Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4729

Search results for: motor function

4729 Development a Fine Motor and Executive Function Assessment (FiM&EF) for Assessing School Aged Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)

Authors: Negar Miri-Lavasani

Abstract:

Background: Children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show fine motor skills difficulties, and it is controversial whether this difficulty is based on problems in their fine motor skills or their executive function impairments. Objectives of Study: The Fine Motor and Executive Function assessment tool (FiM&EF) was developed to answer the question, ‘Do the fine motor skill deficits in children with ADHD come from their fine motor problems or is it caused by their executive function problems?’. This paper describes the development of a new assessment of Fine Motor and Executive Function (FiM &EF) needed by primary school students with ADHD aged 6-12 years with ADHD. Methods: A study on the content validity established through a survey of a panel of nine experts is explained in detail. Findings: Most the experts agreed such an assessment was needed and two items were deleted as a result of experts’ feedback. Relevance to Clinical Practice: Distinguishing the main reason of fine motor problem in these children could help the clinician for their therapy plans. Knowledge on the influence of executive functioning on fine motor ability in selected age children with ADHD would provide a clearer clinical picture of the fine motor capabilities and executive function for these children.

Keywords: children with ADHD, executive function, fine motor, test

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
4728 Portable Glove Controlled Video Game for Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: Vinesh Janarthanan, Mohammad H. Rahman

Abstract:

There are numerous neurological conditions that may result in a loss of motor function. Such conditions may include cerebral palsy, Parkinson’s disease, stroke or multiple sclerosis. Due to impaired motor function, specifically in the hand and arm, living independently becomes tremendously more difficult. Rehabilitation programs are the main method to treat these kinds of disabled individuals. However, these programs require longtime commitment from the clinicians/therapists, demand person to person caring, and typically the treatment duration is usually very long. Aside from the treatment received from the therapist, the continuation of neuroplasticity at home is essential to maximizing development and restoring the biological function. To contribute in this area, we have researched and developed a portable and comfortable hand glove for fine motor skills rehabilitation. The glove provides interactive home-based therapy to engage the patient with simple games. The key to this treatment is the repetition of moving the hand and being capable of positioning the hand in various ways.

Keywords: home based, wearable sensors, glove, rehabilitation, motor function, video games

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4727 Reliability Indices Evaluation of SEIG Rotor Core Magnetization with Minimum Capacitive Excitation for WECs

Authors: Lokesh Varshney, R. K. Saket

Abstract:

This paper presents reliability indices evaluation of the rotor core magnetization of the induction motor operated as a self-excited induction generator by using probability distribution approach and Monte Carlo simulation. Parallel capacitors with calculated minimum capacitive value across the terminals of the induction motor operating as a SEIG with unregulated shaft speed have been connected during the experimental study. A three phase, 4 poles, 50Hz, 5.5 hp, 12.3A, 230V induction motor coupled with DC Shunt Motor was tested in the electrical machine laboratory with variable reactive loads. Based on this experimental study, it is possible to choose a reliable induction machine operating as a SEIG for unregulated renewable energy application in remote area or where grid is not available. Failure density function, cumulative failure distribution function, survivor function, hazard model, probability of success and probability of failure for reliability evaluation of the three phase induction motor operating as a SEIG have been presented graphically in this paper.

Keywords: residual magnetism, magnetization curve, induction motor, self excited induction generator, probability distribution, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 491
4726 The Improvement of Environmental Protection through Motor Vehicle Noise Abatement

Authors: Z. Jovanovic, Z. Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota

Abstract:

In this paper, a methodology for noise reduction of motor vehicles in use is presented. The methodology relies on synergic model of noise generation as a function of time. The arbitrary number of motor vehicle noise sources act in concert yielding the generation of the overall noise level of motor vehicle thereafter. The number of noise sources participating in the overall noise level of motor vehicle is subjected to the constraint of the calculation of the acoustic potential of each noise source under consideration. It is the prerequisite condition for the calculation of the acoustic potential of the whole vehicle. The recast form of pertinent set of equations describing the synergic model is laid down and solved by dint of Gauss method. The bunch of results emerged and some of them i.e. those ensuing from model application to MDD FAP Priboj motor vehicle in use are particularly elucidated.

