Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7408

Search results for: equation of state

7408 Modification of Rk Equation of State for Liquid and Vapor of Ammonia by Genetic Algorithm

Authors: S. Mousavian, F. Mousavian, V. Nikkhah Rashidabad


Cubic equations of state like Redlich–Kwong (RK) EOS have been proved to be very reliable tools in the prediction of phase behavior. Despite their good performance in compositional calculations, they usually suffer from weaknesses in the predictions of saturated liquid density. In this research, RK equation was modified. The result of this study shows that modified equation has good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: equation of state, modification, ammonia, genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
7407 State Estimation Based on Unscented Kalman Filter for Burgers’ Equation

Authors: Takashi Shimizu, Tomoaki Hashimoto


Controlling the flow of fluids is a challenging problem that arises in many fields. Burgers’ equation is a fundamental equation for several flow phenomena such as traffic, shock waves, and turbulence. The optimal feedback control method, so-called model predictive control, has been proposed for Burgers’ equation. However, the model predictive control method is inapplicable to systems whose all state variables are not exactly known. In practical point of view, it is unusual that all the state variables of systems are exactly known, because the state variables of systems are measured through output sensors and limited parts of them can be only available. In fact, it is usual that flow velocities of fluid systems cannot be measured for all spatial domains. Hence, any practical feedback controller for fluid systems must incorporate some type of state estimator. To apply the model predictive control to the fluid systems described by Burgers’ equation, it is needed to establish a state estimation method for Burgers’ equation with limited measurable state variables. To this purpose, we apply unscented Kalman filter for estimating the state variables of fluid systems described by Burgers’ equation. The objective of this study is to establish a state estimation method based on unscented Kalman filter for Burgers’ equation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.

Keywords: observer systems, unscented Kalman filter, nonlinear systems, Burgers' equation

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7406 Differentiation of the Functional in an Optimization Problem for Coefficients of Elliptic Equations with Unbounded Nonlinearity

Authors: Aigul Manapova


We consider an optimal control problem in the higher coefficient of nonlinear equations with a divergent elliptic operator and unbounded nonlinearity, and the Dirichlet boundary condition. The conditions imposed on the coefficients of the state equation are assumed to hold only in a small neighborhood of the exact solution to the original problem. This assumption suggests that the state equation involves nonlinearities of unlimited growth and considerably expands the class of admissible functions as solutions of the state equation. We obtain formulas for the first partial derivatives of the objective functional with respect to the control functions. To calculate the gradients the numerical solutions of the state and adjoint problems are used. We also prove that the gradient of the cost function is Lipchitz continuous.

Keywords: cost functional, differentiability, divergent elliptic operator, optimal control, unbounded nonlinearity

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7405 Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of N-Heptane in the Critical Region

Authors: Sabrina Ladjama, Aicha Rizi, Azzedine Abbaci


In this work, we use the crossover model to formulate a comprehensive fundamental equation of state for the thermodynamic properties for several n-alkanes in the critical region that extends to the classical region. This equation of state is constructed on the basis of comparison of selected measurements of pressure-density-temperature data, isochoric and isobaric heat capacity. The model can be applied in a wide range of temperatures and densities around the critical point for n-heptane. It is found that the developed model represents most of the reliable experimental data accurately.

Keywords: crossover model, critical region, fundamental equation, n-heptane

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
7404 Effect of Gaseous Imperfections on the Supersonic Flow Parameters for Air in Nozzles

Authors: Merouane Salhi, Toufik Zebbiche


When the stagnation pressure of perfect gas increases, the specific heat and their ratio do not remain constant anymore and start to vary with this pressure. The gas doesn’t remain perfect. Its state equation change and it becomes for a real gas. In this case, the effects of molecular size and intermolecular attraction forces intervene to correct the state equation. The aim of this work is to show and discuss the effect of stagnation pressure on supersonic thermodynamical, physical and geometrical flow parameters, to find a general case for real gas. With the assumptions that Berthelot’s state equation accounts for the molecular size and intermolecular force effects, expressions are developed for analyzing supersonic flow for thermally and calorically imperfect gas lower than the dissociation molecules threshold. The designs parameters for supersonic nozzle like thrust coefficient depend directly on stagnation parameters of the combustion chamber. The application is for air. A computation of error is made in this case to give a limit of perfect gas model compared to real gas model.

