Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7711

Search results for: primary education

7711 Gender Differences in Attitudes to Technology in Primary Education

Authors: Radek Novotný, Martina Maněnová

Abstract:

This article presents a summary of reviews on gender differences in perception of information and communication technology (ICT) by pupils in primary education. The article outlines the meaning of ICT in primary education then summarizes different studies of the use of ICT in primary education from the point of view of gender. The article also presents the specific differences of gender in the knowledge of modalities of use of specialized digital tools and the perception and value assigned to ICT, accordingly the article provides insight into the background of gender differences in performance in relation to ICT to determinate the complex meaning of pupils attitudes to the ICT.

Keywords: ICT in primary education, attitudes to ICT, gender differences, gender and ICT

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7710 Education for Sustainable Development and Primary Education in China: A Case Study

Authors: Ronghui (Kevin) Zhou

Abstract:

This research intends to explore the enactment of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), in term of the ESD concept, in primary schools in China, and investigate the factors that have positively or negatively impacted the outcome of ESD in urban primary schools in China. The proposed research question is: how is the ESD concept perceived and enacted by the local education stakeholders. This research is conducted in multiple primary schools in China and has questionnaired and interviewed multiple education stakeholders, including school principals, school teachers, and bureau from the municipal Ministry of Education. Factor analysis, regression analysis, and critical discourse analysis are adopted to interpret and analyze the data. The preliminary findings suggest that contested ESD definition, education system pressures, education policy enforcement, and power dynamics between stakeholders are the key factors that have determined to what degree is ESD enacted, and to what extent is ESD practiced in primary schools in China.

Keywords: education for sustainable development, China, primary education, case study

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7709 A Conversation about Inclusive Education: Revelations from Namibian Primary School Teachers

Authors: M. D. Nghiteke, A. Mji, G. T. Molepo

Abstract:

Inclusive education stems from a philosophy and vision, which argues that all children should learn together at school. It is not only about treating all pupils in the same way. It is also about allowing all children to attend school without any restrictions. Ten primary school teachers in a circuit in Namibia volunteered to participate in face-to-face interviews about inclusive education. The teachers responded to three questions about their (i) understanding of inclusive education; (ii) whether inclusive education was implemented in primary schools; and (iii) whether they were able to work with learners with special needs. Findings indicated that teachers understood what inclusive education entailed; felt that inclusive education was not implemented in their primary schools, and they were unable to work with learners with special needs in their classrooms. Further, the teachers identified training and resources as important components of inclusive education. It is recommended that education authorities should perhaps verify the findings reported here as well as ensure that the concerns raised by the teachers are addressed.

Keywords: classrooms and schools, inclusive education, resources, training

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7708 A Study on Classic Literature Education in Primary School Using Out-of-School Literature Appreciation Program: An Practice Study Applied to Primary School in Korea

Authors: Hyo Jung Lee

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a literature appreciation education program for classic literatures and apply them to the field, and to derive the achievements and improvement points. Classic literature is a work of value recognized in the context of literature history and culture history, and learners can develop interest in literature and inherit tradition through appreciation of classic literature. However, in Korean educational environment, classic literature is a means for college entrance examination, and many learners analyze contents and language in textbooks and concentrate on memorizing the whole plot. This study is one of the reasons that classic literature appreciation education is not done properly and it is not able to give an opportunity to appreciate the whole work in the early learning stage. In Korean primary education, classic literature is used as a means to achieve the goals of reading, writing, speaking and listening, rather than being used as a material for its own appreciation. It is problematic to make the piece appreciation experience fragmentary. This study proposes a program to experience classic literatures by linking school education and school library with primary school students in grades 4-6. We work with local primary schools (siheung-si, gyeonggi-do, Korea) to provide appropriate activities and rewards to learners, observe their participation, and introduce student learning outcomes. Through this, we are able to systematically improve the learner 's ability to appreciate the literature and to diversify primary education.

Keywords: classic literature education, primary education, out-of-school program, learning by appreciation experience

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7707 Financial Literacy Testing: Results of Conducted Research and Introduction of a Project

Authors: J. Nesleha, H. Florianova

Abstract:

The goal of the study is to provide results of a conducted study devoted to financial literacy in the Czech Republic and to introduce a project related to financial education in the Czech Republic. Financial education has become an important part of education in the country, yet it is still neglected on the lowest level of formal education–primary schools. The project is based on investigation of financial literacy on primary schools in the Czech Republic. Consequently, the authors aim to formulate possible amendments related to this type of education. The gained dataset is intended to be used for analysis concerning financial education in the Czech Republic. With regard to used methods, the most important one is regression analysis for disclosure of predictors causing different levels of financial literacy. Furthermore, comparison of different groups is planned, for which t-tests are intended to be used. The study also employs descriptive statistics to introduce basic relationship in the data file.