Keywords: noise abatement, MV noise sources, noise source identification, muffler

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
4725 Brain-Motor Disablement: Using Virtual Reality-Based Therapeutic Simulations

Authors: Vince Macri, Jakub Petioky, Paul Zilber

Abstract:

Virtual-reality-based technology, i.e. video-game-like simulations (collectively, VRSims) are used in therapy for a variety of medical conditions. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a discussion on criteria for selecting VRSims to augment treatment of survivors of acquired brain injury. Specifically, for treatments to improve or restore brain motor function in upper extremities affected by paresis or paralysis. Six uses of virtual reality are reviewed video games for entertainment, training simulations, unassisted or device-assisted movements of affected or unaffected extremities displayed in virtual environments and virtual anatomical interactivity.

Keywords: acquired brain injury, brain-motor function, virtual anatomical interactivity, therapeutic simulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 493
4724 Analysis of Brushless DC Motor with Trapezoidal Back EMF Using Matlab

Authors: Taha Ahmed Husain

Abstract:

The dynamic characteristics such as speed and torque as well as voltages and currents of pwm brushless DC motor inverter are analyzed with a MATLAB model. The contribution of external load torque and friction torque is monitored. The switching function technique is adopted for the current control of the embedded three phase inverter that drives the brushless DC motor.In switching functions the power conversions circuits can be modeled according to their functions rather than circuit topologies. Therefore, it can achieve simplification of the overall power conversion functions. The trapezoidal type (back emf) is used in the model as ithas lower switching loss compared with sinusoidal type (back emf). Results show reliable time analysis for speed, torque, phase and line voltages and currents and the effect of current commutation is clearly observed.

Keywords: BLDC motor, brushless dc motors, pwm inverter, DC motor control, trapezoidal back emf, ripple torque in brushless DC motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 478
4723 Chaotic Search Optimal Design and Modeling of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Linear Motor

Authors: Yang Yi-Fei, Luo Min-Zhou, Zhang Fu-Chun, He Nai-Bao, Xing Shao-Bang

Abstract:

This paper presents an electromagnetic finite element model of permanent magnet synchronous linear motor and distortion rate of the air gap flux density waveform is analyzed in detail. By designing the sample space of the parameters, nonlinear regression modeling of the orthogonal experimental design is introduced. We put forward for possible air gap flux density waveform sine electromagnetic scheme. Parameters optimization of the permanent magnet synchronous linear motor is also introduced which is based on chaotic search and adaptation function. Simulation results prove that the pole shifting does not affect the motor back electromotive symmetry based on the structural parameters, it provides a novel way for the optimum design of permanent magnet synchronous linear motor and other engineering.

Keywords: permanent magnet synchronous linear motor, finite element analysis, chaotic search, optimization design

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4722 Induction Motor Analysis Using LabVIEW

Authors: E. Ramprasath, P. Manojkumar, P. Veena

Abstract:

Proposed paper dealt with the modelling and analysis of induction motor based on the mathematical expression using the graphical programming environment of Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW). Induction motor modelling with the mathematical expression enables the motor to be simulated with the various required parameters. Owing to the invention of variable speed drives study about the induction motor characteristics became complex.In this simulation motor internal parameter such as stator resistance and reactance, rotor resistance and reactance, phase voltage, frequency and losses will be given as input. By varying the speed of motor corresponding parameters can be obtained they are input power, output power, efficiency, torque induced, slip and current.

Keywords: induction motor, LabVIEW software, modelling and analysi, electrical and mechanical characteristics of motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
4721 Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motor

Authors: Kirti Gosavi, Anita Bhole

Abstract:

The paper demonstrates simulation and steady-state performance of three phase squirrel cage induction motor and detection of rotor broken bar fault using MATLAB. This simulation model is successfully used in the fault detection of rotor broken bar for the induction machines. A dynamic model using PWM inverter and mathematical modelling of the motor is developed. The dynamic simulation of the small power induction motor is one of the key steps in the validation of the design process of the motor drive system and it is needed for eliminating advertent design errors and the resulting error in the prototype construction and testing. The simulation model will be helpful in detecting the faults in three phase induction motor using Motor current signature analysis.

Keywords: squirrel cage induction motor, pulse width modulation (PWM), fault diagnosis, induction motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 519
4720 Buck Boost Inverter to Improve the Efficiency and Performance of E-Motor by Reducing the Influence of Voltage Sag of Battery on the Performance of E-Motor

Authors: Shefeen Maliyakkal, Pranav Satheesh, Steve Simon, Sharath Kuruppath

Abstract:

This paper researches the impact of battery voltage sag on the performance and efficiency of E-motor in electric cars. Terminal voltage of battery reduces with the S.o.C. This results in the downward shift of torque-speed curve of E-motor and increased copper losses in E-motor. By introducing a buck-boost inverter between the battery and E-motor, an additional degree of freedom was achieved. By boosting the AC voltage, the dependency of voltage sag on the performance of E-motor was eliminated. A strategy was also proposed for the operation of the buck-boost inverter to minimize copper and iron losses in E-motor to maximize efficiency. MATLAB-SIMULINK model of E-drive was used to obtain simulation results. The temperature rise in the E-motor was reduced by 14% for a 10% increase in AC voltage. From the results, it was observed that a 20% increase in AC voltage can result in improvement of running torque and maximum torque of E-motor by 44%. Hence it was concluded that using a buck-boost inverter for E-drive significantly improves both performance and efficiency of E-motor.

