Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7526

Search results for: reconfigurable radio systems

7526 Preliminary Findings from a Research Survey on Evolution of Software Defined Radio

Authors: M. Srilatha, R. Hemalatha, T. Sri Aditya

Abstract:

Communication of today world is dominated by wireless technology. This is mainly due to the revolutionary development of new wireless communication system generations. The evolving new generations of wireless systems are accommodating the demand through better resource management including improved transmission technologies with optimized communication devices. To keep up with the evolution of technologies, the communication systems must be designed to optimize transparent insertion of newly evolved technologies virtually at all stages of their life cycle. After the insertion of new technologies, the upgraded devices should continue the communication without squalor in quality. The concern of improving spectrum access and spectrum efficiency combined with both the introduction of Software Defined Radios (SDR) and the possibility of the software application to radios has led to an evolution of wireless radio research. The software defined radio term was coined in the 1970s to overcome the problems in the application of software to wireless radios which eliminates the requirement of hardware changes. SDR has become the prime theme of research since it eliminates the drawbacks associated with conventional wireless communication systems implementation. This paper identifies and discusses key enabling technologies and possibility of research and development in SDRs. In addition transmitter and receiver architectures of SDR are also discussed along with their feasibility for reconfigurable radio application.

Keywords: software defined radios, wireless communication, reconfigurable, reconfigurable transmitter, reconfigurable receivers, FPGA, DSP

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
7525 A Survey of Baseband Architecture for Software Defined Radio

Authors: M. A. Fodha, H. Benfradj, A. Ghazel

Abstract:

This paper is a survey of recent works that proposes a baseband processor architecture for software defined radio. A classification of different approaches is proposed. The performance of each architecture is also discussed in order to clarify the suitable approaches that meet software-defined radio constraints.

Keywords: multi-core architectures, reconfigurable architectures, software defined radio, baseband processor

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
7524 A Cloud-Based Spectrum Database Approach for Licensed Shared Spectrum Access

Authors: Hazem Abd El Megeed, Mohamed El-Refaay, Norhan Magdi Osman

Abstract:

Spectrum scarcity is a challenging obstacle in wireless communications systems. It hinders the introduction of innovative wireless services and technologies that require larger bandwidth comparing to legacy technologies. In addition, the current worldwide allocation of radio spectrum bands is already congested and can not afford additional squeezing or optimization to accommodate new wireless technologies. This challenge is a result of accumulative contributions from different factors that will be discussed later in this paper. One of these factors is the radio spectrum allocation policy governed by national regulatory authorities nowadays. The framework for this policy allocates specified portion of radio spectrum to a particular wireless service provider on exclusive utilization basis. This allocation is executed according to technical specification determined by the standard bodies of each Radio Access Technology (RAT). Dynamic access of spectrum is a framework for flexible utilization of radio spectrum resources. In this framework there is no exclusive allocation of radio spectrum and even the public safety agencies can share their spectrum bands according to a governing policy and service level agreements. In this paper, we explore different methods for accessing the spectrum dynamically and its associated implementation challenges.

Keywords: licensed shared access, cognitive radio, spectrum sharing, spectrum congestion, dynamic spectrum access, spectrum database, spectrum trading, reconfigurable radio systems, opportunistic spectrum allocation (OSA)

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7523 Improving the Frequency Response of a Circular Dual-Mode Resonator with a Reconfigurable Bandwidth

Authors: Muhammad Haitham Albahnassi, Adnan Malki, Shokri Almekdad

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for reconfiguring bandwidth in a circular dual-mode resonator is presented. The method concerns the optimized geometry of a structure that may be used to host the tuning elements, which are typically RF (Radio Frequency) switches. The tuning elements themselves, and their performance during tuning, are not the focus of this paper. The designed resonator is able to reconfigure its fractional bandwidth by adjusting the inter-coupling level between the degenerate modes, while at the same time improving its response by adjusting the external-coupling level and keeping the center frequency fixed. The inter-coupling level has been adjusted by changing the dimensions of the perturbation element, while the external-coupling level has been adjusted by changing one of the feeder dimensions. The design was arrived at via optimization. Agreeing simulation and measurement results of the designed and implemented filters showed good improvements in return loss values and the stability of the center frequency.