Keywords: supersonic flow, real gas model, Berthelot’s state equation, Simpson’s method, condensation function, stagnation pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
7403 Steady-State Behavior of a Multi-Phase M/M/1 Queue in Random Evolution Subject to Catastrophe Failure

Authors: Reni M. Sagayaraj, Anand Gnana S. Selvam, Reynald R. Susainathan


In this paper, we consider stochastic queueing models for Steady-state behavior of a multi-phase M/M/1 queue in random evolution subject to catastrophe failure. The arrival flow of customers is described by a marked Markovian arrival process. The service times of different type customers have a phase-type distribution with different parameters. To facilitate the investigation of the system we use a generalized phase-type service time distribution. This model contains a repair state, when a catastrophe occurs the system is transferred to the failure state. The paper focuses on the steady-state equation, and observes that, the steady-state behavior of the underlying queueing model along with the average queue size is analyzed.

Keywords: M/G/1 queuing system, multi-phase, random evolution, steady-state equation, catastrophe failure

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7402 A New Nonlinear State-Space Model and Its Application

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei


In this work, a new nonlinear model will be introduced. The model is in the state-space form. The nonlinearity of this model is in the state equation where the state vector is multiplied by its self. This technique makes our model generalizes many famous models as Lotka-Volterra model and Lorenz model which have many applications in the real life. We will apply our new model to estimate the wind speed by using a new nonlinear estimator which suitable to work with our model.

Keywords: nonlinear systems, state-space model, Kronecker product, nonlinear estimator

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7401 Analyzing Boson Star as a Candidate for Dark Galaxy Using ADM Formulation of General Relativity

Authors: Aria Ratmandanu


Boson stars can be viewed as zero temperature ground state, Bose-Einstein condensates, characterized by enormous occupation numbers. Time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime can be a model of Boson Star. We use (3+1) split of Einstein equation (ADM formulation of general relativity) to solve Einstein field equation coupled to a complex scalar field (Einstein-Klein-Gordon Equation) on time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime, We get the result that Boson stars are pulsating stars with the frequency of oscillation equal to its density. We search for interior solution of Boson stars and get the T.O.V. (Tollman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff) equation for Boson stars. Using T.O.V. equation, we get the equation of state and the relation between pressure and density, its total mass and along with its gravitational Mass. We found that the hypothetical particle Axion could form a Boson star with the size of a milky way galaxy and make it a candidate for a dark galaxy, (a galaxy that consists almost entirely of dark matter).

Keywords: axion, boson star, dark galaxy, time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime

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7400 Thermal and Caloric Imperfections Effect on the Supersonic Flow Parameters with Application for Air in Nozzles

Authors: Merouane Salhi, Toufik Zebbiche, Omar Abada


When the stagnation pressure of perfect gas increases, the specific heat and their ratio do not remain constant anymore and start to vary with this pressure. The gas does not remain perfect. Its state equation change and it becomes a real gas. In this case, the effects of molecular size and inter molecular attraction forces intervene to correct the state equation. The aim of this work is to show and discuss the effect of stagnation pressure on supersonic thermo dynamical, physical and geometrical flow parameters, to find a general case for real gas. With the assumptions that Berthelot’s state equation accounts for molecular size and inter molecular force effects, expressions are developed for analyzing supersonic flow for thermally and calorically imperfect gas lower than the dissociation molecules threshold. The designs parameters for supersonic nozzle like thrust coefficient depend directly on stagnation parameters of the combustion chamber. The application is for air. A computation of error is made in this case to give a limit of perfect gas model compared to real gas model.

Keywords: supersonic flow, real gas model, Berthelot’s state equation, Simpson’s method, condensation function, stagnation pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
7399 Exact Solutions for Steady Response of Nonlinear Systems under Non-White Excitation

Authors: Yaping Zhao


In the present study, the exact solutions for the steady response of quasi-linear systems under non-white wide-band random excitation are considered by means of the stochastic averaging method. The non linearity of the systems contains the power-law damping and the cross-product term of the power-law damping and displacement. The drift and diffusion coefficients of the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation after averaging are obtained by a succinct approach. After solving the averaged FPK equation, the joint probability density function and the marginal probability density function in steady state are attained. In the process of resolving, the eigenvalue problem of ordinary differential equation is handled by integral equation method. Some new results are acquired and the novel method to deal with the problems in nonlinear random vibration is proposed.