Keywords: buck-boost, E-motor, battery, voltage sag

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
4719 Impact of Motor Behaviour Aspects of Autism on Cognitive Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Rana Zeina

Abstract:

Cognitive and behavioral symptoms may, in fact, overlap and be related to the level of the general cognitive function. We measured the behavioral aspects of autism and its correlation to the cognitive ability in 30 children with ASD. We used a neuropsychological battery CANTAB eclipse to evaluate the ASD children's cognitive ability. Individuals with ASDs and challenging behaviors showed significant correlation between some cognitive abilities and motor behavior aspects. Based on these findings we can conclude that the motor behavioral problems in autism affect specific cognitive abilities in ASDs such as comprehension, learning, reversal, acquisition, attention set shifting, and speed of reaction to one stimulus. Future research should also focus on the relationship between motor stereotypes and other subtypes of repetitive behaviors, such as verbal stereotypes, and ritual and routine adherence and use different types of CANTAB tests.

Keywords: cognitive ability, CANTAB test, behaviour motor aspects, autism spectrum disorders

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4718 Effect of Motor Imagery of Truncal Exercises on Trunk Function and Balance in Early Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Elsa Reethu, S. Karthik Babu, N. Syed

Abstract:

Background: Studies in the past focused on the additional benefits of action observation in improving upper and lower limb functions and improving activities of daily living when administered along with conventional therapy. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of literature proving the effects of motor imagery of truncal exercise in improving trunk control in patients with stroke. Aims/purpose: To study the effect of motor imagery of truncal exercises on trunk function and balance in early stroke. Methods: A total of 24 patients were included in the study. 12 were included in the experimental group and 12 were included in control group Trunk function was measured using Trunk Control Test (TCT), Trunk Impairment Scale Verheyden (TIS Verheyden) and Trunk Impairment Scale Fujiwara (TIS Fujiwara). The balance was assessed using Brunel Balance Assessment (BBA) and Tinetti POMA. For the experimental group, each session was for 30 minutes of physical exercises and 15 minutes of motor imagery, once a day, six times a week for 3 weeks and prior to the exercise session, patients viewed a video tape of all the trunk exercises to be performed for 15minutes. The control group practiced the trunk exercises alone for the same duration. Measurements were taken before, after and 4 weeks after intervention. Results: The effect of treatment in motor imagery group showed better improvement when compared with control group when measured after 3 weeks on values of static sitting balance, dynamic balance, total TIS (Verheyden) score, BBA, Tinetti balance and gait with a large effect size of 0.86, 1.99, 1.69, 1.06, 1.63 and 0.97 respectively. The moderate effect size was seen in values of TIS Fujiwara (0.58) and small effect size was seen on TCT (0.12) and TIS coordination component (0.13).at the end of 4 weeks after intervention, the large effect size was identified on values of dynamic balance (2.06), total TIS score (1.59) and Tinetti balance (1.24). The moderate effect size was observed on BBA (0.62) and Tinetti gait (0.72). Conclusion: Trunk motor imagery is effective in improving trunk function and balance in patients with stroke and has a carryover effect in the aspects of mobility. The therapy gain that was observed during the time of discharge was seen to be maintained at the follow-up levels.

Keywords: stroke, trunk rehabilitation, trunk function, balance, motor imagery

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4717 Speed Control of DC Motor Using Optimization Techniques Based PID Controller

Authors: Santosh Kumar Suman, Vinod Kumar Giri

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to outline a speed controller of a DC motor by choice of a PID parameters utilizing genetic algorithms (GAs), the DC motor is extensively utilized as a part of numerous applications such as steel plants, electric trains, cranes and a great deal more. DC motor could be represented by a nonlinear model when nonlinearities such as attractive dissemination are considered. To provide effective control, nonlinearities and uncertainties in the model must be taken into account in the control design. The DC motor is considered as third order system. Objective of this paper three type of tuning techniques for PID parameter. In this paper, an independently energized DC motor utilizing MATLAB displaying, has been outlined whose velocity might be examined utilizing the Proportional, Integral, Derivative (KP, KI , KD) addition of the PID controller. Since, established controllers PID are neglecting to control the drive when weight parameters be likewise changed. The principle point of this paper is to dissect the execution of optimization techniques viz. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) for improve PID controllers parameters for velocity control of DC motor and list their points of interest over the traditional tuning strategies. The outcomes got from GA calculations were contrasted and that got from traditional technique. It was found that the optimization techniques beat customary tuning practices of ordinary PID controllers.