Keywords: dual-mode resonators, perturbation theory, reconfigurable filters, software defined radio, cognitine radio

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
7522 Design and Implementation of Wave-Pipelined Circuit Using Reconfigurable Technique

Authors: Adhinarayanan Venkatasubramanian

Abstract:

For design of high speed digital circuit wave pipeline is the best approach this can be operated at higher operating frequencies by adjusting clock periods and skews so as latch the o/p of combinational logic circuit at the stable period. In this paper, there are two methods are proposed in automation task one is BIST (Built in self test) and second method is Reconfigurable technique. For the above two approaches dedicated AND gate (multiplier) by applying wave pipeline technique. BIST approach is implemented by Xilinx Spartan-II device. In reconfigurable technique done by ASIC. From the results, wave pipeline circuits are faster than nonpipeline circuit and area, power dissipation are reduced by reconfigurable technique.

Keywords: SOC, wave-pipelining, FPGA, self-testing, reconfigurable, ASIC

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
7521 Reconfigurable Multiband Meandered Line Antenna

Authors: D. Rama Krishna, Y. Pandu Rangaiah

Abstract:

This paper presents the design of multiband reconfigurable antenna using PIN diodes for four iterations and all the four iterations have been validated by measuring return loss and pattern measurements of developed prototype antenna. The simulated and experimental data have demonstrated the concepts of a multiband reconfigurable antenna by switching OFF and ON of PIN diodes for multiple band frequencies. The technique has taken the advantage of a different number of radiating lengths with the use of PIN diode switches, each configuration resonating at multiband frequencies.

Keywords: frequency reconfigurable, meandered line multiband antenna, PIN diode, multiband frequencies

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7520 Role of Discrete Event Simulation in the Assessment and Selection of the Potential Reconfigurable Manufacturing Solutions

Authors: Mohsin Raza, Arne Bilberg, Thomas Ditlev Brunø, Ann-Louise Andersen, Filip SKärin

Abstract:

Shifting from a dedicated or flexible manufacturing system to a reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) requires a significant amount of time, money, and effort. Therefore, it is vital to verify beforehand that the potential reconfigurable solution will be able to achieve the organizational objectives. Discrete event simulation offers the opportunity of assessing several reconfigurable alternatives against the set objectives. This study signifies the importance of using discrete-event simulation as a tool to verify several reconfiguration options. Two different industrial cases have been presented in the study to elaborate on the role of discrete event simulation in the implementation methodology of RMSs. The study concluded that discrete event simulation is one of the important tools to consider in the RMS implementation methodology.

Keywords: reconfigurable manufacturing system, discrete event simulation, Tecnomatix plant simulation, RMS

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7519 A Low-Area Fully-Reconfigurable Hardware Design of Fast Fourier Transform System for 3GPP-LTE Standard

Authors: Xin-Yu Shih, Yue-Qu Liu, Hong-Ru Chou

Abstract:

This paper presents a low-area and fully-reconfigurable Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) hardware design for 3GPP-LTE communication standard. It can fully support 32 different FFT sizes, up to 2048 FFT points. Besides, a special processing element is developed for making reconfigurable computing characteristics possible, while first-in first-out (FIFO) scheduling scheme design technique is proposed for hardware-friendly FIFO resource arranging. In a synthesis chip realization via TSMC 40 nm CMOS technology, the hardware circuit only occupies core area of 0.2325 mm2 and dissipates 233.5 mW at maximal operating frequency of 250 MHz.

Keywords: reconfigurable, fast Fourier transform (FFT), single-path delay feedback (SDF), 3GPP-LTE

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7518 A Middleware Management System with Supporting Holonic Modules for Reconfigurable Management System

Authors: Roscoe McLean, Jared Padayachee, Glen Bright

Abstract:

There is currently a gap in the technology covering the rapid establishment of control after a reconfiguration in a Reconfigurable Manufacturing System. This gap involves the detection of the factory floor state and the communication link between the factory floor and the high-level software. In this paper, a thin, hardware-supported Middleware Management System (MMS) is proposed and its design and implementation are discussed. The research found that a cost-effective localization technique can be combined with intelligent software to speed up the ramp-up of a reconfigured system. The MMS makes the process more intelligent, more efficient and less time-consuming, thus supporting the industrial implementation of the RMS paradigm.

