Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1646

Search results for: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

1646 Corticomotor Excitability after Two Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Protocols in Ischemic Stroke Patients

Authors: Asrarul Fikri Abu Hassan, Muhammad Hafiz bin Hanafi, Jafri Malin Abdullah

Abstract:

This study is to compare the motor evoked potential (MEP) changes using different settings of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the post-haemorrhagic stroke patient which treated conservatively. The goal of the study is to determine changes in corticomotor excitability and functional outcome after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) therapy regime. 20 post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis were studied due to haemorrhagic stroke. One of the three settings; (I) Inhibitory setting, or (II) facilitatory setting, or (III) control group, no excitatory or inhibitory setting have been applied randomly during the first meeting. The motor evoked potential (MEP) were recorded before and after application of the rTMS setting. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the Barthel index score. We found pre-treatment MEP values of the lesional side were lower compared to post-treatment values in both settings. In contrast, we found that the pre-treatment MEP values of the non-lesional side were higher compared to post-treatment values in both settings. Interestingly, patients with treatment, either facilitatory setting and inhibitory setting have faster motor recovery compared to the control group. Our data showed both settings might improve the MEP of the upper extremity and functional outcomes in the haemorrhagic stroke patient.

Keywords: Barthel index, corticomotor excitability, motor evoked potential, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, stroke

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1645 Cognitive Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Ana Munguia, Gerardo Ortiz, Guadalupe Gonzalez, Fiacro Jimenez

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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor and cognitive symptoms. The first-choice treatment for these patients is pharmacological, but this generates several side effects. Because of that new treatments were introduced such as Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in order to improve the life quality of the patients. Several studies suggest significant changes in motor symptoms. However, there is a great diversity in the number of pulses, amplitude, frequency and stimulation targets, which results in inconsistent data. In addition, these studies do not have an analysis of the neuropsychological effects of the treatment. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of rTMS on the cognitive performance of 6 patients with H&Y III and IV (45-65 years, 3 men and 3 women). An initial neuropsychological and neurological evaluation was performed. Patients were randomized into two groups; in the first phase one received rTMS in the supplementary motor area, the other group in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex contralateral to the most affected hemibody. In the second phase, each group received the stimulation in the area that he had not been stimulated previously. Reassessments were carried out at the beginning, at the end of each phase and a follow-up was carried out 6 months after the conclusion of the stimulation. In these preliminary results, it is reported that there's no statistically significant difference before and after receiving rTMS in the neuropsychological test scores of the patients, which suggests that the cognitive performance of patients is not detrimental. There are even tendencies towards an improvement in executive functioning after the treatment. What added to motor improvement, showed positive effects in the activities of the patients' daily life. In a later and more detailed analysis, will be evaluated the effects in each of the patients separately in relation to the functionality of the patients in their daily lives.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, rTMS, cognitive, treatment

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1644 The Effectiveness of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation on Brain Wave Pattern and Blood Pressure in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Authors: Mahtab Baghaei, Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei

Abstract:

Aim & Background: Electrical stimulation of transcranial direct current is considered one of the treatment methods for mental disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of transcranial electrical stimulation on the delta, theta, alpha, beta and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Materials and Methods: The present study was a double-blind intervention with a pre-test and post-test design on people with generalized anxiety disorder in Tabriz in 1400. In this study, 30 patients with generalized anxiety disorder were selected by purposive sampling method based on the criteria specified in DSM-5 and randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 15) and a control group (n = 15). The experimental group received two sessions of 30 minutes of electrical stimulation of transcranial direct current with an intensity of 2 mA in the area of the lateral dorsal prefrontal cortex, and the control group also received artificial stimulation. Results: The results showed that transcranial electrical stimulation reduces delta and theta waves and increases beta and alpha brain waves in the experimental group. On the other hand, this method also showed a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these patients (p <0.01). Conclusion: The results show that transcranial electrical stimulation has a statistically significant effect on brain waves and blood pressure, and this non-invasive method can be used as one of the treatment methods in people with generalized anxiety disorder.

Keywords: transcranial direct current electrical stimulation, brain waves, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure

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1643 Isolated Contraction of Deep Lumbar Paraspinal Muscle with Magnetic Nerve Root Stimulation: A Pilot Study

Authors: Shi-Uk Lee, Chae Young Lim

Abstract:

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of lumbar deep muscle thickness and cross-sectional area using ultrasonography with magnetic stimulation. Methods: To evaluate the changes of lumbar deep muscle by using magnetic stimulation, 12 healthy volunteers (39.6±10.0 yrs) without low back pain during 3 months participated in this study. All the participants were checked with X-ray and electrophysiologic study to confirm that they had no problems with their back. Magnetic stimulation was done on the L5 and S1 root with figure-eight coil as previous study. To confirm the proper motor root stimulation, the surface electrode was put on the tibialis anterior (L5) and abductor hallucis muscles (S1) and the hot spots of magnetic stimulation were found with 50% of maximal magnetic stimulation and determined the stimulation threshold lowering the magnetic intensity by 5%. Ultrasonography was used to assess the changes of L5 and S1 lumbar multifidus (superficial and deep) cross-sectional area and thickness with maximal magnetic stimulation. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and thickness was evaluated with image acquisition program, ImageJ software (National Institute of Healthy, USA). Wilcoxon signed-rank was used to compare outcomes between before and after stimulations. Results: The mean minimal threshold was 29.6±3.8% of maximal stimulation intensity. With minimal magnetic stimulation, thickness of L5 and S1 deep multifidus (DM) were increased from 1.25±0.20, 1.42±0.23 cm to 1.40±0.27, 1.56±0.34 cm, respectively (P=0.005, P=0.003). CSA of L5 and S1 DM were also increased from 2.26±0.18, 1.40±0.26 cm2 to 2.37±0.18, 1.56±0.34 cm2, respectively (P=0.002, P=0.002). However, thickness of L5 and S1 superficial multifidus (SM) were not changed from 1.92±0.21, 2.04±0.20 cm to 1.91±0.33, 1.96±0.33 cm (P=0.211, P=0.199) and CSA of L5 and S1 were also not changed from 4.29±0.53, 5.48±0.32 cm2 to 4.42±0.42, 5.64±0.38 cm2. With maximal magnetic stimulation, thickness of L5, S1 of DM and SM were increased (L5 DM, 1.29±0.26, 1.46±0.27 cm, P=0.028; L5 SM, 2.01±0.42, 2.24±0.39 cm, P=0.005; S1 DM, 1.29±0.19, 1.67±0.29 P=0.002; S1 SM, 1.90±0.36, 2.30±0.36, P=0.002). CSA of L5, S1 of DM and SM were also increased (all P values were 0.002). Conclusions: Deep lumbar muscles could be stimulated with lumbar motor root magnetic stimulation. With minimal stimulation, thickness and CSA of lumbosacral deep multifidus were increased in this study. Further studies are needed to confirm whether the similar results in chronic low back pain patients are represented. Lumbar magnetic stimulation might have strengthening effect of deep lumbar muscles with no discomfort.

Keywords: magnetic stimulation, lumbar multifidus, strengthening, ultrasonography

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1642 Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysphagia

Authors: Ehsan Kaviani, Azin Golmoradizade

Abstract:

Introduction: Traditionally, tendons are considered to only contain tenocytes that are responsible for the maintenance, repair, and remodeling of tendons. Stem cells, which are termed tendon-derived stem cells, so this study we investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with swallowing training on post-stroke dysphagia. Methods: This review article is about effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on post-stroke dysphagia that were extracted from Science Direct, Pro quest, and Pub med Data Bases. 15 articles had been selected according to inclusion criteria from 2014 to 2019, and 6 of them had been deleted by exclusion criteria. Results: The results of our systematic review suggest that tDCS may represent a promising novel treatment for post-stroke dysphagia. However, to date, little is known about the optimal parameters of tDCS for relieving post-stroke dysphagia. Further studies are warranted to refine this promising intervention by exploring the optimal parameters of tDCS. Conclusion: anodal tDCS over the affected hemisphere may be as effective as cathodal tDCS on the unaffected hemisphere to enhance recovery after subacute ischemic stroke and anodal tdcs applied over the affected pharyngeal motor cortex can enhance the outcome of swallowing training in post-stroke dysphagia.

Keywords: dysphagia, stroke, cortical stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation

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1641 The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Brain Oxygenation and Pleasure during Exercise

Authors: Alexandre H. Okano, Pedro M. D. Agrícola, Daniel G. Da S. Machado, Luiz I. Do N. Neto, Luiz F. Farias Junior, Paulo H. D. Nascimento, Rickson C. Mesquita, John F. Araujo, Eduardo B. Fontes, Hassan M. Elsangedy, Shinsuke Shimojo, Li M. Li

Abstract:

The prefrontal cortex is involved in the reward system and the insular cortex integrates the afferent inputs arriving from the body’ systems and turns into feelings. Therefore, modulating neuronal activity in these regions may change individuals’ perception in a given situation such as exercise. We tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) change cerebral oxygenation and pleasure during exercise. Fourteen volunteer healthy adult men were assessed into five different sessions. First, subjects underwent to a maximum incremental test on a cycle ergometer. Then, subjects were randomly assigned to a transcranial direct current stimulation (2mA for 15 min) intervention in a cross over design in four different conditions: anode and cathode electrodes on T3 and Fp2 targeting the insular cortex, and Fpz and F4 targeting prefrontal cortex, respectively; and their respective sham. These sessions were followed by 30 min of moderate intensity exercise. Brain oxygenation was measured in prefrontal cortex with a near infrared spectroscopy. Perceived exertion and pleasure were also measured during exercise. The asymmetry in prefrontal cortex oxygenation before the stimulation decreased only when it was applied over this region which did not occur after insular cortex or sham stimulation. Furthermore, pleasure was maintained during exercise only after prefrontal cortex stimulation (P > 0.7), while there was a decrease throughout exercise (P < 0.03) during the other conditions. We conclude that tDCS over the prefrontal cortex changes brain oxygenation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and maintains perceived pleasure during exercise. Therefore, this technique might be used to enhance effective responses related to exercise.