Keywords: Czech Republic, financial education, financial literacy, primary school

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7706 Parents' Attitude toward Compulsory Pre-School Education in Slovakia

Authors: Sona Lorencova, Beata Hornickova

Abstract:

Compulsory pre-school education in Slovakia will be established by the Education Act for all five-year-old children from September 2021. The implementation of this law will change pre-school education in our country from optional to compulsory, and children will be able to complete this education either in institutional form school facilities or in the form of individual education at the request of the parent. The primary purpose of this change is that all children achieve pre-school education before entering primary school, thus eliminating differences between children before entering primary school. The benefits of introducing compulsory pre-school education are obvious to the professional public. However, as this fundamental change in children's education is perceived by parents who have a prime position in the upbringing and education of their children, research pays minimal attention. The aim of the study is to interpret the findings of quantitatively oriented research, which was focused on finding out the attitudes of parents to the planned introduction of compulsory preschool education in Slovakia. The data were obtained through questionnaires primarily intended for parents of preschool children. In the distributed questionnaire, the degree of agreement or disagreement with individual items could be expressed on a 5-point Likert scale. The results of the research present how perceived compulsory pre-school education is perceived by the parental public in Slovakia and what perspectives and limitations parents anticipate after its introduction.

Keywords: compulsory pre-school education, education act, childs' learning and development, kindergarten, parents' perspectives

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7705 The Place of Instructional Materials in Quality Education at Primary School Level in Katsina State, Nigeria

Authors: Murtala Sale

Abstract:

The use of instructional materials is an indispensable tool that enhances qualitative teaching and learning especially at the primary level. Instructional materials are used to facilitate comprehension of ideas in the learners as well as ensure long term retention of ideas and topics taught to pupils. This study examined the relevance of using instructional materials in primary schools in Katsina State, Nigeria. It employed survey design using cluster sampling technique. The questionnaire was used to gather data for analysis, and statistical and frequency tables were used to analyze the data gathered. The results show that teachers and students alike have realized the effectiveness of modern instructional materials in teaching and learning for the attainment of set objectives in the basic primary education policy. It also discovered that reluctance in the use of instructional materials will hamper the achievement of qualitative primary education. The study therefore suggests that there should be the provision of adequate and up-to-date instructional materials to all primary schools in Katsina State for effective teaching and learning process.

Keywords: instructional materials, effective teaching, learning quality, indispensable aspect

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7704 A Study of Patriotism through History Education in Primary School

Authors: Abdul Razak Bin Ahmad, Mohd Mahzan Awang

Abstract:

Appreciation of patriotism value is important for every student to be able to become a quality citizen and good for the country. Realizing this situation, Malaysia has introduced history education for primary school students since 2014. One of the aims is to provide basic knowledge on patriotism as well as to promote patriotic behaviour among school pupils. In order to examine the relationship between the students’ knowledge and their behaviour, a survey study was carried out. A set of questionnaire was designed and developed based prior studies on history education and patriotism. The sample of this survey was 153 primary school students aged 12 years old (Standard Six). Data collected and analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for The Social Science 20.0). The results showed that the level of knowledge and patriotism practise at the moderate levels. Inferential statistic results revealed that there is no significant difference between genders with regards to patriotism knowledge and patriotism practice through history education subject. Results also demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and the practice of patriotism values among the students. This means that knowledge on patriotism is important for promoting patriotic behaviour and practice in primary schools. This study implies that teaching students to understand and comprehend the concept of patriotism is vital to promote patriotic behaviour among students. Therefore, teachers should master pedagogical skills and good content knowledge on patriotism as mechanisms to promote effective learning in history education subjects. creativity in teaching history education subjects is also needed.

