Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: cottonseed

14 Reaction Kinetics of Biodiesel Production from Refined Cottonseed Oil Using Calcium Oxide

Authors: Ude N. Callistus, Amulu F. Ndidi, Onukwuli D. Okechukwu, Amulu E. Patrick


Power law approximation was used in this study to evaluate the reaction orders of calcium oxide, CaO catalyzed transesterification of refined cottonseed oil and methanol. The kinetics study was carried out at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 oC. The kinetic parameters such as reaction order 2.02 and rate constant 2.8 hr-1g-1cat, obtained at the temperature of 65 oC best fitted the kinetic model. The activation energy, Ea obtained was 127.744 KJ/mol. The results indicate that the transesterification reaction of the refined cottonseed oil using calcium oxide catalyst is approximately second order reaction.

Keywords: refined cottonseed oil, transesterification, CaO, heterogeneous catalysts, kinetic model

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13 Effect of Electron Beam Irradiated Cottonseed Meal on Carcass and Blood Parameters of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Somayyeh Salari, Marziyeh Nayefi, Mohsen Sari, Mehdi Behgar


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of electron beam- irradiated cottonseed meal at a dose of 30 KGy on carcass characteristics and some blood parameters of broiler chicks. Various levels of cottonseed meal (CSM) (0, 12, and 24%, radiation and no radiation) were used with 5 dietary treatments, 4 replicates and 10 birds of each for 42 days in completely randomized design. At 42 d of age, two birds per pen were randomly selected for determination of carcass characteristics and blood parameters. Relative weights of liver, gastrointestinal tract (GI), pancreatic, gizzard and abdominal fat were increased with increasing levels of CSM in the diet (p<0/05). Glucose, cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride, and phosphorous concentrations increased and LDL concentration decreased as the dietary CSM levels increased (p<0/05). But radiation had not significant effect on blood parameters. Electron irradiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the nutritional quality of CSM but it seems higher dose of it was needed to improve blood parameters of chickens.

Keywords: blood parameters, carcass characteristics, cottonseed meal, electron beam

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12 Optimization of the Production Processes of Biodiesel from a Locally Sourced Gossypium herbaceum and Moringa oleifera

Authors: Ikechukwu Ejim


This research project addresses the optimization of biodiesel production from gossypium herbaceum (cottonseed) and moringa oleifera seeds. Soxhlet extractor method using n-hexane for gossypium herbaceum (cottonseed) and ethanol for moringa oleifera were used for solvent extraction. 1250 ml of oil was realized from both gossypium herbaceum (cottonseed) and moringa oleifera seeds before characterization. In transesterification process, a 4-factor-3-level experiment was conducted using an optimal design of Response Surface Methodology. The effects of methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration (%), temperature (°C) and time (mins), on the yield of methyl ester for both cottonseed and moringa oleifera oils were determined. The design consisted of 25 experimental runs (5 lack of fit points, five replicate points, 0 additional center points and I optimality) and provided sufficient information to fit a second-degree polynomial model. The experimental results suggested that optimum conditions were as follows; cottonseed yield (96.231%), catalyst concentration (0.972%), temperature (55oC), time (60mins) and methanol/oil molar ratios (8/1) respectively while moringa oleifera optimum values were yield (80.811%), catalyst concentration (1.0%), temperature (54.7oC), time (30mins ) and methanol/oil molar ratios (8/1) respectively. This optimized conditions were validated with the actual biodiesel yield in experimental trials and literature.

Keywords: optimization, Gossypium herbaceum, Moringa oleifera, biodiesel

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11 Variation in pH Values and Tenderness of Meat of Cattle Fed Different Levels of Lipids

Authors: Erico Da Silva Lima, Tiago Neves Pereira Valente, Roberto De Oliveira Roça