Keywords: random vibration, stochastic averaging method, FPK equation, transition probability density

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7398 Theoretical Analysis of the Solid State and Optical Characteristics of Calcium Sulpide Thin Film

Authors: Emmanuel Ifeanyi Ugwu


Calcium Sulphide which is one of Chalcogenide group of thin films has been analyzed in this work using a theoretical approach in which a scalar wave was propagated through the material thin film medium deposited on a glass substrate with the assumption that the dielectric medium has homogenous reference dielectric constant term, and a perturbed dielectric function, representing the deposited thin film medium on the surface of the glass substrate as represented in this work. These were substituted into a defined scalar wave equation that was solved first of all by transforming it into Volterra equation of second type and solved using the method of separation of variable on scalar wave and subsequently, Green’s function technique was introduced to obtain a model equation of wave propagating through the thin film that was invariably used in computing the propagated field, for different input wavelengths representing UV, Visible and Near-infrared regions of field considering the influence of the dielectric constants of the thin film on the propagating field. The results obtained were used in turn to compute the band gaps, solid state and optical properties of the thin film.

Keywords: scalar wave, dielectric constant, calcium sulphide, solid state, optical properties

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7397 Asymptotic Expansion of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers Equation

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu


It is common knowledge that many physical problems (such as non-linear shallow-water waves and wave motion in plasmas) can be described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, which possesses certain special solutions, known as solitary waves or solitons. As a marriage of the KdV equation and the classical Burgers (KdVB) equation, the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation is a mathematical model of waves on shallow water surfaces in the presence of viscous dissipation. Asymptotic analysis is a method of describing limiting behavior and is a key tool for exploring the differential equations which arise in the mathematical modeling of real-world phenomena. By using variable transformations, the asymptotic expansion of the KdVB equation is presented in this paper. The asymptotic expansion may provide a good gauge on the validation of the corresponding numerical scheme.

Keywords: asymptotic expansion, differential equation, Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation, soliton

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7396 Linearization of Y-Force Equation of Rigid Body Equation of Motion and Behavior of Fighter Aircraft under Imbalance Weight on Wings during Combat

Authors: Jawad Zakir, Syed Irtiza Ali Shah, Rana Shaharyar, Sidra Mahmood


Y-force equation comprises aerodynamic forces, drag and side force with side slip angle β and weight component along with the coupled roll (φ) and pitch angles (θ). This research deals with the linearization of Y-force equation using Small Disturbance theory assuming equilibrium flight conditions for different state variables of aircraft. By using assumptions of Small Disturbance theory in non-linear Y-force equation, finally reached at linearized lateral rigid body equation of motion; which says that in linearized Y-force equation, the lateral acceleration is dependent on the other different aerodynamic and propulsive forces like vertical tail, change in roll rate (Δp) from equilibrium, change in yaw rate (Δr) from equilibrium, change in lateral velocity due to side force, drag and side force components due to side slip, and the lateral equation from coupled rotating frame to decoupled rotating frame. This paper describes implementation of this lateral linearized equation for aircraft control systems. Another significant parameter considered on which y-force equation depends is ‘c’ which shows that any change bought in the weight of aircrafts wing will cause Δφ and cause lateral force i.e. Y_c. This simplification also leads to lateral static and dynamic stability. The linearization of equations is required because much of mathematics control system design for aircraft is based on linear equations. This technique is simple and eases the linearization of the rigid body equations of motion without using any high-speed computers.

Keywords: Y-force linearization, small disturbance theory, side slip, aerodynamic force drag, lateral rigid body equation of motion

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7395 An Analytical Method for Solving General Riccati Equation

Authors: Y. Pala, M. O. Ertas


In this paper, the general Riccati equation is analytically solved by a new transformation. By the method developed, looking at the transformed equation, whether or not an explicit solution can be obtained is readily determined. Since the present method does not require a proper solution for the general solution, it is especially suitable for equations whose proper solutions cannot be seen at first glance. Since the transformed second order linear equation obtained by the present transformation has the simplest form that it can have, it is immediately seen whether or not the original equation can be solved analytically. The present method is exemplified by several examples.