Keywords: history education, knowledge, primary school, patriotism values, teachers

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7703 The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Early Childhood Education as Perceived by Early Childhood Teachers

Authors: Rabia Khalil

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to find out the perception of early childhood education teacher‘s about the role and implementation of information communication technology in early childhood education. The main purpose of the study is to investigate the role of information and communication technology in early childhood education as perceived by early childhood education teachers. The objectives of the study were to identify the roles of ICT in today’s early years and the impacts of Information communication technology in early childhood education. This study is to find out the role of ICT at ECE level & how it will be useful for teachers to implement this technique for the development of student skills. This is a quantitative research in which a survey study was conducted. The Population of the study was the primary teachers of the public and private primary schools of Lahore. By using random sampling technique the sample consists of 300 teachers but only 260 respond from 52 primary schools of Lahore. In this research, questionnaire was developed for primary school teachers. The questionnaires were based on liker type scale which comprises of section of strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed by using descriptive analysis. The data was arranged and then entered in computer, having the software package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15. The importance of this study is to find out the role of ICT at ECE level & how it will be useful for teachers to implement this technique for the development of student skills.

Keywords: ECE, ICT, PC, C AI

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7702 Social Skills for Students with and without Learning Disabilities in Primary Education in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Omer Agail

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to assess the social skills of students with and without learning disabilities in primary education in Saudi Arabia. A Social Skills Rating Scale for Teachers Form (SSRS-TF) was used to evaluate students' social skills as perceived by teachers. A randomly-selected sample was chosen from students with and without learning disabilities. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the demographic characteristics of participants. Analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences in SSRS-TF by academic status, i.e. students with learning disabilities exhibit less social skills compared to students without learning disabilities. In addition, analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in SSRS-TF by gender. A conclusion and recommendations are presented.

Keywords: primary education, students with learning disabilities, social skills, social competence

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7701 The Impact of Female Education on Fertility: A Natural Experiment from Egypt

Authors: Fatma Romeh, Shiferaw Gurmu

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of female education on fertility, using the change in length of primary schooling in Egypt in 1988-89 as the source of exogenous variation in schooling. In particular, beginning in 1988, children had to attend primary school for only five years rather than six years. This change was applicable to all individuals born on or after October 1977. Using a nonparametric regression discontinuity approach, we compare education and fertility of women born just before and after October 1977. The results show that female education significantly reduces the number of children born per woman and delays the time until first birth. Applying a robust regression discontinuity approach, however, the impact of education on the number of children is no longer significant. The impact on the timing of first birth remained significant under the robust approach. Each year of female education postponed childbearing by three months, on average.

Keywords: Egypt, female education, fertility, robust regression discontinuity

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7700 Comparative Analysis of Teachers’ Performance in Private and Public Primary Schools in Oyo State

Authors: Babajide Solomon Faloore

Abstract:

This study on the comparative analysis of the performance of teachers in private and public schools was carried out in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State. This study examined the justification for the claim that there is a difference in the performance of teachers in private and public primary schools and at the same time identified factors responsible for the difference in the performance of these teachers. A descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Data generated were analyzed using t-test and regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that there is significance difference in the performance of teachers in private and private primary schools in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State( t=64.09; df=459; p,.05). The findings also revealed that the method of teaching in private primary schools is significantly different from the method of teaching in public primary schools in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State (t=73.08; df=459; p,.05). Findings revealed that school leadership and management have a significant contribution on the performance of private and public primary school teachers in Ibadan North West Local Area of Oyo State. Based on the finding, the following recommendations were made: Primary school teachers need to be motivated and rewarded for excellent performance. Primary schools should be properly equipped with teaching–aid facilities, laboratories, and libraries. The government should use the findings of this study to improve on teaching materials provided to the primary school teachers in Nigeria. Public primary schools should be designed by education planners, administrators, and government. Headmasters, proprietors, and teachers of primary schools should look inward and give a performance appraisal and evaluation of themselves from time to time based on the subject they taught. Finally, school administrators should be conscious of the way they manage the teachers in schools not only in informal situations but also in formal settings.

Keywords: private education, public education, school leadership, school management, teachers performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
7699 The Career Success for Female Managers: A Case Study of The Primary Education Department, Thailand

Authors: Nipon Sasithornsaowapa

Abstract:

The purposes of this research was to study the female management career success of the primary education department of Thailand. The independent variable was human capital which included three factors: family status, personality, and knowledge-skill-experience, while the important dependent variable was the career success. The population of this study included 2,179 female management officials in the department of primary education. A total of 400 female managers were interviewed and utilized as a sample group. A questionnaire was developed and used as a main tool for collecting data. Content analysis was performed to get the quantitative data. Descriptive statistics in this research was done by SPSS program. The findings revealed that family and personality factors had a high influence on the human capital and, in turn, influenced the career success of female managers. On the other hand, knowledge-skill-experience had an insignificant influence to the human capital and the female career success. In addition, the findings from the in-depth interview revealed that the majority of respondents defined career success as the satisfaction in job duties, not money and position.