Keywords: intelligent systems, middleware, reconfigurable manufacturing, management system

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7517 Attribute Based Comparison and Selection of Modular Self-Reconfigurable Robot Using Multiple Attribute Decision Making Approach

Authors: Manpreet Singh, V. P. Agrawal, Gurmanjot Singh Bhatti

Abstract:

From the last decades, there is a significant technological advancement in the field of robotics, and a number of modular self-reconfigurable robots were introduced that can help in space exploration, bucket to stuff, search, and rescue operation during earthquake, etc. As there are numbers of self-reconfigurable robots, choosing the optimum one is always a concern for robot user since there is an increase in available features, facilities, complexity, etc. The objective of this research work is to present a multiple attribute decision making based methodology for coding, evaluation, comparison ranking and selection of modular self-reconfigurable robots using a technique for order preferences by similarity to ideal solution approach. However, 86 attributes that affect the structure and performance are identified. A database for modular self-reconfigurable robot on the basis of different pertinent attribute is generated. This database is very useful for the user, for selecting a robot that suits their operational needs. Two visual methods namely linear graph and spider chart are proposed for ranking of modular self-reconfigurable robots. Using five robots (Atron, Smores, Polybot, M-Tran 3, Superbot), an example is illustrated, and raking of the robots is successfully done, which shows that Smores is the best robot for the operational need illustrated, and this methodology is found to be very effective and simple to use.

Keywords: self-reconfigurable robots, MADM, TOPSIS, morphogenesis, scalability

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7516 Bandwidth Control Using Reconfigurable Antenna Elements

Authors: Sudhina H. K, Ravi M. Yadahalli, N. M. Shetti

Abstract:

Reconfigurable antennas represent a recent innovation in antenna design that changes from classical fixed-form, Fixed function antennas to modifiable structures that can be adapted to fit the requirements of a time varying system. The ability to control the operating band of an antenna system can have many useful applications. Systems that operate in an acquire-and-track configuration would see a benefit from active bandwidth control. In such systems a wide band search mode is first employed to find a desired signal, Then a narrow band track mode is used to follow only that signal. Utilizing active antenna bandwidth control, A single antenna would function for both the wide band and narrow band configurations providing the rejection of unwanted signals with the antenna hardware. This ability to move a portion of the RF filtering out of the receiver and onto the antenna itself will also aid in reducing the complexity of the often expensive RF processing subsystems.

Keywords: designing methods, mems, stack, reconfigurable elements

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7515 UWB Open Spectrum Access for a Smart Software Radio

Authors: Hemalatha Rallapalli, K. Lal Kishore

Abstract:

In comparison to systems that are typically designed to provide capabilities over a narrow frequency range through hardware elements, the next generation cognitive radios are intended to implement a broader range of capabilities through efficient spectrum exploitation. This offers the user the promise of greater flexibility, seamless roaming possible on different networks, countries, frequencies, etc. It requires true paradigm shift i.e., liberalization over a wide band of spectrum as well as a growth path to more and greater capability. This work contributes towards the design and implementation of an open spectrum access (OSA) feature to unlicensed users thus offering a frequency agile radio platform that is capable of performing spectrum sensing over a wideband. Thus, an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio, which has the intelligence of spectrum sensing only, unlike the cognitive radio with complete intelligence, is named as a Smart Software Radio (SSR). The spectrum sensing mechanism is implemented based on energy detection. Simulation results show the accuracy and validity of this method.

Keywords: cognitive radio, energy detection, software radio, spectrum sensing

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7514 Impact of Radio on Rural Development: A Study of Ipokia Local Government Area, Nigeria

Authors: Haruna Shola Adeosun, Adeoye Odedeji

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of radio on rural development. The researcher employed survey method to gather primary data. The objectives and questions were used from and hypotheses were formulated were raised from the statement of the problem. Cultivation theory was used as the theoretical study. The populations of the study were the inhabitant of Ipokia Local Government. Questionnaires were administered on the 400 respondents. Data gathered were analyzed, interpreted and hypotheses of the study were tested. The finding revealed that; radio has impacted on the rural dwellers and there is a significant relationship between radio and rural dwellers. Also, radio has brought socio-economic development on rural dwellers. The study recommended that radio messages should be designed in line with the pre-existing attitudes of the rural dwellers. It was also discovered that radio stations should endeavour to use local dialects especially when the radio programme is aimed at the rural dwellers that effective communication that can increase active participation of government and the public. Finally, the study recommends that radio stations should be well funded to produce programmes that would serve the purpose of educating and informing the public on issues relevant to them and there is need to establish community radio stations that will be closer to rural dwellers.