Introduction: Over the last few years the market has increased its demand for high quality meat. Based on this premise some producers have continuously improved their efficiency in breeding beef cattle with the purpose to support this demand. It is well recognized that final quality of beef is intimately linked to animal’s diet. The key objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of feeding animals with cottonseed and its lipids and the final results in terms of pH and shear forces of the meat. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Chapéu de Couro Farm in Aguaí/SP, Brazil. A group of 39 uncastrated Nellore cattle. Mean age of the animals was 36 months and initial mean live weight was 494.1 ± 10.1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, based on dry matter: feed with control diet 2.50% cottonseed, feed with 11.50% cottonseed, and feed with 3.13% cottonseed added of 1.77% protected lipid. Forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50 on a dry matter basis. Sugar cane chopped was used as forage. After slaughter, carcasses were identified and divided into two halves that were kept in a cold chamber for 24 h at 2°C. Using pH meter was determined post-mortem pH in Longissimus thoracis muscle between the 12th and 13th rib of the left half carcass. After, part of each animal was removed, and divided in three samples (steaks). Steaks were 2.5 cm thick and were identified and stored individually in plastic bags under vacuum. Samples were frozen in a freezer at -18°C. The same samples cooked were refrigerated by 12 h the 4°C, and then cut into cylinders 1.10 Øcm with the support of a drill press avoiding fats and nerves. Shear force was calculated in these samples cut into cylinders through the Brookfield texture CT3 Texture Analyzer 25 k equipped with a set of blade Warner-Bratzler. Results and Discussion: No differences (P > 0.05) in pH 24 h after slaughter were observed in the meat of Nellore cattle fed different sources of fat, and mean value for this variable was 5.59. However, for the shear force differences (P < 0.05) were founded. For diet with 2,50% cottonseed the lowest value found 5.10 (kg) while for the treatment with 11.50% cottonseed the great value found was 6.30 (kg). High shear force values mean greater texture of meat that indicates less tenderness. The texture of the meat can be influenced by age, weight to the slaughter of animals. For cattle breed Nellore Bos taurus indicus more high value of shear force. Conclusions: The add the cottonseed or protected lipid in diet is not affected pH values in meat. The whole cottonseed does not contribute to the improvement of tenderness of the meat. Acknowledgments: IFGoiano, FAPEG and CNPq (Brazil).

Keywords: beef quality, cottonseed, protected fat, shear force

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10 Desirable Fatty Acids in Meat of Cattle Fed Different Levels of Lipid-Based Diets

Authors: Tiago N. P. Valente, Erico S. Lima, Roberto O. Roça


Introduction: Research has stimulated animal production studies on solutions to decrease the level of saturated fatty acids and increase unsaturated in foods of animal origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the dietary inclusion of lipid-based diets on the fatty acid profiles from finishing cattle. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Chapéu de Couro Farm in Aguaí/SP, Brazil. A group of 39 uncastrated Nellore cattle. Mean age of the animals was 36 months, and initial mean live weight was 494.1 ± 10.1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, based on dry matter: feed with control diet 2.50% cottonseed, feed with 11.50% cottonseed, and feed with 3.13% cottonseed added of 1.77% protected lipid. Forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50 on a dry matter basis. Sugar cane chopped was used as forage. After 63 days mean final live weight was 577.01 kg ± 11.34. After slaughter, carcasses were identified and divided into two halves that were kept in a cold chamber for 24 hours at 2°C. Then, part of the M. longissimus thoracis of each animal was removed between the 12th and 13th rib of the left half carcass. The samples steaks were 2.5 cm thick and were identified and stored frozen in a freezer at -18°C. The analysis of methyl esters of fatty acids was carried out in a gas chromatograph. Desirable fatty acids (FADes) were determined by the sum of unsaturated fatty acids and stearic acid (C18:0). Results and Discussion: No differences (P>0.05) between the diets for the proportion of FADes in the meat of the animals in this study, according to the lipid sources used. The inclusion of protected fat or cottonseed in the diet did not change the proportion of FADes in the meat. The proportion mean of FADes in meat in the present study were: as pentadecanoic acid (C15:1 = 0.29%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 = 4.26%), heptadecanoic acid (C17:1 = 0.07%), oleic acid (C18:1n9c = 37.32%), γ-linolenic acid (0.94%) and α-linolenic acid (1.04%), elaidic acid (C18:1n9t = 0.50%), eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n3 = 0.03%), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 = 0.04%), erucic acid (C22:1n9 = 0.89%), docosadienoic acid (C22:2 = 0.04%) and stearic acid (C18:0 = 21.53%). Conclusions: The add the cottonseed or protected lipid in diet is not affected fatty acids profiles the desirable fatty acids in meat. Acknowledgements: IFGoiano, FAPEG and CNPq (Brazil).