Keywords: career, female managers, primary education

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7698 Thai Primary School Teachers’ Attitude and Preparedness to Teach Students with Autism in the General Education Classroom

Authors: Sunanta Klibthong

Abstract:

Inclusive education services for students with Autism remains in its early developmental stages in Thailand. Despite many more children with autism are attending schools since the Thai government introduced the Education Provision for People with Disabilities Act in 2008, the services students with autism and their families receive are generally lacking. This quantitative study used Attitude and Preparedness to Teach Students with Autism Scale (APTSAS) to investigate 110 primary school teachers’ attitude and preparedness to teach students with autism in the general education classroom. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data found that student behaviour was the most significant factor in building teachers’ negative attitudes students with autism. The majority of teachers also indicated that their pre-service education did not prepare them to meet the learning needs of children with autism in particular, those who are non-verbal. The study is significant and provides direction for enhancing teacher education for inclusivity in Thailand.

Keywords: attitude, autism, teachers, Thailand

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7697 General Awareness of Teenagers in Information Security

Authors: Magdaléna Náplavová, Tomáš Ludík, Petr Hrůza, František Božek

Abstract:

The use of IT equipment has become a part of every day. However, each device that is part of cyberspace should be secured against unauthorized use. It is very important to know the basics of these security devices, but also the basics of safe conduct their owners. This information should be part of every curriculum computer science education in primary and secondary schools. Therefore, the work focuses on the education of pupils in primary and secondary schools on the Internet. Analysis of the current state describes approaches to the education of pupils in security issues on the Internet. The paper presents a questionnaire-based survey which was carried out in the Czech Republic, whose task was to ascertain the level of opinion pupils in primary and secondary schools on the issue of communication in social networks. The research showed that awareness of socio-pathological phenomena on the Internet environment is very low. Based on the results it was proposed appropriate ways of teaching to this issue and its inclusion a proposal of curriculum for primary and secondary schools.

Keywords: information security, cyber space, general awareness, questionnaire, socio-pathological phenomena, educational system

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
7696 Comparative Analysis of Teachers’ Performance in Private and Public Primary Schools in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Oyetunji John Adenuga

Abstract:

This study on the comparative analysis of the performance of teachers in private and public schools was carried out in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State. This study examined the justification for the claim that there is difference in the performance of teachers in private and public primary schools and at the same time identified factors responsible for the difference in the performance of these teachers. A descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Data generated were analysed using t-test and regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that there is significant difference in the performance of teachers in private and private primary schools in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State (t=64.09; df=459; p,.05). The findings also revealed that the method of teaching in private primary schools is significantly different from the method of teaching in public primary schools in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State (t=73.08; df=459; p,.05). Findings revealed that school leadership and management have significant contribution on the performance of private and public primary school teachers in Ibadan North West Local Area of Oyo State. Based on the finding, the following recommendations were made: Primary school teachers need to be motivated and rewarded for excellent performance. Primary schools should be properly equipped with teaching-aid facilities, laboratories and libraries. Government should use the findings of this study to improve on teaching materials provided to the primary school teachers in Nigeria. Public primary schools should be designed by education planners, administrators and government. Headmasters, proprietors and teachers of primary schools should look inward and give a performance appraisal and evaluation of themselves form time to time based on subject they taught. Finally, school administrators should be conscious of the way they manage the teachers in schools not only in informal situations but also in formal settings.

Keywords: private education, public education, school leadership, school management, teachers performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
7695 Research on the Influence of Robot Teaching on the Creativity of Primary and Secondary School Students under the Background of STEM Education

Authors: Chu Liu

Abstract:

With the development of society and the changes of the times, the requirements for the cultivation of learners are different. In the 21st century, STEM education has become a boom in the development of education in various countries, aiming to improve the comprehensive ability of learners in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The rise of robot education provides an effective way for STEM education to cultivate computational thinking ability, interdisciplinary ability, problem-solving ability, and teamwork ability. Although robot education has been developed in China for several years, it still lacks a standard curriculum system. This article uses programming software as a platform, through the research and analysis of 'Basic Education Information Technology Curriculum Standards (2012 Edition)', combines with the actual learning situation of learners, tries to conduct teaching project design research, and aims at providing references for the teaching ideas and method of robot education courses. In contemporary society, technological advances increasingly require creativity. Innovative comprehensive talents urgently need a radical and effective education reform to keep up with social changes. So in this context, robot teaching design can be used for students. The tendency of creativity to influence is worth to be verified.