Keywords: Riccati equation, analytical solution, proper solution, nonlinear

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7394 Image Transform Based on Integral Equation-Wavelet Approach

Authors: Yuan Yan Tang, Lina Yang, Hong Li


Harmonic model is a very important approximation for the image transform. The harmanic model converts an image into arbitrary shape; however, this mode cannot be described by any fixed functions in mathematics. In fact, it is represented by partial differential equation (PDE) with boundary conditions. Therefore, to develop an efficient method to solve such a PDE is extremely significant in the image transform. In this paper, a novel Integral Equation-Wavelet based method is presented, which consists of three steps: (1) The partial differential equation is converted into boundary integral equation and representation by an indirect method. (2) The boundary integral equation and representation are changed to plane integral equation and representation by boundary measure formula. (3) The plane integral equation and representation are then solved by a method we call wavelet collocation. Our approach has two main advantages, the shape of an image is arbitrary and the program code is independent of the boundary. The performance of our method is evaluated by numerical experiments.

Keywords: harmonic model, partial differential equation (PDE), integral equation, integral representation, boundary measure formula, wavelet collocation

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7393 Second Order Solitary Solutions to the Hodgkin-Huxley Equation

Authors: Tadas Telksnys, Zenonas Navickas, Minvydas Ragulskis


Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of second order solitary solutions to the Hodgkin-Huxley equation are derived in this paper. The generalized multiplicative operator of differentiation helps not only to construct closed-form solitary solutions but also automatically generates conditions of their existence in the space of the equation's parameters and initial conditions. It is demonstrated that bright, kink-type solitons and solitary solutions with singularities can exist in the Hodgkin-Huxley equation.

Keywords: Hodgkin-Huxley equation, solitary solution, existence condition, operator method

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7392 Study of Cahn-Hilliard Equation to Simulate Phase Separation

Authors: Nara Guimarães, Marcelo Aquino Martorano, Douglas Gouvêa


An investigation into Cahn-Hilliard equation was carried out through numerical simulation to identify a possible phase separation for one and two dimensional domains. It was observed that this equation can reproduce important mass fluxes necessary for phase separation within the miscibility gap and for coalescence of particles.

Keywords: Cahn-Hilliard equation, miscibility gap, phase separation, dimensional domains

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7391 Study and Solving Partial Differential Equation of Danel Equation in the Vibration Shells

Authors: Hesamoddin Abdollahpour, Roghayeh Abdollahpour, Elham Rahgozar


This paper we deal with an analysis of the free vibrations of the governing partial differential equation that it is Danel equation in the shells. The problem considered represents the governing equation of the nonlinear, large amplitude free vibrations of the hinged shell. A new implementation of the new method is presented to obtain natural frequency and corresponding displacement on the shell. Our purpose is to enhance the ability to solve the mentioned complicated partial differential equation (PDE) with a simple and innovative approach. The results reveal that this new method to solve Danel equation is very effective and simple, and can be applied to other nonlinear partial differential equations. It is necessary to mention that there are some valuable advantages in this way of solving nonlinear differential equations and also most of the sets of partial differential equations can be answered in this manner which in the other methods they have not had acceptable solutions up to now. We can solve equation(s), and consequently, there is no need to utilize similarity solutions which make the solution procedure a time-consuming task.

Keywords: large amplitude, free vibrations, analytical solution, Danell Equation, diagram of phase plane

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7390 A Parallel Poromechanics Finite Element Method (FEM) Model for Reservoir Analyses

Authors: Henrique C. C. Andrade, Ana Beatriz C. G. Silva, Fernando Luiz B. Ribeiro, Samir Maghous, Jose Claudio F. Telles, Eduardo M. R. Fairbairn


The present paper aims at developing a parallel computational model for numerical simulation of poromechanics analyses of heterogeneous reservoirs. In the context of macroscopic poroelastoplasticity, the hydromechanical coupling between the skeleton deformation and the fluid pressure is addressed by means of two constitutive equations. The first state equation relates the stress to skeleton strain and pore pressure, while the second state equation relates the Lagrangian porosity change to skeleton volume strain and pore pressure. A specific algorithm for local plastic integration using a tangent operator is devised. A modified Cam-clay type yield surface with associated plastic flow rule is adopted to account for both contractive and dilative behavior.