Keywords: affect, brain stimulation, dopamine neuromodulation, pleasure, reward, transcranial direct current stimulation

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1640 Electromagnetic-Mechanical Stimulation on PC12 for Enhancement of Nerve Axonal Extension

Authors: E. Nakamachi, K. Matsumoto, K. Yamamoto, Y. Morita, H. Sakamoto

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In recently, electromagnetic and mechanical stimulations have been recognized as the effective extracellular environment stimulation technique to enhance the defected peripheral nerve tissue regeneration. In this study, we developed a new hybrid bioreactor by adopting 50 Hz uniform alternative current (AC) magnetic stimulation and 4% strain mechanical stimulation. The guide tube for nerve regeneration is mesh structured tube made of biodegradable polymer, such as polylatic acid (PLA). However, when neural damage is large, there is a possibility that peripheral nerve undergoes necrosis. So it is quite important to accelerate the nerve tissue regeneration by achieving enhancement of nerve axonal extension rate. Therefore, we try to design and fabricate the system that can simultaneously load the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation and the stretch stimulation to cells for enhancement of nerve axonal extension. Next, we evaluated systems performance and the effectiveness of each stimulation for rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells (PC12). First, we designed and fabricated the uniform AC magnetic field system and the stretch stimulation system. For the AC magnetic stimulation system, we focused on the use of pole piece structure to carry out in-situ microscopic observation. We designed an optimum pole piece structure using the magnetic field finite element analyses and the response surface methodology. We fabricated the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation system as a bio-reactor by adopting analytically determined design specifications. We measured magnetic flux density that is generated by the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation system. We confirmed that measurement values show good agreement with analytical results, where the uniform magnetic field was observed. Second, we fabricated the cyclic stretch stimulation device under the conditions of particular strains, where the chamber was made of polyoxymethylene (POM). We measured strains in the PC12 cell culture region to confirm the uniform strain. We found slightly different values from the target strain. Finally, we concluded that these differences were allowable in this mechanical stimulation system. We evaluated the effectiveness of each stimulation to enhance the nerve axonal extension using PC12. We confirmed that the average axonal extension length of PC12 under the uniform AC magnetic stimulation was increased by 16 % at 96 h in our bio-reactor. We could not confirm that the axonal extension enhancement under the stretch stimulation condition, where we found the exfoliating of cells. Further, the hybrid stimulation enhanced the axonal extension. Because the magnetic stimulation inhibits the exfoliating of cells. Finally, we concluded that the enhancement of PC12 axonal extension is due to the magnetic stimulation rather than the mechanical stimulation. Finally, we confirmed that the effectiveness of the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation for the nerve axonal extension using PC12 cells.

Keywords: nerve cell PC12, axonal extension, nerve regeneration, electromagnetic-mechanical stimulation, bioreactor

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1639 Efficacy of Transcranial Magnetic Therapy on Balance in Patients with Vestibular Dysfunction

Authors: Ibrahim M. I. Hamoda, Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi, Mohammed K. Mohamed, Nawal A. Abu-Shady

Abstract:

Background: Most of patients with vestibular dysfunction suffering from balance disorders, Abnormality in balance increase effort and exertion which affect the independency, so this study might be a guide in managing balance problem and consequently improve walking with less exertion and maximum function. Purpose: to analyze and discuss the effect of transcranial magnetic therapy on balance in patients with vestibular dysfunction. Methods: forty subjects from both sexes were classified to divided randomly into two equal groups; Group I study group: this group received transcranial magnetic therapy, with a selected physical therapy program for improving balance and vestibular disorders (Balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises) and group II (control group): this group received a selected physical therapy program as group I without transcranial magnetic therapy. This treatment procedure will be applied three times weekly for three months. The mean age was 54.53±3.44 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I and II respectively. The Biodex Balance System, Berge balances scale (BBS) and brain MRI were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted before and after treatment. The treatment program for group I included balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises and pulsed magnetic therapy (Parameters used in the program of 20 minutes, Intensity 2 gausses, Frequency 1 Hz). This selected program was done in approximately one hour every other day for three month. The treatment program group II Patients received the same program as group A without transcranial magnetic therapy. Results: The One-way ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences in BBS scores, overall balance index, Anterior / posterior balance index, Medial / lateral balance index and dynamic limits of stability between both groups. Moreover, the BBS scores increased and overall balance index, Anterior / posterior balance index, Medial / lateral balance index and dynamic limits of stability decreased significantly after treatment in group I and II compared with before treatment. Interpretation/Conclusion: Adding pulsed magnetic therapy to balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises has no effect on static and dynamic balance in patients with balance problems due to benign positional paroxysmal vertigo.

Keywords: balance, transcranial magnetic therapy, vestibular dysfunction, biomechanic

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1638 Influence of Magnetic Bio-Stimulation Effects on Pre-Sown Hybrid Sunflower Seeds Germination, Growth, and on the Percentage of Antioxidant Activities

Authors: Nighat Zia-ud-Den, Shazia Anwer Bukhari

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In the present study, sunflower seeds were exposed to magnetic bio-stimulation at different milli Tesla, and their effects were studied. The present study addressed to establish the effectiveness of magnetic bio-stimulation on seed germination, growth, and other dynamics of crop growth. The changes in physiological characters, i.e. the growth parameters of seedlings (biomass, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of root shoot leaf and fruit, leaf area, the height of plants, number of leaves, and number of fruits per plant) and antioxidant activities were measured. The parameters related to germination and growth were measured under controlled conditions while they changed significantly compared with that of the control. These changes suggested that magnetic seed stimulator enhanced the inner energy of seeds, which contributed to the acceleration of the growth and development of seedlings. Moreover, pretreatment with a magnetic field was found to be a positive impact on sunflower seeds germination, growth, and other biochemical parameters.