Keywords: STEM education, robot teaching, primary and secondary school students, tendency of creativity

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7694 Linking Museum Education with School Curriculum: Primary Education Case Study Grade 4

Authors: Marwa Hanafy

Abstract:

The objective of linking the museum with school curriculum is to focus on the values and principles of the educational standards of the fourth grade as "equality, cooperation, allegiance, belonging, participation, peace, tolerance, pride and patriotism, etc." through activities, discussion, exhibits, etc., which can help the students to develop their characters and be useful for their society. For example, there is a lesson in Module 3 assess the role of women as mothers and queens, here this research will focus on the value of women and respect them through statues or images of women which support and affect positively on the students who will apply these Morals to themselves and to the community by dependency. It cannot be denied that the students have to be a part of the museum educational programs which have designed for them, by giving them the opportunity to participate, talk, discuss and express their opinions and hear them in the museums, this may be an effective way to confirm that the interests of children are taken into account.

Keywords: museum education, primary school education, school curriculum, informal learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
7693 Toba Batak Education Stakeholders' Perspectives towards Education of Children with Disabilities in Toba Samosir North Sumatra Indonesia

Authors: Tryastuti I. B. Manullang, Juang Sunanto

Abstract:

This study aimed to find the perspectives of the Toba Batak education stakeholders towards the education of children with disabilities in Toba Samosir North Sumatra Indonesia. The education stakeholders consist of a head of the education department in Toba Samosir, head of the H foundation, two principals and three teachers from the Special Primary Schools. This study uses qualitative a descriptive approach and research data obtained through interviews. The results of this study demonstrate that the education stakeholders knowledge about disabilities needs improvement in accordance with the development of science. The cultural views towards disability and its implications, and the education services available for children with disabilities, in addition, to encountered its problem in Toba Samosir are known. The education concept considered appropriate is the special school and the CBR (Community Based Rehabilitation) strategy, also inclusive education because it represents the Toba Batak philosophy.

Keywords: community based rehabilitation, education concept, education stakeholders, inclusive education

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7692 E-Learning in Primary Science: Teachers versus Students

Authors: Winnie Wing Mui So, Yu Chen

Abstract:

This study investigated primary school teachers’ and students’ perceptions of science learning in an e-learning environment. This study used a multiple case study design and involved eight science teachers and their students from four Hong Kong primary schools. The science topics taught included ‘season and weather’ ‘force and movement’, ‘solar and lunar eclipse’ and ‘living things and habitats’. Data were collected through lesson observations, interviews with teachers, and interviews with students. Results revealed some differences between the teachers’ and the students’ perceptions regarding the usefulness of e-learning resources, the organization of student-centred activities, and the impact on engagement and interactions in lessons. The findings have implications for the more effective creation of e-learning environments for science teaching and learning in primary schools.

Keywords: e-learning, science education, teacher' and students' perceptions, primary schools

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7691 The Philosophy of Language Theory in the Standard Malay Primary School Curriculum in Malaysia

Authors: Mohd Rashid Bin Hj. Md Idris, Lajiman Bin Janoory, Abdullah Bin Yusof, Mahzir Bin Ibrahim

Abstract:

The Malay language curriculum at primary school level in Malaysia is instrumental in ensuring the status of the language as the official and national language, the language of instruction as well as the language that unites the various ethnics in Malaysia. A research addressing issues related to the curriculum standard is, therefore, essential to provide value added quality to the existing National Education Philosophy in ongoing efforts to produce an individual who is balanced in intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physical developments. The objective of this study is to examine the Philosophy of Language Theory, to review the content of the Malay language subject in relation to the Standard Curriculum for Primary Schools (KSSR), and to identify aspects of Theory of Philosophy in the Standard Curriculum for Primary Schools. The Malay language Primary School Curriculum is designed to enable students to be competent speakers and communicators of the language in order to gain knowledge, skills, information, values, and ideas and to enhance skills in social relations. Therefore, this study is designed to help educators to achieve all the stated goals. At the same time students at primary school level are expected to be able to apply the principle of language perfection as stated in the Philosophy of Language Theory to enable them to understand, appreciate and to take pride in being a Malaysian who speaks the language well.