Keywords: beef quality, cottonseed, protected fat, unsaturated fatty acids

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9 Correlation and Prediction of Biodiesel Density

Authors: Nieves M. C. Talavera-Prieto, Abel G. M. Ferreira, António T. G. Portugal, Rui J. Moreira, Jaime B. Santos


The knowledge of biodiesel density over large ranges of temperature and pressure is important for predicting the behavior of fuel injection and combustion systems in diesel engines, and for the optimization of such systems. In this study, cottonseed oil was transesterified into biodiesel and its density was measured at temperatures between 288 K and 358 K and pressures between 0.1 MPa and 30 MPa, with expanded uncertainty estimated as ±1.6 kg.m^-3. Experimental pressure-volume-temperature (pVT) cottonseed data was used along with literature data relative to other 18 biodiesels, in order to build a database used to test the correlation of density with temperarure and pressure using the Goharshadi–Morsali–Abbaspour equation of state (GMA EoS). To our knowledge, this is the first that density measurements are presented for cottonseed biodiesel under such high pressures, and the GMA EoS used to model biodiesel density. The new tested EoS allowed correlations within 0.2 kg•m-3 corresponding to average relative deviations within 0.02%. The built database was used to develop and test a new full predictive model derived from the observed linear relation between density and degree of unsaturation (DU), which depended from biodiesel FAMEs profile. The average density deviation of this method was only about 3 kg.m-3 within the temperature and pressure limits of application. These results represent appreciable improvements in the context of density prediction at high pressure when compared with other equations of state.

Keywords: biodiesel density, correlation, equation of state, prediction

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8 Characteristics of Tremella fuciformis and Annulohypoxylon stygium for Optimal Cultivation Conditions

Authors: Eun-Ji Lee, Hye-Sung Park, Chan-Jung Lee, Won-Sik Kong


We analyzed the DNA sequence of the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region of the 18S ribosomal gene and compared it with the gene sequence of T. fuciformis and Hypoxylon sp. in the BLAST database. The sequences of collected T. fuciformis and Hypoxylon sp. have over 99% homology in the T. fuciformis and Hypoxylon sp. sequence BLAST database. In order to select the optimal medium for T. fuciformis, five kinds of a medium such as Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Mushroom Complete Medium (MCM), Malt Extract Agar (MEA), Yeast extract (YM), and Compost Extract Dextrose Agar (CDA) were used. T. fuciformis showed the best growth on PDA medium, and Hypoxylon sp. showed the best growth on MCM. So as to investigate the optimum pH and temperature, the pH range was set to pH4 to pH8 and the temperature range was set to 15℃ to 35℃ (5℃ degree intervals). Optimum culture conditions for the T. fuciformis growth were pH5 at 25℃. Hypoxylon sp. were pH6 at 25°C. In order to confirm the most suitable carbon source, we used fructose, galactose, saccharose, soluble starch, inositol, glycerol, xylose, dextrose, lactose, dextrin, Na-CMC, adonitol. Mannitol, mannose, maltose, raffinose, cellobiose, ethanol, salicine, glucose, arabinose. In the optimum carbon source, T. fuciformis is xylose and Hypoxylon sp. is arabinose. Using the column test, we confirmed sawdust a suitable for T. fuciformis, since the composition of sawdust affects the growth of fruiting bodies of T. fuciformis. The sawdust we used is oak tree, pine tree, poplar, birch, cottonseed meal, cottonseed hull. In artificial cultivation of T. fuciformis with sawdust medium, T. fuciformis and Hypoxylon sp. showed fast mycelial growth on mixture of oak tree sawdust, cottonseed hull, and wheat bran.