Keywords: DC motor, PID controller, optimization techniques, genetic algorithm (GA), objective function, IAE

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4716 Comparison of the Thermal Characteristics of Induction Motor, Switched Reluctance Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Sadeep Sasidharan, T. B. Isha

Abstract:

Modern day electric vehicles require compact high torque/power density motors for electric propulsion. This necessitates proper thermal management of the electric motors. The main focus of this paper is to compare the steady state thermal analysis of a conventional 20 kW 8/6 Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) with that of an Induction Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor of the same rating. The goal is to develop a proper thermal model of the three types of models for Finite Element Thermal Analysis. JMAG software is used for the development and simulation of the thermal models. The results show that the induction motor is subjected to more heating when used for electric vehicle application constantly, compared to the SRM and IPM.

Keywords: electric vehicles, induction motor, inset permanent magnet motor, loss models, switched reluctance motor, thermal analysis

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4715 Optimal Control of DC Motor Using Linear Quadratic Regulator

Authors: Meetty Tomy, Arxhana G Thosar

Abstract:

This paper provides the implementation of optimal control for an armature-controlled DC motor. The selection of error weighted Matrix and control weighted matrix in order to implement optimal control theory for improving the dynamic behavior of DC motor is presented. The closed loop performance of Armature controlled DC motor with derived linear optimal controller is then evaluated for the transient operating condition (starting). The result obtained from MATLAB is compared with that of PID controller and simple closed loop response of the motor.

Keywords: optimal control, DC motor, performance index, MATLAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
4714 Novel Stator Structure Switching Flux Permanent Magnet Motor

Authors: Mengjie Shen, Jianhua Wu, Chun Gan, Lifeng Zhang, Qingguo Sun

Abstract:

Switching flux permanent magnet (SFPM) motor has doubly salient structure which lead to high torque ripple, and also has cogging torque as a permanent magnet motor. Torque ripple and cogging torque have impact on the motor performance. A novel stator structure SFPM motor is presented in this paper. A triangular shape silicon steel sheet is put in the stator slot to reduce the torque ripple, which will not deteriorate the cogging torque. The simulation of proposed motor is analyzed using 2-D finite element method (FEM) based on Ansoft and Simplorer software, and the result show a good performance of the proposed SFPM motor.

Keywords: switching flux permanent magnet (SFPM) motor, torque ripple, Ansoft, FEM

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4713 Effects of Virtual Reality on the Upper Extremity Spasticity and Motor Function in Patients with Stroke: A Single Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Kasra Afsahi, Maryam Soheilifar, S. Hossein Hosseini, Omid Seyed Esmaeili, Rouzbeh Kezemi, Noushin Mehrbod, Nazanin Vahed, Tahereh Hajiahmad, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari

Abstract:

Background: Stroke is a disabling neurological disease. Rehabilitative therapies are important treatment methods. This clinical trial was done to compare the effects of VR beside conventional rehabilitation versus conventional rehabilitation alone on spasticity and motor function in stroke patients. Materials and Methods: In this open-label randomized controlled clinical trial, 40 consecutive patients with stable first-ever ischemic stroke in the past three to 12 months that were referred to a rehabilitation clinic in Tehran, Iran, in 2020 were enrolled. After signing the informed written consent form, subjects were randomly assigned by block randomization of five in each block as cases with 1:1 into two groups of 20 cases; conventional plus VR therapy group: 45-minute conventional therapy session plus 15-minute VR therapy, and conventional group: 60-minute conventional therapy session. VR rehabilitation is designed and developed with different stages. Outcomes were modified Ashworth scale, recovery stage score for motor function, range of motion (ROM) of shoulder abduction/wrist extension, and patients’ satisfaction rate. Data were compared after study termination. Results: The satisfaction rate among the patients was significantly better in the combination group (P=0.003). Only wrist extension was varied between groups and was better in the combination group. The variables generally had a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Virtual reality plus conventional rehabilitation therapy is superior versus conventional rehabilitation alone on the wrist and elbow spasticity and motor function in patients with stroke.