Keywords: language, philosophy, theory, curriculum, standard, national education philosophy

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7690 Philosophical Foundations of Education at the Kazakh Languages by Aiding Communicative Methods

Authors: Duisenova Marzhan

Abstract:

This paper considers the looking from a philosophical point of view the interactive technology and tiered developing Kazakh language teaching primary school pupils through the method of linguistic communication, content and teaching methods formed in the education system. The values determined by the formation of new practical ways that could lead to a novel qualitative level and solving the problem. In the formation of the communicative competence of elementary school students would be to pay attention to other competencies. It helps to understand the motives and needs socialization of students, the development of their cognitive abilities and participate in language relations arising from different situations. Communicative competence is the potential of its own in pupils creative language activity. In this article, the Kazakh language teaching in primary school communicative method is presented. The purpose of learning communicative method, personal development, effective psychological development of the child, himself-education, expansion and growth of language skills and vocabulary, socialization of children, the adoption of the laws of life in the social environment, analyzed the development of vocabulary richness of the language that forms the erudition to ensure continued improvement of education of the child.

Keywords: communicative, culture, training, process, method, primary, competence

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7689 Women Executives' Career Success in the Office of the Basic Education

Authors: Nipon Sasithornsaowapa

Abstract:

This research aims to study the impact of personality and family status on women executives’ career success of the primary education department of Thailand. The independent variable includes three factors, namely family status, personality, and knowledge-skill-experience, while the dependent variable is the career success. The population of this study includes 2,179 female management officials in the department of primary education. A total of 400 female managers is interviewed and utilized as a sample group. A questionnaire is developed and used as a research tool for data collection. Content analysis is performed to get the quantitative data. Descriptive statistics in this research is conducted by SPSS program. The findings revealed that personality and family status of samples have an influence on the overall career success of women executives in terms of their objective career success. However, in terms of specific factors of personality or family status, it is found that there is no relevance of each factor on the women executives’ career success. It can be concluded that the factor affecting the women executives’ career success is subjective career success including the happiness and enjoyment with the job not factor concerning materials. Their success is the result of each individual working experience. However, their personal characteristics do not affect their success.

Keywords: career success, women executives, primary education, knowledge-skill-experience

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7688 Social Studies Teaching Methods: Approaches and Techniques in Teaching History in Primary Education

Authors: Tonguc Basaran

Abstract:

History is a record of a people’s past based on a critical examination of documents and other facts. The essentials of this historical method are not beyond the grasp of even young children. Concrete examples, such as the story of the Rosetta stone, which enabled Champollion to establish the first principles of the deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphics, vividly illustrate the fundamental processes involved. This search for the facts can be used to illustrate one side of the search for historic truth. The other side is the truth of historic interpretation. The facts cannot be changed, but the interpretation of them can and does change.

Keywords: history, primary education, teaching methods, social studies

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7687 Examining the Influence of Organisational Culture on Middle Leadership in Primary Schools in Saudi Arabia and United Kingdom

Authors: Saeed Musaid Alzahrani

Abstract:

Shared values, beliefs, norms and assumptions within the organisation can affect personal and team effectiveness. Organisational culture can also affect the performance of organisational members. The nature of middle leadership in a primary school is largely influenced by organizational culture. The effectiveness of middle leadership in primary schools and their performance is strongly determined by the circumstances in which they work and can be political or institutional. This study aims to examine the influence of organisational culture and government policy on the performance and effectiveness of middle managers, using the English and Saudi education systems as case studies. To examine how education policy conditions educational discourse, and answer the research questions, there is a need to collect qualitative data on middle manager’s perceptions and experiences in the English and Saudi Arabian contexts. The study involved a qualitative and interpretative approach. In-depth interviews with 6 middle managers and school supervisors in 3 English primary schools and 6 middle managers in 3 Saudi Arabian primary schools were conducted to answer the research questions. The study also included ethnographic tools such as observations of a sample of three primary schools in both England and Saudi Arabia where the researcher observed middle managers’ interactions with their peers. The sample of three enabled the study to identify trends and make comparisons between leadership approaches in both systems based on observations without the bias of prescriptions. The use of ethnographic tools not only makes the study empirical but also increases the reliability and validity of the findings by reducing prescriptive bias. The observations will be triangulated with the results of the interviews to draw comparisons and conclusions on whether middle managers act as leaders or as followers in their respective political contexts.