Keywords: cultivation, optimal condition, tremella fuciformis, nutritional source

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7 Investigation the Effect of Quenching Media on Abrasive Wear in Grade Medium Carbon Steel

Authors: Abbas S. Alwan, Waleed K. Hussan


In this paper, a general verification of possible heat treatment of steel has been done with the view of conditions of real abrasive wear of rotivater with soil texture. This technique is found promising to improve the quality of agriculture components working with the soil in dry condition. Abrasive wear resistance is very important in many applications and in most cases it is directly correlated with the hardness of materials surface. Responded of heat treatments were carried out in various media (Still air, Cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %) and follow by low-temperature tempering (250°C) was applied on steel type (AISI 1030). After heat treatment was applied wear with soil texture by using tillage process to determine the (actual wear rate) of the specimens depending on weight loss method. It was found; the wear resistance Increases with increase hardness with varying quenching media as follows; 30 HRC, 45 HRC, 52 HRC, and 60 HRC for nontreated (as received) cooling media as still air, cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %, respectively. Martensitic structure with retained austenite can be obtained depending on the quenching medium. Wear was presented on the worn surfaces of the steels which were used in this work.

Keywords: microstructures, hardness, abrasive wear, heat treatment, soil texture

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6 Comparative Analysis of Oil Extracts from Cotton and Watermelon Seeds

Authors: S. A. Jumare, A. O. Tijani, M. F. Siraj, B. V. Babatunde


This research investigated the comparative analysis of oil extracted from cotton and watermelon seeds using solvent extraction process. Normal ethyl-ether was used as solvent in the extraction process. The AOAC method of Analysis was employed in the determination of the physiochemical properties of the oil. The chemical properties of the oil determined include the saponification value, free fatty acid, iodine value, peroxide value and acid value. The physical properties of the oil determined include specific gravity, refractive index, colour, odour, taste and pH. The value obtained for cottonseed oil are saponification value (187mgKOH/g), free fatty acid (5.64mgKOH/g), iodine value (95.2g/100), peroxide value (9.33meq/kg), acid value (11.22mg/KOH/g), pH value (4.62), refractive index (1.46), and specific gravity (0.9) respectively, it has a bland odour, a reddish brown colour and a mild taste. The values obtained for watermelon seed oil are saponification value (83.3mgKOH/g), free fatty acid (6.58mg/KOH/g), iodine value (122.6g/100), peroxide value (5.3meq/kg), acid value (3.74mgKOH/g), pH value (6.3), refractive index (1.47), and specific gravity (0.9) respectively, it has a nutty flavour, a golden yellow colour and a mild taste. From the result obtained, it shows that cottonseed oil has high acid value which shows the stability of the oil and its stability to rancidity. Consequently, watermelon seed oil is order wise.

Keywords: extraction, solvent, cotton seeds, watermelon seeds

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5 Comparative Rumen Degradable and Rumen Undegradable Fractions in Untreated, Formaldehyde and Heat Treated Vegetable Protein Sources of Pakistan

Authors: Illahi Bakhsh Marghazani, Nasrullah, Masood Ul Haq Kakar, Abdul Hameed Baloch, Ahmad Nawaz Khoso, Behram Chacher


Protein sources are the major part of ration fed to dairy buffaloes in Pakistan however, the limited availability and lack of judicious use of protein resources are further aggravating the conditions to enhance milk and meat production. In order to gain maximum production from limited protein source availability, it is necessary to balance feed for rumen degradable and rumen undegradable protein fractions. This study planned to know the rumen degradable and rumen undegradable fractions in all vegetable protein sources with (formaldehyde and heat treatment) and without treatments. Samples of soybean meal, corn gluten meal 60%, maize gluten feed, guar meal, sunflower meal, rapeseed meal, rapeseed cake, canola meal, cottonseed cake, cottonseed meal, coconut cake, coconut meal, palm kernel cake, almond cake and sesame cake were collected from ten different geographical locations of Pakistan. These samples were also subjected to formaldehyde (1% /100g CP of test feed) and heat treatments (1 hr at 15 lb psi/100 g CP of test feed). In situ technique was used to know the ruminal degradability characteristics. Data obtained were fitted to Orskove equation. Results showed that both treatments significantly (P < 0.05) decreased ruminal degradability in all vegetable protein sources than untreated vegetable protein sources, however, of both treatments, heat treatment was more effective than formaldehyde treatment in decreasing ruminal degradability in most of the studied vegetable protein sources.