Keywords: impact, radio, rural, development

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7513 Embedded Hw-Sw Reconfigurable Techniques For Wireless Sensor Network Applications

Authors: B. Kirubakaran, C. Rajasekaran

Abstract:

Reconfigurable techniques are used in many engineering and industrial applications for the efficient data transmissions through the wireless sensor networks. Nowadays most of the industrial applications are work for try to minimize the size and cost. During runtime the reconfigurable technique avoid the unwanted hang and delay in the system performance. In recent world Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as one of the most efficient reconfigurable device and widely used for most of the hardware and software reconfiguration applications. In this paper, the work deals with whatever going to make changes in the hardware and software during runtime it’s should not affect the current running process that’s the main objective of the paper our changes be done in a parallel manner at the same time concentrating the cost and power transmission problems during data trans-receiving. Analog sensor (Temperature) as an input for the controller (PIC) through that control the FPGA digital sensors in generalized manner.

Keywords: field programmable gate array, peripheral interrupt controller, runtime reconfigurable techniques, wireless sensor networks

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7512 Exploration of Various Metrics for Partitioning of Cellular Automata Units for Efficient Reconfiguration of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)

Authors: Peter Tabatt, Christian Siemers

Abstract:

Using FPGA devices to improve the behavior of time-critical parts of embedded systems is a proven concept for years. With reconfigurable FPGA devices, the logical blocks can be partitioned and grouped into static and dynamic parts. The dynamic parts can be reloaded 'on demand' at runtime. This work uses cellular automata, which are constructed through compilation from (partially restricted) ANSI-C sources, to determine the suitability of various metrics for optimal partitioning. Significant metrics, in this case, are for example the area on the FPGA device for the partition, the pass count for loop constructs and communication characteristics to other partitions. With successful partitioning, it is possible to use smaller FPGA devices for the same requirements as with not reconfigurable FPGA devices or – vice versa – to use the same FPGAs for larger programs.

Keywords: reconfigurable FPGA, cellular automata, partitioning, metrics, parallel computing

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
7511 Modern Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Networks: Practical Implementation and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Antoni Ivanov, Nikolay Dandanov, Nicole Christoff, Vladimir Poulkov

Abstract:

Spectrum underutilization has made cognitive radio a promising technology both for current and future telecommunications. This is due to the ability to exploit the unused spectrum in the bands dedicated to other wireless communication systems, and thus, increase their occupancy. The essential function, which allows the cognitive radio device to perceive the occupancy of the spectrum, is spectrum sensing. In this paper, the performance of modern adaptations of the four most widely used spectrum sensing techniques namely, energy detection (ED), cyclostationary feature detection (CSFD), matched filter (MF) and eigenvalues-based detection (EBD) is compared. The implementation has been accomplished through the PlutoSDR hardware platform and the GNU Radio software package in very low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions. The optimal detection performance of the examined methods in a realistic implementation-oriented model is found for the common relevant parameters (number of observed samples, sensing time and required probability of false alarm).

Keywords: cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum access, GNU Radio, spectrum sensing

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7510 BER Analysis of Energy Detection Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Using GNU Radio

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi

Abstract:

Cognitive Radio is a turning out technology that empowers viable usage of the spectrum. Energy Detector-based Sensing is the most broadly utilized spectrum sensing strategy. Besides, it is a lot of generic as receivers does not like any information on the primary user's signals, channel data, of even the sort of modulation. This paper puts forth the execution of energy detection sensing for AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal at 710 KHz, FM (Frequency Modulated) signal at 103.45 MHz (local station frequency), Wi-Fi signal at 2.4 GHz and WiMAX signals at 6 GHz. The OFDM/OFDMA based WiMAX physical layer with convolutional channel coding is actualized utilizing USRP N210 (Universal Software Radio Peripheral) and GNU Radio based Software Defined Radio (SDR). Test outcomes demonstrated the BER (Bit Error Rate) augmentation with channel noise and BER execution is dissected for different Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) values.