Keywords: finite element method, poromechanics, poroplasticity, reservoir analysis

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7389 Exact Solutions of a Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation with Kerr Law Nonlinearity

Authors: Muna Alghabshi, Edmana Krishnan


A nonlinear Schrodinger equation has been considered for solving by mapping methods in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions (JEFs). The equation under consideration has a linear evolution term, linear and nonlinear dispersion terms, the Kerr law nonlinearity term and three terms representing the contribution of meta materials. This equation which has applications in optical fibers is found to have soliton solutions, shock wave solutions, and singular wave solutions when the modulus of the JEFs approach 1 which is the infinite period limit. The equation with special values of the parameters has also been solved using the tanh method.

Keywords: Jacobi elliptic function, mapping methods, nonlinear Schrodinger Equation, tanh method

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7388 Divergence Regularization Method for Solving Ill-Posed Cauchy Problem for the Helmholtz Equation

Authors: Benedict Barnes, Anthony Y. Aidoo


A Divergence Regularization Method (DRM) is used to regularize the ill-posed Helmholtz equation where the boundary deflection is inhomogeneous in a Hilbert space H. The DRM incorporates a positive integer scaler which homogenizes the inhomogeneous boundary deflection in Cauchy problem of the Helmholtz equation. This ensures the existence, as well as, uniqueness of solution for the equation. The DRM restores all the three conditions of well-posedness in the sense of Hadamard.

Keywords: divergence regularization method, Helmholtz equation, ill-posed inhomogeneous Cauchy boundary conditions

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7387 Membrane Distillation Process Modeling: Dynamical Approach

Authors: Fadi Eleiwi, Taous Meriem Laleg-Kirati


This paper presents a complete dynamic modeling of a membrane distillation process. The model contains two consistent dynamic models. A 2D advection-diffusion equation for modeling the whole process and a modified heat equation for modeling the membrane itself. The complete model describes the temperature diffusion phenomenon across the feed, membrane, permeate containers and boundary layers of the membrane. It gives an online and complete temperature profile for each point in the domain. It explains heat conduction and convection mechanisms that take place inside the process in terms of mathematical parameters, and justify process behavior during transient and steady state phases. The process is monitored for any sudden change in the performance at any instance of time. In addition, it assists maintaining production rates as desired, and gives recommendations during membrane fabrication stages. System performance and parameters can be optimized and controlled using this complete dynamic model. Evolution of membrane boundary temperature with time, vapor mass transfer along the process, and temperature difference between membrane boundary layers are depicted and included. Simulations were performed over the complete model with real membrane specifications. The plots show consistency between 2D advection-diffusion model and the expected behavior of the systems as well as literature. Evolution of heat inside the membrane starting from transient response till reaching steady state response for fixed and varying times is illustrated.

Keywords: membrane distillation, dynamical modeling, advection-diffusion equation, thermal equilibrium, heat equation

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7386 Analytic Hierarchy Process and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Selecting the Most Effective Soil Erosion Zone in Gomati River Basin

Authors: Rajesh Chakraborty, Dibyendu Das, Rabindra Nath Barman, Uttam Kumar Mandal


In the present study, the objective is to find out the most effective zone causing soil erosion in the Gumati river basin located in the state of Tripura, a north eastern state of India using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA).The watershed is segmented into 20 zones based on Area. The watershed is considered by pointing the maximum elevation from sea lever from Google earth. The soil erosion is determined using the universal soil loss equation. The different independent variables of soil loss equation bear different weightage for different soil zones. And therefore, to find the weightage factor for all the variables of soil loss equation like rainfall runoff erosivity index, soil erodibility factor etc, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used. And thereafter, multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA) approach is used to select the most effective zone causing soil erosion. The MCDM technique concludes that the maximum soil erosion is occurring in the zone 14.