Keywords: sunflower seeds, physical priming method, biochemical parameters, antioxidant activities

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1637 Development of Three-Dimensional Bio-Reactor Using Magnetic Field Stimulation to Enhance PC12 Cell Axonal Extension

Authors: Eiji Nakamachi, Ryota Sakiyama, Koji Yamamoto, Yusuke Morita, Hidetoshi Sakamoto

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The regeneration of injured central nerve network caused by the cerebrovascular accidents is difficult, because of poor regeneration capability of central nerve system composed of the brain and the spinal cord. Recently, new regeneration methods such as transplant of nerve cells and supply of nerve nutritional factor were proposed and examined. However, there still remain many problems with the canceration of engrafted cells and so on and it is strongly required to establish an efficacious treating method of a central nerve system. Blackman proposed the electromagnetic stimulation method to enhance the axonal nerve extension. In this study, we try to design and fabricate a new three-dimensional (3D) bio-reactor, which can load a uniform AC magnetic field stimulation on PC12 cells in the extracellular environment for enhancement of an axonal nerve extension and 3D nerve network generation. Simultaneously, we measure the morphology of PC12 cell bodies, axons, and dendrites by the multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscope (MPM) and evaluate the effectiveness of the uniform AC magnetic stimulation to enhance the axonal nerve extension. Firstly, we designed and fabricated the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation bio-reactor. For the AC magnetic stimulation system, we used the laminated silicon steel sheets for a yoke structure of 3D chamber, which had a high magnetic permeability. Next, we adopted the pole piece structure and installed similar specification coils on both sides of the yoke. We searched an optimum pole piece structure using the magnetic field finite element (FE) analyses and the response surface methodology. We confirmed that the optimum 3D chamber structure showed a uniform magnetic flux density in the PC12 cell culture area by using FE analysis. Then, we fabricated the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation bio-reactor by adopting analytically determined specifications, such as the size of chamber and electromagnetic conditions. We confirmed that measurement results of magnetic field in the chamber showed a good agreement with FE results. Secondly, we fabricated a dish, which set inside the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation of bio-reactor. PC12 cells were disseminated with collagen gel and could be 3D cultured in the dish. The collagen gel were poured in the dish. The collagen gel, which had a disk shape of 6 mm diameter and 3mm height, was set on the membrane filter, which was located at 4 mm height from the bottom of dish. The disk was full filled with the culture medium inside the dish. Finally, we evaluated the effectiveness of the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation to enhance the nurve axonal extension. We confirmed that a 6.8 increase in the average axonal extension length of PC12 under the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation at 7 days culture in our bio-reactor, and a 24.7 increase in the maximum axonal extension length. Further, we confirmed that a 60 increase in the number of dendrites of PC12 under the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation. Finally, we confirm the availability of our uniform AC magnetic stimulation bio-reactor for the nerve axonal extension and the nerve network generation.

Keywords: nerve regeneration, axonal extension , PC12 cell, magnetic field, three-dimensional bio-reactor

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1636 Investigation of Different Stimulation Patterns to Reduce Muscle Fatigue during Functional Electrical Stimulation

Authors: R. Ruslee, H. Gollee

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Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a commonly used technique in rehabilitation and often associated with rapid muscle fatigue which becomes the limiting factor in its applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects on the onset of fatigue of conventional synchronous stimulation, as well as asynchronous stimulation that mimic voluntary muscle activation targeting different motor units which are activated sequentially or randomly via multiple pairs of stimulation electrodes. We investigate three different approaches with various electrode configurations, as well as different patterns of stimulation applied to the gastrocnemius muscle: Conventional Synchronous Stimulation (CSS), Asynchronous Sequential Stimulation (ASS) and Asynchronous Random Stimulation (ARS). Stimulation was applied repeatedly for 300 ms followed by 700 ms of no-stimulation with 40 Hz effective frequency for all protocols. Ten able-bodied volunteers (28±3 years old) participated in this study. As fatigue indicators, we focused on the analysis of Normalized Fatigue Index (NFI), Fatigue Time Interval (FTI) and pre-post Twitch-Tetanus Ratio (ΔTTR). The results demonstrated that ASS and ARS give higher NFI and longer FTI confirming less fatigue for asynchronous stimulation. In addition, ASS and ARS resulted in higher ΔTTR than conventional CSS. In this study, we proposed a randomly distributed stimulation method for the application of FES and investigated its suitability for reducing muscle fatigue compared to previously applied methods. The results validated that asynchronous stimulation reduces fatigue, and indicates that random stimulation may improve fatigue resistance in some conditions.

Keywords: asynchronous stimulation, electrode configuration, functional electrical stimulation (FES), muscle fatigue, pattern stimulation, random stimulation, sequential stimulation, synchronous stimulation

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1635 Acute Neurophysiological Responses to Resistance Training; Evidence of a Shortened Super Compensation Cycle and Early Neural Adaptations

Authors: Christopher Latella, Ashlee M. Hendy, Dan Vander Westhuizen, Wei-Peng Teo