Keywords: stroke, virtual therapy, rehabilitation, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
4712 Early Detection of Neuropathy in Leprosy-Comparing Clinical Tests with Nerve Conduction Study

Authors: Suchana Marahatta, Sabina Bhattarai, Bishnu Hari Paudel, Dilip Thakur

Abstract:

Background: Every year thousands of patients develop nerve damage and disabilities as a result of leprosy which can be prevented by early detection and treatment. So, early detection and treatment of nerve function impairment is of paramount importance in leprosy. Objectives: To assess the electrophysiological pattern of the peripheral nerves in leprosy patients and to compare it with clinical assessment tools. Materials and Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional study, 74 newly diagnosed leprosy patients without reaction were enrolled. They underwent thorough evaluation for peripheral nerve function impairment using clinical tests [i.e. nerve palpation (NP), monofilament (MF) testing, voluntary muscle testing (VMT)] and nerve conduction study (NCS). Clinical findings were compared with that of NCS using SPSS version 11.5. Results: NCS was impaired in 43.24% of leprosy patient at the baseline. Among them, sensory NCS was impaired in more patients (32.4%) in comparison to motor NCS (20.3%). NP, MF, and VMT were impaired in 58.1%, 25.7%, and 9.4% of the patients, respectively. Maximum concordance of monofilament testing and sensory NCS was found for sural nerve (14.7%). Likewise, the concordance of motor NP and motor NCS was the maximum for ulnar nerve (14.9%). When individual parameters of the NCS were considered, amplitude was found to be the most frequently affected parameter for both sensory and motor NCS. It was impaired in 100% of cases with abnormal NCS findings. Conclusion: Since there was no acceptable concordance between NCS findings and clinical findings, we should consider NCS whenever feasible for early detection of neuropathy in leprosy. The amplitude of both sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) and compound nerve action potential (CAMP) could be important determinants of the abnormal NCS if supported by further studies.

Keywords: leprosy, nerve function impairment, neuropathy, nerve conduction study

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4711 Modelling of Induction Motor Including Skew Effect Using MWFA for Performance Improvement

Authors: M. Harir, A. Bendiabdellah, A. Chaouch, N. Benouzza

Abstract:

This paper deals with the modelling and simulation of the squirrel cage induction motor by taking into account all space harmonic components, as well as the introduction of the bars skew, in the calculation of the linear evolution of the magnetomotive force (MMF) between the slots extremities. The model used is based on multiple coupled circuits and the modified winding function approach (MWFA). The effect of skewing is included in the calculation of motors inductances with an axial asymmetry in the rotor. The simulation results in both time and spectral domains show the effectiveness and merits of the model and the error that may be caused if the skew of the bars is neglected.

Keywords: modeling, MWFA, skew effect, squirrel cage induction motor, spectral domain

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4710 Design of Functional Safe Motor Control Systems in Automotive Applications

Authors: Jae-Woo Kim, Kyung-Jung Lee, Hyun-Sik Ahn

Abstract:

This paper presents a design methodology for the motor driven automotive subsystems with the consideration of the functional safety. There are many such modules in vehicles which use DC/AC motors for an electronic throttle control system, a motor driven power steering, a motor driven seat belt systems and for HVAC systems. The functional safety for the automotive electrical and electronic parts are standardized as ISO 26262, but the development procedure is very complex to be followed. We focus on the functional safe motor controller design process and show the designed motor controller hardware satisfies the required safety integrity level by using metric calculations with the safety mechanism.

Keywords: AUTOSAR, MDPS, Simulink, software component

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4709 Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Child Engagement in Daily Life in Greek

Authors: Rigas Dimakopoulos, Marianna Papadopoulou, Roser Pons

Abstract:

Background: Participation in family, recreational activities and self-care is an integral part of health. It is also the main outcome of rehabilitation services for children and adolescents with motor disabilities. There are currently no tools in Greek to assess participation in young children. Purpose: To culturally adapt and validate the Greek version of the Child Engagement in Daily Living (CEDL). Method: The CEDL was cross-culturally translated into Greek using forward-backward translation, review by the expert committee, pretest application and final review. Internal consistency was evaluated using the Cronbach alpha and test-retest reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Parents of children aged 18 months to 5 years and with motor disabilities were recruited. Participants completed the CEDL and the children’s gross motor function was classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Results: Eighty-three children were included, GMFCS I-V. Mean ± standard deviation of the CEDL domains “frequency of participation” “enjoyment of participation” and “self-care” were 58.4±14.0, 3.8±1.0 and 49.9±24, respectively. Internal consistency of all domains was high; Cronbach alpha for “frequency of participation” was 0.83, for “enjoyment of participation” was 0.76 and for “self-care” was 0.92. Test-retest reliability (ICC) was excellent for the “self-care” (0.95) and good for “frequency of participation” and “enjoyment of participation” domains (0.90 and 0.88, respectively). Conclusion: The Greek CEDL has good reliability. It can be used to evaluate participation in Greek young children with motor disabilities GMFCS levels I-V.