Keywords: formaldehyde and heat treatments, in situ technique, rumen degradable and rumen undegradable fractions, vegetable protein sources

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4 Simultaneous Determination of Six Characterizing/Quality Parameters of Biodiesels via 1H NMR and Multivariate Calibration

Authors: Gustavo G. Shimamoto, Matthieu Tubino


The characterization and the quality of biodiesel samples are checked by determining several parameters. Considering a large number of analysis to be performed, as well as the disadvantages of the use of toxic solvents and waste generation, multivariate calibration is suggested to reduce the number of tests. In this work, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra were used to build multivariate models, from partial least squares (PLS) regression, in order to determine simultaneously six important characterizing and/or quality parameters of biodiesels: density at 20 ºC, kinematic viscosity at 40 ºC, iodine value, acid number, oxidative stability, and water content. Biodiesels from twelve different oils sources were used in this study: babassu, brown flaxseed, canola, corn, cottonseed, macauba almond, microalgae, palm kernel, residual frying, sesame, soybean, and sunflower. 1H NMR reflects the structures of the compounds present in biodiesel samples and showed suitable correlations with the six parameters. The PLS models were constructed with latent variables between 5 and 7, the obtained values of r(cal) and r(val) were greater than 0.994 and 0.989, respectively. In addition, the models were considered suitable to predict all the six parameters for external samples, taking into account the analytical speed to perform it. Thus, the alliance between 1H NMR and PLS showed to be appropriate to characterize and evaluate the quality of biodiesels, reducing significantly analysis time, the consumption of reagents/solvents, and waste generation. Therefore, the proposed methods can be considered to adhere to the principles of green chemistry.

Keywords: biodiesel, multivariate calibration, nuclear magnetic resonance, quality parameters

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3 Influence of Catharanthus roseus, Ocimum sanctum and Lantana camara Extracts on Survival and Longevity of Dysdercus koenigii

Authors: Sunil Kayesth, Kamal Kumar Gupta


The development of resistance among insects and pests, environmental contamination and adverse effects on non-target organisms is contributed by the indiscriminate use of chemical based insecticides. To overcome these environmental and other ecological issues that are need to replace these harmful toxic compounds. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Catharanthus roseus, Ocimum sanctum and Lantana camara plants volatiles on survival and longevity of Dysdercus koenigii. The hexane extract and ethanol extracts of these three plants were used. The fifth instars were exposed to hexane extract with concentrations of 10%, 5%, 2.5% 1.25%, 0.1%, 0.5% 0.25%, 0.125% and 0.0625% while, adults were treated with10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1.25%. 1-ml of each of these concentrations was used to make a thin film in sterilized glass jars of 500 ml capacity. Fifteen- newly emerged fifth instar nymphs and adult bugs were treated separately with the extracts for 24- hour exposure to the plant volatiles. For ethanol extracts cottonseed were treated with ethanol extracts of 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1.25% concentrations. The treated seeds were provided to the Dysdercus for a period of 24 hours and their feeding behaviour was observed. The effect of hexane and ethanol extract of these plants was observed and readings were recorded for 15 days. Survival and longevity of both fifth instars and adults were in correlation with the concentrations of the plant extracts. Among three plant extracts, Ocimum hexane extract was most toxic and Catharanthus was moderate while Lantana was least toxic. The ethanol extracts of Lantana was highly antifeedent while Ocimum was moderate and Catharanthus was least antifeedent. Both Catharanthus and Ocimum appeared to have potential molecules, which possessed insecticidal activity while Ocimum and Lantana showed antifeedent activities. These insecticidal and antifeedent properties may be used in IPM.

Keywords: Catharanthus roseus, Ocimum sanctum, Lantana camara, Dysdercus koenigii

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2 Effects of Vegetable Oils Supplementation on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Methane Production in Buffaloes

Authors: Avijit Dey, Shyam S. Paul, Satbir S. Dahiya, Balbir S. Punia, Luciano A. Gonzalez