Keywords: education management, government education policies, middle managers, organisational culture

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7686 Enhancing Quality Education through Multilingual Pedagogy: A Critical Perspective

Authors: Aita Bishowkarma

Abstract:

Ensuring quality education in primary level in multi-ethnic, multi- religious, multi-cultural and multilingual country Nepal which accommodates 123 ethnic languages (CBS 2011) has come across a big challenge. The discourse on the policies and practices to take advantage of the rich heritage of cultural and linguistic diversity in the pursuit of quality primary education to ethnic/linguistic minority children in Nepal gives in a critical observation of Nepalese perspective in the global academia. Situating the linguistic diversity of Nepal, primary education to children is better through mother tongue. Nepali as official or national language is another important language to be taught to the children. Similarly, craze for English has been inevitable for international communication and job opportunity in the global markets. This paper critically examines the current use of trilingual policy in mother tongue based multilingual education (MT-MLE) in Nepal from the perspective of exploiting linguistic diversity in classroom pedagogy. The researcher adopted mixed method research design applying descriptive measure and explanatory research methods. 24 teachers and 48 students from 6 multilingual schools were selected purposively to dig out their language use, language attitude and language preferences to reveal their preference and attitude towards mother tongue, Nepali and English through questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion. The study shows, in a true multilingual system, all languages (mother tongue, languages of region, nation and wider communication) can have their legitimate place; bridging from the mother tongue to the regional language and national to international language; further leading to meaningful participation in the wider democratic global context. Trilingual policy of mother tongue, national language and international language seemed pertinent however, not sufficient. The finding of the study shows that for quality education in primary education mother tongue based critical multilingual pedagogy through language coexistence approach with contextual variation seems enviable.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, language co-existence, linguistic diversity, quality education

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7685 Villar Settlement Farm School for the Aetas: Assimilation through American Colonial Education in Zambales, Philippines

Authors: Julian E. Abuso, Alberto T. Paala Jr.

Abstract:

The creation of settlement farm schools at the outset of American colonization of the Philippines was not a matter of accident; rather, their establishment was a major component of a grand plan on public education based on the benevolent assimilation policy of the United States. This argument is illustrated by the case of Villar Settlement Farm School, a school for the Aetas as a non-Christian tribal community in 1907. The study aims to: (1) identify and describe the antecedents for the establishment of Settlement Farm School, (2) explicate the cultural conflicts encountered by Aetas in school, (3) appraise the consequences of education as acculturation among Aeta population. The study made use of the following: historical data based on primary and secondary sources and life histories from primary informants. The Settlement Farm School for the Aetas was borne out of the American’s change in policy from military to civilian authority, recognition of education as a tool for benevolent assimilation. The narratives of informants manifested resistance to certain aspects of the educational process.

Keywords: settlement farm school Aetas, tribe, colonial education, Aeta, non-Christian tribal community

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7684 Application of Constructivist-Based (5E’s) Instructional Approach on Pupils’ Retention: A Case Study in Primary Mathematics in Enugu State

Authors: Ezeamagu M.U, Madu B.C

Abstract:

This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of 5Es constructivist-based instructional model on students’ retention in primary Mathematics. 5Es stands for Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration and Evaluation. The study adopted the pre test post test non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental research design. The sample size for the study was one hundred and thirty four pupils (134), seventy six male (76) and fifty eight female (58) from two primary schools in Nsukka education zone. Two intact classes in each of the sampled schools comprising all the primary four pupils were used. Each of the schools was given the opportunity of being assigned randomly to either experimental or control group. The Experimental group was taught using 5Es model while the control group was taught using the conventional method. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study and three hypotheses were tested at p ≤ 0. 05. A Fraction Achievement Test (FAT) of ten (10) questions were used to obtain data on pupils’ retention. Research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while hypotheses were tested using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The result revealed that the 5Es model was more effective than the conventional method of teaching in enhancing pupils’ performance and retention in mathematics, secondly there is no significant difference in the mean retention scores of male and female students taught using 5Es instructional model. Based on the findings, it was recommended among other things, that the 5Es instructional model should be adopted in the teaching of mathematics in primary level of the educational system. Seminar, workshops and conferences should be mounted by professional bodies, federal and state ministries of education on the use of 5Es model. This will enable the mathematics educator, serving teachers, students and all to benefit from the approach.