Keywords: participation, child, disabilities, child engagement in daily living

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4708 Does Mirror Therapy Improve Motor Recovery After Stroke? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Hassan Abo Salem, Guo Feng, Xiaolin Huang

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of mirror therapy on motor recovery and functional abilities after stroke. The following databases were searched from inception to May 2014: Cochrane Stroke, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycINFO, and PEDro. Two reviewers independently screened and selected all randomized controlled trials that evaluate the effect of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation.12 randomized controlled trials studies met the inclusion criteria; 10 studies utilized the effect of mirror therapy for the upper limb and 2 studies for the lower limb. Mirror therapy had a positive effect on motor recover and function; however, we found no consistent influence on activity of daily living, Spasticity and balance. This meta-analysis suggests that, Mirror therapy has additional effect on motor recovery but has a small positive effect on functional abilities after stroke. Further high-quality studies with greater statistical power are required in order to accurately determine the effectiveness of mirror therapy following stroke.

Keywords: mirror therapy, motor recovery, stroke, balance

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4707 The Effect of Bihemisferic Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Therapy on Upper Extremity Motor Functions in Stroke Patients

Authors: Dilek Cetin Alisar, Oya Umit Yemisci, Selin Ozen, Seyhan Sozay

Abstract:

New approaches and treatment modalities are being developed to make patients more functional and independent in stroke rehabilitation. One of these approaches is transcranial direct stimulation therapy (tDCS), which aims to improve the hemiplegic upper limb function of stroke patients. tDCS therapy is not in the routine rehabilitation program; however, the studies about tDCS therapy on stroke rehabilitation was increased in recent years. Evaluate the effect of tDCS treatment on upper extremity motor function in patients with subacute stroke was aimed in our study. 32 stroke patients (16 tDCS group, 16 sham groups) who were hospitalized for rehabilitation in Başkent University Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic between 01.08.2016-20.01-2018 were included in the study. The conventional upper limb rehabilitation program was used for both tDCS and control group patients for 3 weeks, 5 days a week, for 60-120 minutes a day. In addition to the conventional stroke rehabilitation program in the tDAS group, bihemispheric tDCS was administered for 30 minutes daily. Patients were evaluated before treatment and after 1 week of treatment. Functional independence measure self-care score (FIM), Brunnstorm Recovery Stage (BRS), and Fugl-Meyer (FM) upper extremity motor function scale were used. There was no difference in demographic characteristics between the groups. There were no significant differences between BRS and FM scores in two groups, but there was a significant difference FIM score (p=0.05. FIM, BRS, and FM scores are significantly in the tDCS group, when before therapy and after 1 week of therapy, however, no difference is found in the shame group (p < 0,001). When FBS and FM scores were compared, there were statistical significant differences in tDCS group (p < 0,001). In conclusion, this randomized double-blind study showed that bihemispheric tDCS treatment was found to be superior to upper extremity motor and functional enhancement in addition to conventional rehabilitation methods in subacute stroke patients. In order for tDCS therapy to be used routinely in stroke rehabilitation, there is a need for more comprehensive, long-termed, randomized controlled clinical trials in order to find answers to many questions, such as the duration and intensity of treatment.

Keywords: cortical stimulation, motor function, rehabilitation, stroke

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4706 Static Eccentricity Fault Diagnosis in Synchronous Reluctance Motor and Permanent Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Authors: M. Naeimi, H. Aghazadeh, E. Afjei, A. Siadatan

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel view of air gap magnetic field analysis of synchronous reluctance motor and permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor under static eccentricity to provide the precise fault diagnosis based on three-dimensional finite element method is presented. Analytical nature of this method makes it possible to simulate reliable and precise model by considering the end effects and axial fringing effects. The results of the three-dimensional finite element analysis of synchronous reluctance motor and permanent magnet synchronous reluctance motor such as flux linkage, flux density, and compression both of SynRM and PM-SynRM for various eccentric motor conditions are obtained and analyzed. These results present useful information regarding to the detection of static eccentricity.