Methane emitted from ruminant livestock not only reduces the efficiency of feed energy utilization but also contributes to global warming. Vegetable oils, a source of poly unsaturated fatty acids, have potential to reduce methane production and increase conjugated linoleic acid in the rumen. However, characteristics of oils, level of inclusion and composition of basal diet influences their efficacy. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of sunflower (SFL) and cottonseed (CSL) oils on methanogenesis, volatile fatty acids composition and feed fermentation pattern by in vitro gas production (IVGP) test. Four concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4ml /30ml buffered rumen fluid) of each oil were used. Fresh rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from two rumen cannulated buffalo steers fed a mixed ration. In vitro incubation was carried out with sorghum hay (200 ± 5 mg) as substrate in 100 ml calibrated glass syringes following standard IVGP protocol. After 24h incubation, gas production was recorded by displacement of piston. Methane in the gas phase and volatile fatty acids in the fermentation medium were estimated by gas chromatography. Addition of oils resulted in increase (p<0.05) in total gas production and decrease (p<0.05) in methane production, irrespective of type and concentration. Although the increase in gas production was similar, methane production (ml/g DM) and its concentration (%) in head space gas was lower (p< 0.01) in CSL than in SFL at corresponding doses. Linear decrease (p<0.001) in degradability of DM was evident with increasing doses of oils (0.2ml onwards). However, these effects were more pronounced with SFL. Acetate production tended to decrease but propionate and butyrate production increased (p<0.05) with addition of oils, irrespective of type and doses. The ratio of acetate to propionate was reduced (p<0.01) with addition of oils but no difference between the oils was noted. It is concluded that both the oils can reduce methane production. However, feed degradability was also affected with higher doses. Cotton seed oil in small dose (0.1ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) exerted greater inhibitory effects on methane production without impeding dry matter degradability. Further in vivo studies need to be carried out for their practical application in animal ration.

Keywords: buffalo, methanogenesis, rumen fermentation, vegetable oils

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1 Effect of Different By-Products on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Serum Parameters of Growing Simmental Crossbred Cattle

Authors: Fei Wang, Jie Meng, Qingxiang Meng


China is rich in straw and by-product resources, whose utilization has always been a hot topic. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding soybean straw and wine distiller’s grain as a replacement for corn stover on performance of beef cattle. Sixty Simmental×local crossbred bulls averaging 12 months old and 335.7 ± 39.1 kg of body weight (BW) were randomly assigned into four groups (15 animals per group) and allocated to a diet with 40% maize stover (MSD), a diet with 40% wrapping package maize silage (PMSD), a diet with 12% soybean straw plus 28% maize stover (SSD) and a diet with 12% wine distiller’s grain plus 28% maize stover (WDD). Bulls were fed ad libitum an TMR consisting of 36.0% maize, 12.5% of DDGS, 5.0% of cottonseed meal, 4.0% of soybean meal and 40.0% of by-product as described above. Treatment period lasted for 22 weeks, consisting of 1 week of dietary adaptation. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for PMSD group than MSD and SSD groups during 0-7 week and 8-14week, and PMSD and WDD groups had higher (P < 0.05) DMI values than MSD and SSD groups during the whole period. Average daily gain (ADG) values were 1.56, 1.72, 1.68 and 1.58 kg for MSD, PMSD, SSD and WDD groups respectively, although the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). The value of blood sugar concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for MSD group than WDD group, and the blood urea nitrogen concentration of SSD group was lower (P < 0.05) than MSD and WDD groups. No significant difference (P > 0.05) of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides or total protein content was observed among the different groups. Ten bulls with similar body weight were selected at the end of feeding trial and slaughtered for measurement of slaughtering performance, carcass quality and meat chemical composition. SSD group had significantly lower (P < 0.05) shear force value and cooking loss than MSD and PMSD groups. The pH values of MSD and SSD groups were lower (P < 0.05) than PMSD and WDD groups. WDD group had a higher fat color brightness (L*) value than PMSD and SSD groups. There were no significant differences in dressing percentage, meat percentage, top grade meat weight, ribeye area, marbling score, meat color and meat chemical compositions among different dietary treatments. Based on these results, the packed maize stover silage showed a potential of improving the average daily gain and feed intake of beef cattle. Soybean straw had a significant effect on improving the tenderness and reducing cooking loss of beef. In general, soybean straw and packed maize stover silage would be beneficial to nitrogen deposition and showed a potential to substitute maize stover in beef cattle diets.

Keywords: beef cattle, by-products, carcass quality, growth performance

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