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Introduction: Neural adaptations following resistance training interventions have been widely investigated, however the evidence regarding the mechanisms of early adaptation are less clear. Understanding neural responses from an acute resistance training session is pivotal in the prescription of frequency, intensity and volume in applied strength and conditioning practice. Therefore the primary aim of this study was to investigate the time course of neurophysiological mechanisms post training against current super compensation theory, and secondly, to examine whether these responses reflect neural adaptations observed with resistance training interventions. Methods: Participants (N=14) completed a randomised, counterbalanced crossover study comparing; control, strength and hypertrophy conditions. The strength condition involved 3 x 5RM leg extensions with 3min recovery, while the hypertrophy condition involved 3 x 12 RM with 60s recovery. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation were used to measure excitability of the central and peripheral neural pathways, and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) to quantify strength changes. Measures were taken pre, immediately post, 10, 20 and 30 mins and 1, 2, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs following training. Results: Significant decreases were observed at post, 10, 20, 30 min, 1 and 2 hrs for both training groups compared to control group for force, (p <.05), maximal compound wave; (p < .005), silent period; (p < .05). A significant increase in corticospinal excitability; (p < .005) was observed for both groups. Corticospinal excitability between strength and hypertrophy groups was near significance, with a large effect (η2= .202). All measures returned to baseline within 6 hrs post training. Discussion: Neurophysiological mechanisms appear to be significantly altered in the period 2 hrs post training, returning to homeostasis by 6 hrs. The evidence suggests that the time course of neural recovery post resistance training occurs 18-40 hours shorter than previous super compensation models. Strength and hypertrophy protocols showed similar response profiles with current findings suggesting greater post training corticospinal drive from hypertrophy training, despite previous evidence that strength training requires greater neural input. The increase in corticospinal drive and decrease inl inhibition appear to be a compensatory mechanism for decreases in peripheral nerve excitability and maximal voluntary force output. The changes in corticospinal excitability and inhibition are akin to adaptive processes observed with training interventions of 4 wks or longer. It appears that the 2 hr recovery period post training is the most influential for priming further neural adaptations with resistance training. Secondly, the frequency of prescribed resistance sessions can be scheduled closer than previous super compensation theory for optimal strength gains.

Keywords: neural responses, resistance training, super compensation, transcranial magnetic stimulation

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1634 Selective Effect of Occipital Alpha Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation in Perception and Working Memory

Authors: Andreina Giustiniani, Massimiliano Oliveri

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Rhythmic activity in different frequencies could subserve distinct functional roles during visual perception and visual mental imagery. In particular, alpha band activity is thought to play a role in active inhibition of both task-irrelevant regions and processing of non-relevant information. In the present blind placebo-controlled study we applied alpha transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) in the occipital cortex both during a basic visual perception and a visual working memory task. To understand if the role of alpha is more related to a general inhibition of distractors or to an inhibition of task-irrelevant regions, we added a non visual distraction to both the tasks.Sixteen adult volunteers performed both a simple perception and a working memory task during 10 Hz tACS. The electrodes were placed over the left and right occipital cortex, the current intensity was 1 mA peak-to-baseline. Sham stimulation was chosen as control condition and in order to elicit the skin sensation similar to the real stimulation, electrical stimulation was applied for short periods (30 s) at the beginning of the session and then turned off. The tasks were split in two sets, in one set distracters were included and in the other set, there were no distracters. Motor interference was added by changing the answer key after subjects completed the first set of trials.The results show that alpha tACS improves working memory only when no motor distracters are added, suggesting a role of alpha tACS in inhibiting non-relevant regions rather than in a general inhibition of distractors. Additionally, we found that alpha tACS does not affect accuracy and hit rates during the visual perception task. These results suggest that alpha activity in the occipital cortex plays a different role in perception and working memory and it could optimize performance in tasks in which attention is internally directed, as in this working memory paradigm, but only when there is not motor distraction. Moreover, alpha tACS improves working memory performance by means of inhibition of task-irrelevant regions while it does not affect perception.

Keywords: alpha activity, interference, perception, working memory

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1633 Effect of Naphtha on the Composition of a Heavy Crude, in Addition to a Cycle Steam Stimulation Process

Authors: A. Guerrero, A. Leon, S. Munoz, M. Sandoval

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The addition of solvent to cyclic steam stimulation is done in order to reduce the solvent-vapor ratio at late stages of the process, the moment in which this relationship increases significantly. The study of the use of naphtha in addition to the cyclic steam stimulation has been mainly oriented to the effect it achieves on the incremental recovery compared to the application of steam only. However, the effect of naphtha on the reactivity of crude oil components under conditions of cyclic steam stimulation or if its effect is the only dilution has not yet been considered, to author’s best knowledge. The present study aims to evaluate and understand the effect of naphtha and the conditions of cyclic steam stimulation, on the remaining composition of the improved oil, as well as the main mechanisms present in the heavy crude - naphtha interaction. Tests were carried out with the system solvent (naphtha)-oil (12.5° API, 4216 cP @ 40° C)- steam, in a batch micro-reactor, under conditions of cyclic steam stimulation (250-300 °C, 400 psi). The characterization of the samples obtained was carried out by MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) techniques. The results indicate that there is a rearrangement of the microstructure of asphaltenes, resulting in a decrease in these and an increase in lighter components such as resins.

Keywords: composition change, cyclic steam stimulation, interaction mechanism, naphtha

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1632 Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Mixing Enhancement by Stimulation of Ferrofluid under Magnetic Field

Authors: Neda Azimi, Masoud Rahimi, Faezeh Mohammadi

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Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed to investigate the effect of ferrofluid stimulation on hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics of two immiscible liquid phases in a Y-micromixer. The main purpose of this work was to develop a numerical model that is able to simulate hydrodynamic of the ferrofluid flow under magnetic field and determine its effect on mass transfer characteristics. A uniform external magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the flow direction. The volume of fluid (VOF) approach was used for simulating the multiphase flow of ferrofluid and two-immiscible liquid flows. The geometric reconstruction scheme (Geo-Reconstruct) based on piecewise linear interpolation (PLIC) was used for reconstruction of the interface in the VOF approach. The mass transfer rate was defined via an equation as a function of mass concentration gradient of the transported species and added into the phase interaction panel using the user-defined function (UDF). The magnetic field was solved numerically by Fluent MHD module based on solving the magnetic induction equation method. CFD results were validated by experimental data and good agreements have been achieved, which maximum relative error for extraction efficiency was about 7.52 %. It was showed that ferrofluid actuation by a magnetic field can be considered as an efficient mixing agent for liquid-liquid two-phase mass transfer in microdevices.