Keywords: synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM), permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor (PMaSynRM), finite element method, static eccentricity, fault analysis

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4705 The Effects of a Hippotherapy Simulator in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

Authors: Canan Gunay Yazici, Zubeyir Sarı, Devrim Tarakci

Abstract:

Background: Hippotherapy considered as global techniques used in rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy as it improved gait pattern, balance, postural control, balance and gross motor skills development but it encounters some problems (such as the excess of the cost of horses' care, nutrition, housing). Hippotherapy simulator is being developed in recent years to overcome these problems. These devices aim to create the effects of hippotherapy made with a real horse on patients by simulating the movements of a real horse. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of hippotherapy simulator on gross motor functions, sitting postural control and dynamic balance of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Fourteen children with CP, aged 6–15 years, seven with a diagnosis of spastic hemiplegia, five of diplegia, two of triplegia, Gross Motor Function Classification System level I-III. The Horse Riding Simulator (HRS), including four-speed program (warm-up, level 1-2-3), was used for hippotherapy simulator. Firstly, each child received Neurodevelopmental Therapy (NDT; 45min twice weekly eight weeks). Subsequently, the same children completed HRS+NDT (30min and 15min respectively, twice weekly eight weeks). Children were assessed pre-treatment, at the end of 8th and 16th week. Gross motor function, sitting postural control, dynamic sitting and standing balance were evaluated by Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88, Dimension B, D, E and Total Score), Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Pedalo® Sensamove Balance Test and Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) respectively. Unit of Scientific Research Project of Marmara University supported our study. Results: All measured variables were a significant increase compared to baseline values after both intervention (NDT and HRS+NDT), except for dynamic sitting balance evaluated by Pedalo®. Especially HRS+NDT, increase in the measured variables was considerably higher than NDT. After NDT, the Total scores of GMFM-88 (mean baseline 62,2 ± 23,5; mean NDT: 66,6 ± 22,2; p < 0,05), TIS (10,4 ± 3,4; 12,1 ± 3; p < 0,05), PBS (37,4 ± 14,6; 39,6 ± 12,9; p < 0,05), Pedalo® sitting (91,2 ± 6,7; 92,3 ± 5,2; p > 0,05) and Pedalo® standing balance points (80,2 ± 10,8; 82,5 ± 11,5; p < 0,05) increased by 7,1%, 2%, 3,9%, 5,2% and 6 % respectively. After HRS+NDT treatment, the total scores of GMFM-88 (mean baseline: 62,2 ± 23,5; mean HRS+NDT: 71,6 ± 21,4; p < 0,05), TIS (10,4 ± 3,4; 15,6 ± 2,9; p < 0,05), PBS (37,4 ± 14,6; 42,5 ± 12; p < 0,05), Pedalo® sitting (91,2 ± 6,7; 93,8 ± 3,7; p > 0,05) and standing balance points (80,2 ± 10,8; 86,2 ± 5,6; p < 0,05) increased by 15,2%, 6%, 7,3%, 6,4%, and 11,9%, respectively, compared to the initial values. Conclusion: Neurodevelopmental therapy provided significant improvements in gross motor functions, sitting postural control, sitting and standing balance of children with CP. When the hippotherapy simulator added to the treatment program, it was observed that these functions were further developed (especially with gross motor functions and dynamic balance). As a result, this pilot study showed that the hippotherapy simulator could be a useful alternative to neurodevelopmental therapy for the improvement of gross motor function, sitting postural control and dynamic balance of children with CP.

Keywords: balance, cerebral palsy, hippotherapy, rehabilitation

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4704 Infrastructure Problems in Indonesia: The Uncontrolled Increase of Motor Vehicle Usage in Indonesia

Authors: Tanda Soala Gogo Sirait

Abstract:

The existence of motor vehicle in Indonesia has a very essential role for daily mobility in urban areas. The motor vehicle market is growing tremendously particularly for the motorcycle. The growth of motorcycles ownership was 15 % annually from 2002 to 2012. It is predicted that the number of motorcycles still continue to grow in the future. The increase of motor vehicle has led to the creation of serious urban problems and Indonesian economy structure. Today, Indonesia's cities are well known as the jungle of motorcycle world. The volume of motor vehicle traffic in Indonesia cities is astounding, which more than 55% of motorised transport is on motorcycle and car. The reason it happens is due lack and inconvenient of the public transportation in Indonesia. Motor vehicle ownership by individual households tends to rising rapidly. Indonesian government still does not have a clear direction how to face this phenomenon.

