Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7186

Search results for: social danger

7186 Police Mothers at Home: Police Work and Danger-Protection Parenting Practices

Authors: Tricia Agocs, Debra Langan, Carrie B. Sanders

Abstract:

Studies of the challenges faced by women in policing have paid little attention to the specific experiences of Policewomen who are mothers. Guided by critical theorizing on the gendered nature of the police culture and domestic labor, 16 police officer mothers in Ontario, Canada, were interviewed. Our qualitative analyses explore their experiences of the “lion’s share” of domestic labor; the organizational, cultural, and operational features of policing; and the challenges of child care, and examine how these combine to foster particular stresses. In contrast to intensive mothering approaches that rely on the advice of external experts, our participants work to protect children by carefully constructing stories and asking questions that are based on their own on-the-job experiences with dangerous and/or abhorrent situations. As such, they engage in danger-protection parenting practices to prevent their children from becoming victims or offenders. Our research extends the theorizing on intensive/extensive mothering practices, builds on the scholarship on policing, and adds to the literature on women in nonstandard occupations. This sociological analysis of police mothers’ experiences and practices underscores the importance of understanding and working to change the social contexts, at work and at home, that compromise the well-being of police mothers and other emergency-response workers.

Keywords: policewomen, mothers, parenting, danger, qualitative research

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7185 Impact of Endogenous Risk Factors on Risk Cost in KSA PPP Projects

Authors: Saleh Alzahrani, Halim Boussabaine

Abstract:

The Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts are produced taking into account the reason that the configuration, development, operation, and financing of an open undertaking is to be recompensed to a private gathering inside a solitary contractual structure. PPP venture dangers are ordinarily connected with the improvement and development of another resource and in addition its operation for a considerable length of time. Without a doubt, the most genuine outcomes of dangers amid the development period are value and time overwhelms. These occasions are amongst the most extensively utilized situations as a part of worth for cash investigation dangers. The wellsprings of danger change over the life cycle of a PPP venture. In customary acquirement, the general population segment ordinarily needs to cover all value trouble from these dangers. At any rate there is bounty confirmation to recommend that cost pain is a standard in a percentage of the tasks that are conveyed under customary obtainment. This paper means to research the effect of endogenous dangers on expense overwhelm in KSA PPP ventures. The paper displays a brief writing survey on PPP danger evaluating systems, and after that presents an affiliation model between danger occasions and expense invade in KSA. The paper finishes up with considerations for future examination.

Keywords: PPP, risk pricing, impact of risk, Endogenous risks

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
7184 Analysing Industry Clustering to Develop Competitive Advantage for Wualai Silver Handicraft

Authors: Khanita Tumphasuwan

Abstract:

The Wualai community of Northern Thailand represents important intellectual and social capital and their silver handicraft products are desirable tourist souvenirs within Chiang Mai Province. This community has been in danger of losing this social and intellectual capital due to the application of an improper tool, the Scottish Enterprise model of clustering. This research aims to analyze and increase its competitive advantages for preventing the loss of social and intellectual capital. To improve the Wualai’s competitive advantage, analysis is undertaken using a Porterian cluster approach, including the diamond model, five forces model and cluster mapping. Research results suggest that utilizing the community’s Buddhist beliefs can foster collaboration between community members and is the only way to improve cluster effectiveness, increase competitive advantage, and in turn conserve the Wualai community.

Keywords: industry clustering, silver handicraft, competitive advantage, intellectual capital, social capital

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7183 The Link between Childhood Maltreatment and Psychological Distress: The Mediation and Moderation Roles of Cognitive Distortion, Alexithymia, and Eudemonic Well-Being

Authors: Siqi Fang, Man Cheung Chung

Abstract:

This study examined the inter-relationship between childhood maltreatment, cognitive distortion, alexithymia, eudemonic well-being, and psychological distress. One hundred and eighty-two university students participated in the study and completed an online survey comprising the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortion Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Psychological Well-Being Scale, and General Health Questionnaire-28. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that child maltreatment, perceptions of hopelessness and helplessness, preoccupation with danger, personal growth, and purpose in life predicted psychological distress. However, alexithymia was not a significant predictor. Further analysis using the regression models with bootstrapping procedure showed that feeling hopeless, helpless and preoccupation with danger mediated the path between child maltreatment and psychological distress. Meanwhile, coping with beliefs in personal growth and life purpose moderated the mediation effects of distorted cognition on psychological distress. To conclude, childhood maltreatment is associated with psychological distress. This relationship is influenced by people’s perceptions of life being hopeless, helpless or dangerous. At the same time, the effect of hopelessness, helplessness, and feelings of danger also depends on the degree of using coping strategies of positive psychological functioning.

Keywords: alexithymia, childhood maltreatment, cognitive distortion, eudemonic well-being, psychological distress

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7182 The Metacognition Levels of Students: A Research School of Physical Education and Sports at Anadolu University

Authors: Dilek Yalız Solmaz

Abstract:

Meta-cognition is an important factor for educating conscious individuals who are aware of their cognitive processes. With this respect, the purposes of this article is to find out the perceived metacognition level of Physical Education and Sports School students at Anadolu University and to identify whether metacognition levels display significant differences in terms of various variables. 416 Anadolu University Physical Education and Sports School students were formed the research universe. "The Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30)" developed by Cartwright-Hatton and Wells and later developed the 30-item short form (MCQ-30) was used. The MCQ-30 which was adapted into Turkish by Tosun and Irak is a four-point agreement scale. In the data analysis, arithmethic mean, standard deviation, t-test and ANOVA were used. There is no statistical difference between mean scores of uncontrollableness and danger, cognitive awareness, cognitive confidence and the positive beliefs of girls and boys students. There is a statistical difference between mean scores of the need to control thinking. There is no statistical difference according to departments of students between mean scores of uncontrollableness and danger, cognitive awareness, cognitive confidence, need to control thinking and the positive beliefs. There is no statistical difference according to grade level of students between mean scores of the positive beliefs, cognitive confidence and need to control thinking. There is a statistical difference between mean scores of uncontrollableness and danger and cognitive awareness.