Keywords: CFD modeling, hydrodynamic, micromixer, ferrofluid, mixing

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1631 Efficacy of Transcranial Magnetic Therapy on Balance in Patients with Stroke

Authors: Nawal A. Abu-Shady, Ibrahim M. I. Hamoda, Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi, Mohammed K. Mohamed

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Background: The aim of this work was to investigate the efficacy of Transcranial Magnetic Therapy (TMT) on balance in hemiparetic stroke patients. It was conducted in outpatient clinic and in BIODEX balance system lab in Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Subjects and Methods: Thirty hemiparetic stroke patients from both sexes represent the sample of this study. The patients' ages ranged from 45 to 55 years. They were assigned randomly into two equal groups; the study group (GA) and the control group (GB). control group treated by selected therapeutic physical therapy program. GA treated by the same program of treatment as the GB in addition to TMT. The duration of treatment was six weeks, three times weekly.day after day. The different aspects of dynamic balance (overall stability, anteroposterior stability and mediolateral stability indices) were assessed pre and post treatment objectively by Biodex balance system and clinically by Short Form of Berg Balance Scale (SFBBS) in both groups. Results: Comparison of each variable pre and post treatment in each group revealed a significant improvement in all different parameters in both groups ( p < 0.01), however comparison between post results revealed that the GA showed a high significant improvement higher than the GB in all different variables.

Keywords: stroke, TMT, SFBBS, biodex balance system

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1630 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sachinkumar Patil, Sonali Patil, Shitalkumar Patil

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Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization, cancer therapy, hyperthermia, application

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1629 The Effect of Bihemisferic Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Therapy on Upper Extremity Motor Functions in Stroke Patients

Authors: Dilek Cetin Alisar, Oya Umit Yemisci, Selin Ozen, Seyhan Sozay

Abstract:

New approaches and treatment modalities are being developed to make patients more functional and independent in stroke rehabilitation. One of these approaches is transcranial direct stimulation therapy (tDCS), which aims to improve the hemiplegic upper limb function of stroke patients. tDCS therapy is not in the routine rehabilitation program; however, the studies about tDCS therapy on stroke rehabilitation was increased in recent years. Evaluate the effect of tDCS treatment on upper extremity motor function in patients with subacute stroke was aimed in our study. 32 stroke patients (16 tDCS group, 16 sham groups) who were hospitalized for rehabilitation in Başkent University Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic between 01.08.2016-20.01-2018 were included in the study. The conventional upper limb rehabilitation program was used for both tDCS and control group patients for 3 weeks, 5 days a week, for 60-120 minutes a day. In addition to the conventional stroke rehabilitation program in the tDAS group, bihemispheric tDCS was administered for 30 minutes daily. Patients were evaluated before treatment and after 1 week of treatment. Functional independence measure self-care score (FIM), Brunnstorm Recovery Stage (BRS), and Fugl-Meyer (FM) upper extremity motor function scale were used. There was no difference in demographic characteristics between the groups. There were no significant differences between BRS and FM scores in two groups, but there was a significant difference FIM score (p=0.05. FIM, BRS, and FM scores are significantly in the tDCS group, when before therapy and after 1 week of therapy, however, no difference is found in the shame group (p < 0,001). When FBS and FM scores were compared, there were statistical significant differences in tDCS group (p < 0,001). In conclusion, this randomized double-blind study showed that bihemispheric tDCS treatment was found to be superior to upper extremity motor and functional enhancement in addition to conventional rehabilitation methods in subacute stroke patients. In order for tDCS therapy to be used routinely in stroke rehabilitation, there is a need for more comprehensive, long-termed, randomized controlled clinical trials in order to find answers to many questions, such as the duration and intensity of treatment.

Keywords: cortical stimulation, motor function, rehabilitation, stroke

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1628 Bio-Heat Transfer in Various Transcutaneous Stimulation Models

Authors: Trevor E. Davis, Isaac Cassar, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu

Abstract:

This study models the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on skin with a disk electrode in order to simulate tissue damage. The current density distribution above a disk electrode is known to be a dynamic and non-uniform quantity that is intensified at the edges of the disk. The non-uniformity is subject to change through using various electrode geometries or stimulation methods. One of these methods known as edge-retarded stimulation has shown to reduce this edge enhancement. Though progress has been made in modeling the behavior of a disk electrode, little has been done to test the validity of these models in simulating the actual heat transfer from the electrode. This simulation uses finite element software to couple the injection of current from a disk electrode to heat transfer described by the Pennesbioheat transfer equation. An example application of this model is studying an experimental form of stimulation, known as edge-retarded stimulation. The edge-retarded stimulation method will reduce the current density at the edges of the electrode. It is hypothesized that reducing the current density edge enhancement effect will, in turn, reduce temperature change and tissue damage at the edges of these electrodes. This study tests this hypothesis as a demonstration of the capabilities of this model. The edge-retarded stimulation proved to be safer after this simulation. It is shown that temperature change and the fraction of tissue necrosis is much greater in the square wave stimulation. These results bring implications for changes of procedures in transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation as well.