Keywords: BER, Cognitive Radio, GNU Radio, OFDM, SDR, WiMAX

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7509 Channel Estimation Using Deep Learning for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces-Assisted Millimeter Wave Systems

Authors: Ting Gao, Mingyue He

Abstract:

Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) are expected to be an important part of next-generation wireless communication networks due to their potential to reduce the hardware cost and energy consumption of millimeter Wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology. However, owing to the lack of signal processing abilities of the RIS, the perfect channel state information (CSI) in RIS-assisted communication systems is difficult to acquire. In this paper, the uplink channel estimation for mmWave systems with a hybrid active/passive RIS architecture is studied. Specifically, a deep learning-based estimation scheme is proposed to estimate the channel between the RIS and the user. In particular, the sparse structure of the mmWave channel is exploited to formulate the channel estimation as a sparse reconstruction problem. To this end, the proposed approach is derived to obtain the distribution of non-zero entries in a sparse channel. After that, the channel is reconstructed by utilizing the least-squares (LS) algorithm and compressed sensing (CS) theory. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed channel estimation scheme is superior to existing solutions even in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments.

Keywords: channel estimation, reconfigurable intelligent surface, wireless communication, deep learning

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7508 An Assessment of the Digital Transformation of Radio

Authors: Fatih Sogut

Abstract:

Developments in information technologies have caused significant changes in terms of radio and television broadcasting. With these changes in terms of production format, transmission techniques and service delivery, the distinction between traditional media and New Media has emerged. The viewer/listener, who was in a passive position before, is now in an active position and has a say in many matters, including content production. Visual and auditory data transfer has diversified and become easier thanks to the convergence phenomenon. These transformations and developments also affected one of the oldest electronic communication tools, radio. In this study, in order to adapt to the new era that emerged with the digital age, the change in radio broadcasting and the factors that led to this change were tried to be explained.

Keywords: Internet, radio broadcasting, digital transformation, Internet broadcasting

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7507 A Method for Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems Customization Measurement

Authors: Jesus Kombaya, Nadia Hamani, Lyes Kermad

Abstract:

The preservation of a company’s place on the market in such aggressive competition is becoming a survival challenge for manufacturers. In this context, survivors are only those who succeed to satisfy their customers’ needs as quickly as possible. The production system should be endowed with a certain level of flexibility to eliminate or reduce the rigidity of the production systems in order to facilitate the conversion and/or the change of system’s features to produce different products. Therefore, it is essential to guarantee the quality, the speed and the flexibility to survive in this competition. According to literature, this adaptability is referred to as the notion of "change". Indeed, companies are trying to establish a more flexible and agile manufacturing system through several reconfiguration actions. Reconfiguration contributes to the extension of the manufacturing system life cycle by modifying its physical, organizational and computer characteristics according to the changing market conditions. Reconfigurability is characterized by six key elements that are: modularity, integrability, diagnosability, convertibility, scalability and customization. In order to control the production systems, it is essential for manufacturers to make good use of this capability in order to be sure that the system has an optimal and adapted level of reconfigurability that allows it to produce in accordance with the set requirements. This document develops a measure of customization of reconfigurable production systems. These measures do not only impact the production system but also impact the product design and the process design, which can therefore serve as a guide for the customization of manufactured product. A case study is presented to show the use of the proposed approach.

Keywords: reconfigurable manufacturing systems, customization, measure, flexibility

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7506 Frequency Reconfigurable Multiband Patch Antenna Using PIN-Diode for ITS Applications

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, V. S. Tripathi, Shivesh Tripathi

Abstract:

A frequency reconfigurable multiband antenna for intelligent transportation system (ITS) applications is proposed in this paper. A PIN-diode is used for reconfigurability. Centre frequencies are 1.38, 1.98, 2.89, 3.86, and 4.34 GHz in “ON” state of Diode and 1.56, 2.16, 2.88, 3.91 and 4.45 GHz in “OFF” state. Achieved maximum bandwidth is 18%. The maximum gain of the proposed antenna is 2.7 dBi in “ON” state and 3.95 dBi in “OFF” state of the diode. The antenna is simulated, fabricated, and tested in the lab. Measured and simulated results are in good confirmation.