Keywords: Indonesian economy, inconvenient public transportation, motor vehicle growth, urban problems

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4703 Optimization of High Flux Density Design for Permanent Magnet Motor

Authors: Dong-Woo Kang

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimal magnet shape of a spoke-shaped interior permanent magnet synchronous motor by using ferrite magnets. Generally, the permanent magnet motor used the ferrite magnets has lower output power and efficiency than a rare-earth magnet motor, because the ferrite magnet has lower magnetic energy than the rare-earth magnet. Nevertheless, the ferrite magnet motor is used to many industrial products owing to cost effectiveness. In this paper, the authors propose a high power density design of the ferrite permanent magnet synchronous motor. Furthermore, because the motor design has to be taken a manufacturing process into account, the design is simulated by using the finite element method for analyzing the demagnetization, the magnetizing, and the structure stiffness. Especially, the magnet shape and dimensions are decided for satisfying these properties. Finally, the authors design an optimal motor for applying our system. That final design is manufactured and evaluated from experimentations.

Keywords: demagnetization, design optimization, magnetic analysis, permanent magnet motors

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4702 Design of a Virtual Reality System for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

Authors: Ya-Ju Ju, Li-Chen Yang, Yi-Chun Du, Rong-Ju Cherng

Abstract:

Introduction: It is estimated that 5-6% of school-aged children may be diagnosed to have developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Children with DCD are characterized with motor skill difficulty which cannot be explained by any medical or intellectual reasons. Such motor difficulties limit children’s participation to sports activity, further affect their physical fitness, cardiopulmonary function and balance, and may lead to obesity. The purpose of the project was to develop an exergaming system for children with DCD aiming to improve their physical fitness, cardiopulmonary function and balance ability. Methods: This study took five steps to build up the system: system planning, tasks selection, tasks programming, system integration and usability test. The system basically adopted virtual reality technique to integrate self-developed training programs. The training programs were developed to brainstorm among team members and after literature review. The selected tasks for training in the system were a combination of fundamental movement tor skill. Results and Discussion: Based on the theory of motor development, we design the training task from easy ones to hard ones, from single tasks to dual tasks. The tasks included walking, sit to stand, jumping, kicking, weight shifting, side jumping and their combination. Preliminary study showed that the tasks presented an order of development. Further study is needed to examine its effect on motor skill and cardiovascular fitness in children with DCD.

Keywords: virtual reality, virtual reality system, developmental coordination disorder, children

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4701 Multiple Winding Multiphase Motor for Electric Drive System

Authors: Zhao Tianxu, Cui Shumei

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel multiphase motor structure. The armature winding consists of several independent multiphase windings that have different rating rotate speed and power. Compared to conventional motor, the novel motor structure has more operation mode and fault tolerance mode, which makes it adapt to high-reliability requirement situation such as electric vehicle, aircraft and ship. Performance of novel motor structure varies with winding match. In order to find optimum control strategy, motor torque character, efficiency performance and fault tolerance ability under different operation mode are analyzed in this paper, and torque distribution strategy for efficiency optimization is proposed. Simulation analyze is taken and the result shows that proposed structure has the same efficiency on heavy load and higher efficiency on light load operation points, which expands high efficiency area of motor and cruise range of vehicle. The proposed structure can improve motor highest speed.

Keywords: multiphase motor, armature winding match, torque distribution strategy, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
4700 Modelling of Filters CO2 (Carbondioxide) and CO (Carbonmonoxide) Portable in Motor Vehicle's Exhaust with Absorbent Chitosan

Authors: Yuandanis Wahyu Salam, Irfi Panrepi, Nuraeni

Abstract:

The increased of greenhouse gases, that is CO2 (carbondioxide) in atmosphere induce the rising of earth’s surface average temperature. One of the largest contributors to greenhouse gases is motor vehicles. Smoke which is emitted by motor’s exhaust containing gases such as CO2 (carbondioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). Chemically, chitosan is cellulose like plant fiber that has the ability to bind like absorbant foam. Chitosan is a natural antacid (absorb toxins), when chitosan is spread over the surface of water, chitosan is able to absorb fats, oils, heavy metals, and other toxic substances. Judging from the nature of chitosan is able to absorb various toxic substances, it is expected that chitosan is also able to filter out gas emission from the motor vehicles. This study designing a carbondioxide filter in the exhaust of motor vehicles using chitosan as its absorbant. It aims to filter out gases in the exhaust so that CO2 and CO can be reducted before emitted by exhaust. Form of this reseach is study of literature and applied with experimental research of tool manufacture. Data collected through documentary studies by studying books, magazines, thesis, search on the internet as well as the relevant reference. This study will produce a filters which has main function to filter out CO2 and CO emissions that generated by vehicle’s exhaust and can be used as portable.

Keywords: filter, carbon, carbondioxide, exhaust, chitosan

Procedia PDF Downloads 269