Keywords: bioheat transfer, electrode, neuroprosthetics, TENS, transcutaneous stimulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
1627 A Self-Adaptive Stimulus Artifacts Removal Approach for Electrical Stimulation Based Muscle Rehabilitation

Authors: Yinjun Tu, Qiang Fang, Glenn I. Matthews, Shuenn-Yuh Lee

Abstract:

This paper reports an efficient and rigorous self-adaptive stimulus artifacts removal approach for a mixed surface EMG (Electromyography) and stimulus signal during muscle stimulation. The recording of EMG and the stimulation of muscles were performing simultaneously. It is difficult to generate muscle fatigue feature from the mixed signal, which can be further used in closed loop system. A self-adaptive method is proposed in this paper, the stimulation frequency was calculated and verified firstly. Then, a mask was created based on this stimulation frequency to remove the undesired stimulus. 20 EMG signal recordings were analyzed, and the ANOVA (analysis of variance) approach illustrated that the decreasing trend of median power frequencies was successfully generated from the 'cleaned' EMG signal.

Keywords: EMG, FES, stimulus artefacts, self-adaptive

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1626 Scheduling of Repetitive Activities for Height-Rise Buildings: Optimisation by Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Mohammed Aljoma

Abstract:

In this paper, a developed prototype for the scheduling of repetitive activities in height-rise buildings was presented. The activities that describe the behavior of the most of activities in multi-storey buildings are scheduled using the developed approach. The prototype combines three methods to attain the optimized planning. The methods include Critical Path Method (CPM), Gantt and Line of Balance (LOB). The developed prototype; POTER is used to schedule repetitive and non-repetitive activities with respect to all constraints that can be automatically generated using a generic database. The prototype uses the method of genetic algorithms for optimizing the planning process. As a result, this approach enables contracting organizations to evaluate various planning solutions that are calculated, tested and classified by POTER to attain an optimal time-cost equilibrium according to their own criteria of time or coast.

Keywords: planning scheduling, genetic algorithms, repetitive activity, construction management, planning, scheduling, risk management, project duration

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
1625 The Influence of Reaction Parameters on Magnetic Properties of Synthesized Strontium Ferrite

Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy

Abstract:

The conventional ceramic route was utilized to prepare a hard magnetic powder (M-type strontium ferrite, SrFe12O19). The stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and strontium carbonate were calcined at 1000°C and then fired at various temperatures. The influence of various reaction parameters such as mixing ratio, calcination temperature, firing temperature and firing time on the magnetic behaviors of the synthesized magnetic powder were investigated.The magnetic properties including Coercivity (Hc), Magnetic saturation (Ms), and Magnetic remnance (Mr) were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. Morphologically the produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure.

Keywords: hard magnetic materials, ceramic route, strontium ferrite, magnetic properties

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1624 Analytical Model for Vacuum Cathode Arcs in an Oblique Magnetic Field

Authors: P. W. Chen, C. T. Chang, Y. Peng, J. Y. Wu, D. J. Jan, Md. Manirul Ali

Abstract:

In the last decade, the nature of cathode spot splitting and the current per spot depended on an oblique magnetic field was investigated. This model for cathode current splitting is developed that we have investigated with relationship the magnetic pressures produced by kinetic pressure, self-magnetic pressure, and changed with an external magnetic field. We propose a theoretical model that has been established to an external magnetic field with components normal and tangential to the cathode surface influenced on magnetic pressure strength. We mainly focus on developed to understand the current per spot influenced with the tangential magnetic field strength and normal magnetic field strength.

Keywords: cathode spot, vacuum arc discharge, oblique magnetic field, tangential magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
1623 Hydrogen Peroxide: A Future for Well Stimulation and Heavy Oil Recovery

Authors: Meet Bhatia

Abstract:

Well stimulation and heavy oil recovery continue to be a hot topic in our industry, particularly with formation damage and viscous oil respectively. Cyclic steam injection has been recognised for most of the operations related to heavy oil recovery. However, the cost of implementation is high and operation is time-consuming, moreover most of the viscous oil reservoirs such as oil sands, Bitumen deposits and oil shales require additional treatment of well stimulation. The use of hydrogen peroxide can efficiently replace the cyclic steam injection process as it can be used for both well stimulation and heavy oil recovery simultaneously. The decomposition of Hydrogen peroxide produces oxygen, superheated steam and heat. The increase in temperature causes clays to shrink, destroy carbonates and remove emulsion thus it can efficiently remove the near wellbore damage. The paper includes mechanisms, parameters to be considered and the challenges during the treatment for the effective hydrogen peroxide injection for both conventional and heavy oil reservoirs.

Keywords: hydrogen peroxide, well stimulation, heavy oil recovery, steam injection

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
1622 The Comparison of the Effect of Mindfulness-Based Relaxation Training and Trans Cranial Electrical Stimulation and Their Combination on Decreasing Physiological Distress in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes

Authors: Gholam Hossein Javanmard, Roghayeh Mohammadi Garegozlo

Abstract:

The present study was a randomized three-group double-blind clinical trial with repeated measures designs which aimed to determine the pure effect and combined effect of mindfulness based-relaxation (MBR) technique and Transcranial Electrical Simulation (tCES) on psychological distress decreasing of patients with type-2 diabetes. The sample of the study consisted of 30 patients with type-2 diabetes who were selected from the Diabetes Association of Bonab city in Iran. The participants were matched and then randomly assigned to the three groups of 10 subjects (MBR, CES, MBR+CES). The subjects received interventions related to their group in 10 individual sessions. Pre-test, post-test, and one-month follow-up were conducted using DASS-42. Analysis of variance with repeated measures showed a significant change in psychological distress. Multivariate covariance analysis and the paired interpersonal comparative test of Ben Foruni indicated that both interventions of MBR and CES have a similar effect on psychological distress decreasing in the post-test and follow-up phase. But, the combined therapy of MBR+CES was more efficient, and it had a more stable effect. However, all three interventions, especially combined intervention of MBR+CES, as efficient and stable treatment, are suggested for improving the psychological status of diabetic patients.