Keywords: ITS, multiband antenna, PIN-diode, reconfigurable

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7505 Utilizing Radio as a Resource Alternative for Disseminating Information to University Students in Ibadan, Nigeria: A Study of Lead City FM and Diamond FM Radio Stations

Authors: Olufemi Sunday Onabajo

Abstract:

Radio according to communication scholars is a veritable instrument of mass education. However, its full potentials in boosting higher education have not been realized because of the commercial nature of radio stations in Nigeria. The licensing of campus radio for disseminating information on university curricular is aimed at reinforcing information shared during face to face teaching. This study anchored on Agenda Setting and Technology determinism theories seeks to find out the extent to which university students in Lead City University and University of Ibadan, Nigeria have keyed-in to the philosophy of their campus radio – Lead City FM and Diamond FM in making information dissemination in their domiciled universities less cumbersome. The study employs both qualitative and quantitative methods though the use of depth interview for ten (10) academic staff and five (5) radio personnel of both radio stations; and a questionnaire addressed to 200 students of both institutions using the systematic random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using simple percentage and chi-square one tail test, and it was discovered that students of both universities and their radio personnel are yet to realize the potentials of campus radio as a resource alternative to effective learning, and recommends the coming together of all stakeholders to articulate the way forward.

Keywords: disseminating information, effective learning, resource alternative, utilizing radio

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7504 Graphene-Based Reconfigurable Lens Antenna for 5G/6G and Satellite Networks

Authors: André Lages, Victor Dmitriev, Juliano Bazzo, Gianni Portela

Abstract:

This work evaluates the feasibility of the graphene application to perform as a wideband reconfigurable material for lens antennas in 5G/6G and satellite applications. Based on transformation optics principles, the electromagnetic waves can be efficiently guided by modifying the effective refractive index. Graphene behavior can range between a lossy dielectric and a good conductor due to the variation of its chemical potential bias, thus arising as a promising solution for electromagnetic devices. The graphene properties and a lens antenna comprising multiples layers and periodic arrangements of graphene patches were analyzed using full-wave simulations. A dipole directivity was improved from 7 to 18.5 dBi at 29 GHz. In addition, the realized gain was enhanced 7 dB across a 14 GHz bandwidth within the Ka/5G band.

Keywords: 5G/6G, graphene, lens, reconfigurable, satellite

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7503 Predicting the Product Life Cycle of Songs on Radio - How Record Labels Can Manage Product Portfolio and Prioritise Artists by Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Claus N. Holm, Oliver F. Grooss, Robert A. Alphinas

Abstract:

This research strives to predict the remaining product life cycle of a song on radio after it has been played for one or two months. The best results were achieved using a k-d tree to calculate the most similar songs to the test songs and use a Random Forest model to forecast radio plays. An 82.78% and 83.44% accuracy is achieved for the two time periods, respectively. This explorative research leads to over 4500 test metrics to find the best combination of models and pre-processing techniques. Other algorithms tested are KNN, MLP and CNN. The features only consist of daily radio plays and use no musical features.

Keywords: hit song science, product life cycle, machine learning, radio

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7502 The Management of Radio Spectrum Resources in Thailand

Authors: Pongsawee Supanonth

Abstract:

This research is the study of Spectrum Management and the increase in efficiency of Spectrum Utilization. It also proves that Cognitive Radio is a newer technology that will change the face of e-communications network today. This study used qualitative research methods by using in-depth interviews to collect data from a sample specific to those who work in Radio channel from 6 key informant and literature review from the related documents in online database. The result is the technique of Dynamic Spectrum Allocation that is the most suitable for Thailand. We conduct in-depth research for future purposes. Moreover, we can also develop a model that can be used in regulating and managing spectrum that is most suitable for Thailand. And also develop an important tool which can be of importance to allocation of spectrum as a natural resource appropriately. It will also guarantee quality and high benefit in a substantial way.

Keywords: cognitive radio, management of radio spectrum, spectrum management, spectrum scarcity

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7501 Artificial Neural Networks for Cognitive Radio Network: A Survey

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

The main aim of the communication system is to achieve maximum performance. In cognitive radio, any user or transceiver have the ability to sense best suitable channel, while the channel is not in use. It means an unlicensed user can share the spectrum of licensed user without any interference. Though the spectrum sensing consumes a large amount of energy and it can reduce by applying various artificial intelligent methods for determining proper spectrum holes. It also increases the efficiency of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). In this survey paper, we discuss the use of different learning models and implementation of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to increase the learning and decision-making capacity of CRN without affecting bandwidth, cost and signal rate.