Keywords: soil erosion, analytic hierarchy process (AHP), multi criteria decision making (MCDM), universal soil loss equation (USLE), multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA)

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7385 Correlation and Prediction of Biodiesel Density

Authors: Nieves M. C. Talavera-Prieto, Abel G. M. Ferreira, António T. G. Portugal, Rui J. Moreira, Jaime B. Santos


The knowledge of biodiesel density over large ranges of temperature and pressure is important for predicting the behavior of fuel injection and combustion systems in diesel engines, and for the optimization of such systems. In this study, cottonseed oil was transesterified into biodiesel and its density was measured at temperatures between 288 K and 358 K and pressures between 0.1 MPa and 30 MPa, with expanded uncertainty estimated as ±1.6 kg.m^-3. Experimental pressure-volume-temperature (pVT) cottonseed data was used along with literature data relative to other 18 biodiesels, in order to build a database used to test the correlation of density with temperarure and pressure using the Goharshadi–Morsali–Abbaspour equation of state (GMA EoS). To our knowledge, this is the first that density measurements are presented for cottonseed biodiesel under such high pressures, and the GMA EoS used to model biodiesel density. The new tested EoS allowed correlations within 0.2 kg•m-3 corresponding to average relative deviations within 0.02%. The built database was used to develop and test a new full predictive model derived from the observed linear relation between density and degree of unsaturation (DU), which depended from biodiesel FAMEs profile. The average density deviation of this method was only about 3 kg.m-3 within the temperature and pressure limits of application. These results represent appreciable improvements in the context of density prediction at high pressure when compared with other equations of state.

Keywords: biodiesel density, correlation, equation of state, prediction

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7384 A General Form of Characteristics Method Applied on Minimum Length Nozzles Design

Authors: Merouane Salhi, Mohamed Roudane, Abdelkader Kirad


In this work, we present a new form of characteristics method, which is a technique for solving partial differential equations. Typically, it applies to first-order equations; the aim of this method is to reduce a partial differential equation to a family of ordinary differential equations along which the solution can be integrated from some initial data. This latter developed under the real gas theory, because when the thermal and the caloric imperfections of a gas increases, the specific heat and their ratio do not remain constant anymore and start to vary with the gas parameters. The gas doesn’t stay perfect. Its state equation change and it becomes for a real gas. The presented equations of the characteristics remain valid whatever area or field of study. Here we need have inserted the developed Prandtl Meyer function in the mathematical system to find a new model when the effect of stagnation pressure is taken into account. In this case, the effects of molecular size and intermolecular attraction forces intervene to correct the state equation, the thermodynamic parameters and the value of Prandtl Meyer function. However, with the assumptions that Berthelot’s state equation accounts for molecular size and intermolecular force effects, expressions are developed for analyzing the supersonic flow for thermally and calorically imperfect gas. The supersonic parameters depend directly on the stagnation parameters of the combustion chamber. The resolution has been made by the finite differences method using the corrector predictor algorithm. As results, the developed mathematical model used to design 2D minimum length nozzles under effect of the stagnation parameters of fluid flow. A comparison for air with the perfect gas PG and high temperature models on the one hand and our results by the real gas theory on the other of nozzles shapes and characteristics are made.

Keywords: numerical methods, nozzles design, real gas, stagnation parameters, supersonic expansion, the characteristics method

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7383 Solution of the Nonrelativistic Radial Wave Equation of Hydrogen Atom Using the Green's Function Approach

Authors: F. U. Rahman, R. Q. Zhang


This work aims to develop a systematic numerical technique which can be easily extended to many-body problem. The Lippmann Schwinger equation (integral form of the Schrodinger wave equation) is solved for the nonrelativistic radial wave of hydrogen atom using iterative integration scheme. As the unknown wave function appears on both sides of the Lippmann Schwinger equation, therefore an approximate wave function is used in order to solve the equation. The Green’s function is obtained by the method of Laplace transform for the radial wave equation with excluded potential term. Using the Lippmann Schwinger equation, the product of approximate wave function, the Green’s function and the potential term is integrated iteratively. Finally, the wave function is normalized and plotted against the standard radial wave for comparison. The outcome wave function converges to the standard wave function with the increasing number of iteration. Results are verified for the first fifteen states of hydrogen atom. The method is efficient and consistent and can be applied to complex systems in future.

Keywords: Green’s function, hydrogen atom, Lippmann Schwinger equation, radial wave

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7382 A Study of Non Linear Partial Differential Equation with Random Initial Condition

Authors: Ayaz Ahmad


In this work, we present the effect of noise on the solution of a partial differential equation (PDE) in three different setting. We shall first consider random initial condition for two nonlinear dispersive PDE the non linear Schrodinger equation and the Kortteweg –de vries equation and analyse their effect on some special solution , the soliton solutions.The second case considered a linear partial differential equation , the wave equation with random initial conditions allow to substantially decrease the computational and data storage costs of an algorithm to solve the inverse problem based on the boundary measurements of the solution of this equation. Finally, the third example considered is that of the linear transport equation with a singular drift term, when we shall show that the addition of a multiplicative noise term forbids the blow up of solutions under a very weak hypothesis for which we have finite time blow up of a solution in the deterministic case. Here we consider the problem of wave propagation, which is modelled by a nonlinear dispersive equation with noisy initial condition .As observed noise can also be introduced directly in the equations.