Keywords: mindfulness based-relaxation, transcranial electrical simulation, type 2 diabetes, psychological distress

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1621 Magnetic and Optical Properties of GaFeMnN

Authors: A.Abbad, H.A.Bentounes, W.Benstaali

Abstract:

The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) is used to calculate the magnetic and optical properties of quaternary GaFeMnN. The results show that the compound becomes magnetic and half metallic and there is an apparition of peaks at low frequencies for the optical properties.

Keywords: FP-LAPW, LSDA, magnetic moment, reflectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
1620 First Principle Calculation of The Magnetic Properties of Mn-doped 6H-SiC

Authors: M. Al Azri, M. Elzain, K. Bouziane, S. M. Chérif

Abstract:

The electronic and magnetic properties of 6H-SiC with Mn impurities have been calculated using ab-initio calculations. Various configurations of Mn sites and Si and C vacancies were considered. The magnetic coupling between the two Mn atoms at substitutional and interstitials sites with and without vacancies is studied as a function of Mn atoms interatomic distance. It was found that the magnetic interaction energy decreases with increasing distance between the magnetic atoms. The energy levels appearing in the band gap due to vacancies and due to Mn impurities are determined. The calculated DOS’s are used to analyze the nature of the exchange interaction between the impurities. The band coupling model based on the p-d and d-d level repulsions between Mn and SiC has been used to describe the magnetism observed in each configuration. Furthermore, the impacts of applying U to Mn-d orbital on the magnetic moment have also been investigated. The results are used to understand the experimental data obtained on Mn- 6H-SiC (as-implanted and as –annealed) for various Mn concentration (CMn = 0.7%, 1.6%, 7%).

Keywords: ab-initio calculations, diluted magnetic semiconductors, magnetic properties, silicon carbide

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1619 Comparison between Simulation and Experimentally Observed Interactions between Two Different Sized Magnetic Beads in a Fluidic System

Authors: Olayinka Oduwole, Steve Sheard

Abstract:

The magnetic separation of biological cells using super-magnetic beads has been used widely for various bioassays. These bioassays can further be integrated with other laboratory components to form a biosensor which can be used for cell sorting, mixing, purification, transport, manipulation etc. These bio-sensing applications have also been facilitated by the wide availability of magnetic beads which range in size and magnetic properties produced by different manufacturers. In order to improve the efficiency and separation capabilities of these biosensors, it is important to determine the magnetic force induced velocities and interaction of beads within the magnetic field; this will help biosensor users choose the desired magnetic bead for their specific application. This study presents for the first time the interaction between a pair of different sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in a static fluid moving within a uniform magnetic field using a modified finite-time-finite-difference scheme. A captured video was used to record the trajectory pattern and a good agreement was obtained between the simulated trajectories and the video data. The model is, therefore, a good approximation for predicting the velocities as well as the interaction between various magnetic particles which differ in size and magnetic properties for bio-sensing applications requiring a low concentration of magnetic beads.

Keywords: biosensor, magnetic field, magnetic separation, super-paramagnetic bead

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1618 Magnetic Field Induced Tribological Properties of Magnetic Fluid

Authors: Kinjal Trivedi, Ramesh V. Upadhyay

Abstract:

Magnetic fluid as a nanolubricant is a most recent field of study due to its unusual properties that can be tuned by applying a magnetic field. In present work, four ball tester has been used to investigate the tribological properties of the magnetic fluid having a 4 wt% of nanoparticles. The structural characterization of fluid shows crystallite size of particle is 11.7 nm and particles are nearly spherical in nature. The magnetic characterization shows the fluid saturation magnetization is 2.2 kA/m. The magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet (0 to 1.6 mT) on the faces of the lock nut and fixing a solenoid (0 to 50 mT) around a shaft, such that shaft rotates freely. The magnetic flux line for both the systems analyzed using finite elemental analysis. The coefficient of friction increases with the application of magnetic field using permanent strip magnet compared to zero field value. While for the solenoid, it decreases at 20 mT. The wear scar diameter is lower for 1.1 mT and 20 mT when the magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet and solenoid, respectively. The coefficient of friction and wear scar reduced by 29 % and 7 % at 20 mT using solenoid. The worn surface analysis carried out using Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope to understand the wear mechanism. The results are explained on the basis of structure formation in a magnetic fluid upon application of magnetic field. It is concluded that the tribological properties of magnetic fluid depend on magnetic field and its applied direction.

Keywords: four ball tester, magnetic fluid, nanolubricant, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
1617 Road Vehicle Recognition Using Magnetic Sensing Feature Extraction and Classification

Authors: Xiao Chen, Xiaoying Kong, Min Xu

Abstract:

This paper presents a road vehicle detection approach for the intelligent transportation system. This approach mainly uses low-cost magnetic sensor and associated data collection system to collect magnetic signals. This system can measure the magnetic field changing, and it also can detect and count vehicles. We extend Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients to analyze vehicle magnetic signals. Vehicle type features are extracted using representation of cepstrum, frame energy, and gap cepstrum of magnetic signals. We design a 2-dimensional map algorithm using Vector Quantization to classify vehicle magnetic features to four typical types of vehicles in Australian suburbs: sedan, VAN, truck, and bus. Experiments results show that our approach achieves a high level of accuracy for vehicle detection and classification.

Keywords: vehicle classification, signal processing, road traffic model, magnetic sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 243