Keywords: artificial neural network, cognitive radio, cognitive radio networks, back propagation, spectrum sensing

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7500 Elusive Cats in the CBS Mystery Theater

Authors: Katarzyna Logozna Wypych

Abstract:

Being present in the world’s literature for centuries, cats are one of the most underappreciated and misunderstood species. The affluence of topics and taboos portrayed by cats in literature as well as in other means of art is noteworthy. Not only would the reality without the presence of a cat be less unpredictable, but also certain plot changes could not take place, as only the animal seems to have a causative activity. In radio drama, cats, just like in the real world, modify, bend, and adjust reality to their liking, regardless of human characters. Having only the soundscape at hand, radio drama provides a fascinating insight into the symbolic and disturbing world of the most ambiguous and volatile relationships the animal world and humankind have ever known, that is of cats and people. Compliant with the assumed mysterious ambiance of the show, a vast number of the 1399 episodes of The CBS Radio Mystery Theater starred cats, most of which are not portrayed in a favorable manner. Cats become the beginning, the main body, and the ending of the radio drama in one cat person.

Keywords: cats, felines, horror, mystery, radio drama

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7499 PIN-Diode Based Slotted Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Array for Vehicular Communication

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, Shivesh Tripathi, V. S. Tripathi

Abstract:

In this paper, a patch antenna array design is proposed for vehicular communication. The antenna consists of 2-element patch array. The antenna array is operating at multiple frequency bands. The multiband operation is achieved by use of slots at proper locations at the patch. The array is made reconfigurable by use of two PIN-diodes. The antenna is simulated and measured in four states of diodes i.e. ON-ON, ON-OFF, OFF-ON, and OFF-OFF. In ON-ON state of diodes, the resonant frequencies are 4.62-4.96, 6.50-6.75, 6.90-7.01, 7.34-8.22, 8.89-9.09 GHz. In ON-OFF state of diodes, the measured resonant frequencies are 4.63-4.93, 6.50-6.70 and 7.81-7.91 GHz. In OFF-ON states of diodes the resonant frequencies are 1.24-1.46, 3.40-3.75, 5.07-5.25 and 6.90-7.20 GHz and in the OFF-OFF state of diodes 4.49-4.75 and 5.61-5.98 GHz. The maximum bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 16.29%. The peak gain of the antenna is 3.4 dB at 5.9 GHz, which makes it suitable for vehicular communication.

Keywords: antenna, array, reconfigurable, vehicular

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7498 Analysis of Decentralized on Demand Cross Layer in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network

Authors: A. Sri Janani, K. Immanuel Arokia James

Abstract:

Cognitive radio ad hoc networks different unlicensed users may acquire different available channel sets. This non-uniform spectrum availability imposes special design challenges for broadcasting in CR ad hoc networks. Cognitive radio automatically detects available channels in wireless spectrum. This is a form of dynamic spectrum management. Cross-layer optimization is proposed, using this can allow far away secondary users can also involve into channel work. So it can increase the throughput and it will overcome the collision and time delay.

Keywords: cognitive radio, cross layer optimization, CR mesh network, heterogeneous spectrum, mesh topology, random routing optimization technique

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7497 Monitoring of Spectrum Usage and Signal Identification Using Cognitive Radio

Authors: O. S. Omorogiuwa, E. J. Omozusi

Abstract:

The monitoring of spectrum usage and signal identification, using cognitive radio, is done to identify frequencies that are vacant for reuse. It has been established that ‘internet of things’ device uses secondary frequency which is free, thereby facing the challenge of interference from other users, where some primary frequencies are not being utilised. The design was done by analysing a specific frequency spectrum, checking if all the frequency stations that range from 87.5-108 MHz are presently being used in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. From the results, it was noticed that by using Software Defined Radio/Simulink, we were able to identify vacant frequencies in the range of frequency under consideration. Also, we were able to use the significance of energy detection threshold to reuse this vacant frequency spectrum, when the cognitive radio displays a zero output (that is decision H0), meaning that the channel is unoccupied. Hence, the analysis was able to find the spectrum hole and identify how it can be reused.

Keywords: spectrum, interference, telecommunication, cognitive radio, frequency

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