Keywords: drift term, finite time blow up, inverse problem, soliton solution

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7381 Exact Soliton Solutions of the Integrable (2+1)-Dimensional Fokas-Lenells Equation

Authors: Meruyert Zhassybayeva, Kuralay Yesmukhanova, Ratbay Myrzakulov


Integrable nonlinear differential equations are an important class of nonlinear wave equations that admit exact soliton solutions. All these equations have an amazing property which is that their soliton waves collide elastically. One of such equations is the (1+1)-dimensional Fokas-Lenells equation. In this paper, we have constructed an integrable (2+1)-dimensional Fokas-Lenells equation. The integrability of this equation is ensured by the existence of a Lax representation for it. We obtained its bilinear form from the Hirota method. Using the Hirota method, exact one-soliton and two-soliton solutions of the (2 +1)-dimensional Fokas-Lenells equation were found.

Keywords: Fokas-Lenells equation, integrability, soliton, the Hirota bilinear method

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7380 Chern-Simons Equation in Financial Theory and Time-Series Analysis

Authors: Ognjen Vukovic


Chern-Simons equation represents the cornerstone of quantum physics. The question that is often asked is if the aforementioned equation can be successfully applied to the interaction in international financial markets. By analysing the time series in financial theory, it is proved that Chern-Simons equation can be successfully applied to financial time-series. The aforementioned statement is based on one important premise and that is that the financial time series follow the fractional Brownian motion. All variants of Chern-Simons equation and theory are applied and analysed. Financial theory time series movement is, firstly, topologically analysed. The main idea is that exchange rate represents two-dimensional projections of three-dimensional Brownian motion movement. Main principles of knot theory and topology are applied to financial time series and setting is created so the Chern-Simons equation can be applied. As Chern-Simons equation is based on small particles, it is multiplied by the magnifying factor to mimic the real world movement. Afterwards, the following equation is optimised using Solver. The equation is applied to n financial time series in order to see if it can capture the interaction between financial time series and consequently explain it. The aforementioned equation represents a novel approach to financial time series analysis and hopefully it will direct further research.

Keywords: Brownian motion, Chern-Simons theory, financial time series, econophysics

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7379 Fixed Point Iteration of a Damped and Unforced Duffing's Equation

Authors: Paschal A. Ochang, Emmanuel C. Oji


The Duffing’s Equation is a second order system that is very important because they are fundamental to the behaviour of higher order systems and they have applications in almost all fields of science and engineering. In the biological area, it is useful in plant stem dependence and natural frequency and model of the Brain Crash Analysis (BCA). In Engineering, it is useful in the study of Damping indoor construction and Traffic lights and to the meteorologist it is used in the prediction of weather conditions. However, most Problems in real life that occur are non-linear in nature and may not have analytical solutions except approximations or simulations, so trying to find an exact explicit solution may in general be complicated and sometimes impossible. Therefore we aim to find out if it is possible to obtain one analytical fixed point to the non-linear ordinary equation using fixed point analytical method. We started by exposing the scope of the Duffing’s equation and other related works on it. With a major focus on the fixed point and fixed point iterative scheme, we tried different iterative schemes on the Duffing’s Equation. We were able to identify that one can only see the fixed points to a Damped Duffing’s Equation and not to the Undamped Duffing’s Equation. This is because the cubic nonlinearity term is the determining factor to the Duffing’s Equation. We finally came to the results where we identified the stability of an equation that is damped, forced and second order in nature. Generally, in this research, we approximate the solution of Duffing’s Equation by converting it to a system of First and Second Order Ordinary Differential Equation and using Fixed Point Iterative approach. This approach shows that for different versions of Duffing’s Equations (damped), we find fixed points, therefore the order of computations and running time of applied software in all fields using the Duffing’s equation will be reduced.

Keywords: damping, Duffing's equation, fixed point analysis, second order differential, stability analysis

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