able to categorize it in a precise manner. Supervised Machine Learning models, including state of the art Deep Learning classification methods, rely on the availability of clean and labelled data. One of the problems in affective computation is the limited amount of annotated data. The existing labelled emotions datasets are highly subjective to the perception of the annotator. We address the first issue of feature selection by exploiting the use of traditional MFCC (Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients) features in Convolutional Neural Network. Our proposed Emo-CNN (Emotion-CNN) architecture treats speech representations in a manner similar to how CNN’s treat images in a vision problem. Our experiments show that Emo-CNN consistently and significantly outperforms the popular existing methods over multiple datasets. It achieves 90.2% categorical accuracy on the Emo-DB dataset. We claim that Emo-CNN is robust to speaker variations and environmental distortions. The proposed approach achieves 85.5% speaker-dependant categorical accuracy for SAVEE (Surrey Audio-Visual Expressed Emotion) dataset, beating the existing CNN based approach by 10.2%. To tackle the second problem of subjectivity in stress labels, we use Lovheim’s cube, which is a 3-dimensional projection of emotions. Monoamine neurotransmitters are a type of chemical messengers in the brain that transmits signals on perceiving emotions. The cube aims at explaining the relationship between these neurotransmitters and the positions of emotions in 3D space. The learnt emotion representations from the Emo-CNN are mapped to the cube using three component PCA (Principal Component Analysis) which is then used to model human stress. This proposed approach not only circumvents the need for labelled stress data but also complies with the psychological theory of emotions given by Lovheim’s cube. We believe that this work is the first step towards creating a connection between Artificial Intelligence and the chemistry of human emotions.

Keywords: deep learning, brain chemistry, emotion perception, Lovheim's cube

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2570 Applications of Social Marketing in Road Safety of Georgia

Authors: Charita Jashi


The aim of the paper is to explore the role of social marketing in changing the behavior of consumers on road safety, identify critical aspects and priority needs which impede the implementation of road safety program in Georgia. Given the goals of the study, a quantitative method was used to carry out interviews for primary data collection. This research identified the awareness level of road safety, legislation base, and marketing interventions to change behavior of drivers and pedestrians. During several years the non-governmental sector together with the local authorities and media have been very intensively working on the road safety issue in Georgia, but only seat-belts campaign should be considered rather successful. Despite achievements in this field, efficiency of road safety programs far from fulfillment and needs strong empowering.

Keywords: road safety, social marketing interventions, behavior change, well-being

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2569 Enhancement of Cement Mortar Mechanical Properties with Replacement of Seashell Powder

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya


Many synthetic additives have been using for improve cement mortar and concrete characteristics, but natural additive is a friendly environment option. The quantity of (2% and 4%) seashell powder has been replaced in cement mortar, and compared with plain cement mortar in early age of 7 days. The strain gauges have been installed on beams and cube, for monitoring fluctuation of flexural and compressive strength. Main objective of this paper is to study effect of linear static force on flexural and compressive strength of modified cement mortar. The results have been indicated that the replacement of appropriate proportion of seashell powder enhances cement mortar mechanical properties. The replacement of 2% seashell causes improvement of deflection, time to failure and maximum load to failure on concrete beam and cube, the same occurs for compressive modulus elasticity. Increase replacement of seashell to 4% reduces all flexural strength, compressive strength and strain of cement mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural strength, compressive modulus elasticity, time to failure, deflection

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2568 Improving the Safety Performance of Workers by Assessing the Impact of Safety Culture on Workers’ Safety Behaviour in Nigeria Oil and Gas Industry: A Pilot Study in the Niger Delta Region

Authors: Efua Ehiaguina, Haruna Moda


Interest in the development of appropriate safety culture in the oil and gas industry has taken centre stage among stakeholders in the industry. Human behaviour has been identified as a major contributor to occupational accidents, where abnormal activities associated with safety management are taken as normal behaviour. Poor safety culture is one of the major factors that influence employee’s safety behaviour at work, which may consequently result in injuries and accidents and strengthening such a culture can improve workers safety performance. Nigeria oil and gas industry has contributed to the growth and development of the country in diverse ways. However, in terms of safety and health of workers, this industry is a dangerous place to work as workers are often exposed to occupational safety and health hazard. To ascertain the impact of employees’ safety and how it impacts health and safety compliance within the local industry, online safety culture survey targeting frontline workers within the industry was administered covering major subjects that include; perception of management commitment and style of leadership; safety communication method and its resultant impact on employees’ behaviour; employee safety commitment and training needs. The preliminary result revealed that 54% of the participants feel that there is a lack of motivation from the management to work safely. In addition, 55% of participants revealed that employers place more emphasis on work delivery over employee’s safety on the installation. It is expected that the study outcome will provide measures aimed at strengthening and sustaining safety culture in the Nigerian oil and gas industry.

Keywords: oil and gas safety, safety behaviour, safety culture, safety compliance

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