Keywords: constructivist, education, mathematics, primary, retention

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7683 Longitudinal impact on Empowerment for Ugandan Women with Post-Primary Education

Authors: Shelley Jones

Abstract:

Assumptions abound that education for girls will, as a matter of course, lead to their economic empowerment as women; yet. little is known about the ways in which schooling for girls, who traditionally/historically would not have had opportunities for post-primary, or perhaps even primary education – such as the participants in this study based in rural Uganda - in reality, impacts their economic situations. There is a need forlongitudinal studies in which women share experiences, understandings, and reflections of their lives that can inform our knowledge of this. In response, this paper reports on stage four of a longitudinal case study (2004-2018) focused on education and empowerment for girls and women in rural Uganda, in which 13 of the 15 participants from the original study participated. This paper understands empowerment as not simply increased opportunities (e.g., employment) but also real gains in power, freedoms that enable agentive action, and authentic and viable choices/alternatives that offer ‘exit options’ from unsatisfactory situations. As with the other stages, this study used a critical, postmodernist, global feminist ethnographic methodology, multimodal and qualitative data collection. Participants participated in interviews, focus group discussions, and a two-day workshop, which explored their understandings of how/if they understood post-primary education to have contributed to their economic empowerment. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used for data analysis to capture major themes. Findings indicate that although all participants believe that post-primary education provided them with economic opportunities they would not have had otherwise, the parameters of their economic empowerment were severely constrained by historic and extant sociocultural, economic, political, and institutional structures that continue to disempower girls and women, as well as additional financial responsibilities that they assumed to support others. Even though the participants had post-primary education, and they were able to obtain employment or operate their own businesses that they would not likely have been able to do without post-primary education, the majority of the participants’ incomes were not sufficient to elevate them financially above the extreme poverty level, especially as many were single mothers and the sole income earners in their households. Furthermore, most deemed their working conditions unsatisfactory and their positions precarious; they also experienced sexual harassment and abuse in the labour force. Additionally, employment for the participants resulted in a double work burden: long days at work, surrounded by many hours of domestic work at home (which, even if they had spousal partners, still fell almost exclusively to women). In conclusion, although the participants seem to have experienced some increase in economic empowerment, largely due to skills, knowledge, and qualifications gained at the post-primary level, numerous barriers prevented them from maximizing their capabilities and making significant gains in empowerment. There is need, in addition to providing education (primary, secondary, and tertiary) to girls, to address systemic gender inequalities that mitigate against women’s empowerment, as well as opportunities and freedom for women to come together and demand fair pay, reasonable working conditions, and benefits, freedom from gender-based harassment and assault in the workplace, as well as advocate for equal distribution of domestic work as a cultural change.

Keywords: girls' post-primary education, women's empowerment, uganda, employment

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7682 Awareness and Attitudes of Primary Grade Teachers (1-4th Grade) Towards Inclusive Education

Authors: Maheshwari Payal, Shapurkar Mayaan

Abstract:

The present research aimed at studying the awareness and attitudes of teachers towards inclusive education. The sample consisted of 60 teachers, teaching in the primary section (1st – 4th) of regular schools affiliated to the SSC board in Mumbai. The sample was selected by Multi-stage cluster sampling technique. A semi-structured self-constructed interview schedule and a self-constructed attitude scale were used to study the awareness of teachers about disability and Inclusive education, and their attitudes towards inclusive education respectively. Themes were extracted from the interview data and quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS package. Results revealed that teachers had some amount of awareness but an inadequate amount of information on disabilities and inclusive education. Disability to most (37) teachers meant “an inability to do something”. The difference between disability and handicap was stated by most as former being cognitive while handicap being physical in nature. With regard to Inclusive education, a large number (46) stated that they were unaware of the term and did not know what it meant. The majority (52) of them perceived maximum challenges for themselves in an inclusive set up, and emphasized on the role of teacher training courses in the area of providing knowledge (49) and training in teaching methodology (53). Although, 83.3% of teachers held a moderately positive attitude towards inclusive education, a large percentage (61.6%) of participants felt that being in inclusive set up would be very challenging for both children with special needs and without special needs. Though, most (49) of the teachers stated that children with special needs should be educated in a regular classroom, but they further clarified that only those should be in a regular classroom who have physical impairments of mild or moderate degree.

Keywords: attitude, awareness, inclusive education, teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 229