Keywords: meta cognition, physical education, sports school students, thinking

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7181 A Study on 5-11 Year-Old Children's Level of Knowledge about Personal Safety and Protection from Social Dangers

Authors: Özden Kuşcu, Yağmur Kuşcu, Zeynep Çetintaş, S. Sunay Yildirim Doğru

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effect of the subjects “personal safety” and “protection from dangers” included in primary school curriculum on the students’ levels of knowledge about safety and protection from social dangers. The study group included 469 students between 5–11 years old with 231 preschoolers and 238 primary school students and their parents and teachers. Instruments used to collect data were “Personal Safety Interview Form” for children, “Parent Interview Form” and “Teacher Interview Form”. Forms included 15 open-ended questions about personal safety. The researchers collected the research data through one-on-one interviews with children. Results of the study revealed that preschoolers and 1st, 2nd, and 3rd graders did not know their home addresses and telephone numbers and their families were not aware of that. The study also showed that those who had this information were unsure as to who to share this information with. Accordingly, more should be done to increase the levels of knowledge of preschoolers and 1st, 2nd, and 3rd graders about personal safety and protection from dangers.

Keywords: security, social danger, elementary school, preschool

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
7180 The Effects of Cross-Border Use of Drones in Nigerian National Security

Authors: H. P. Kerry

Abstract:

Drone technology has become a significant discourse in a nation’s national security, while this technology could constitute a danger to national security on the one hand, on the other hand, it is used in developed and developing countries for border security, and in some cases, for protection of security agents and migrants. In the case of Nigeria, drones are used by the military to monitor and tighten security around the borders. However, terrorist groups have devised a means to utilize the technology to their advantage. Therefore, the potential danger in the widespread proliferation of this technology has become a myriad of risks. The research on the effects of cross-border use of drones in Nigerian national security looks at the negative and positive consequences of using drone technology. The study employs the use of interviews and relevant documents to obtain data while the study applied the Just War theory to justify the reason why countries use force; it further buttresses the points with what the realist theory thinks about the use of force. In conclusion, the paper recommends that the Nigerian government through the National Assembly should pass a bill for the establishment of a law that will guide the use of armed and unarmed drones in Nigeria enforced by the Nigeria Civil Aviation Authority and the office of the National Security Adviser.

Keywords: armed drones, drones, cross-border, national security

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7179 Social Entrepreneurship: When Social Innovation Is Driven by Value Creation

Authors: Zeinab Hmama, Majda Alaoui

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship is seen as a response to social problem. The literature on social entrepreneurship highlights two elements: social value creation and economic value creation. The creation of social value is a process that results from the creation of a value with 'value' for society that leads to a social change. However, theoretical thoughts consider that social value is a multidimensional concept that is difficult to define. Many definitions of social value and social change have been proposed. Most of these definitions use financial and economic value to justify the social value created. As a result, social value is often identified in monetary value. Referring to the economic concept to explain social value is not a false approach but limits the understanding of the creation of social value and reduces exploration of opportunities and analysis of other facets of this value. In this article, we explore the dimensions of social entrepreneurship and try to better understand the concept of social value based on the different visions conveyed in the literature.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social impact, social change, measurement, social value, social problem, value creation

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7178 Propagation of the Effects of Certain Types of Military Psychological Operations in a Networked Population

Authors: Colette Faucher

Abstract:

In modern asymmetric conflicts, the Armed Forces generally have to intervene in countries where the internal peace is in danger. They must make the local population an ally in order to be able to deploy the necessary military actions with its support. For this purpose, psychological operations (PSYOPs) are used to shape people’s behaviors and emotions by the modification of their attitudes in acting on their perceptions. PSYOPs aim at elaborating and spreading a message that must be read, listened to and/or looked at, then understood by the info-targets in order to get from them the desired behavior. A message can generate in the info-targets, reasoned thoughts, spontaneous emotions or reflex behaviors, this effect partly depending on the means of conveyance used to spread this message. In this paper, we focus on psychological operations that generate emotions. We present a method based on the Intergroup Emotion Theory, that determines, from the characteristics of the conveyed message and of the people from the population directly reached by the means of conveyance (direct info-targets), the emotion likely to be triggered in them and we simulate the propagation of the effects of such a message on indirect info-targets that are connected to them through the social networks that structure the population.

Keywords: military psychological operations, social identity, social network, emotion propagation

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7177 Intelligent Tutor Using Adaptive Learning to Partial Discharges with Virtual Reality Systems

Authors: Hernández Yasmín, Ochoa Alberto, Hurtado Diego

Abstract:

The aim of this study is developing an intelligent tutoring system for electrical operators training with virtual reality systems at the laboratory center of partials discharges LAPEM. The electrical domain requires efficient and well trained personnel, due to the danger involved in the partials discharges field, qualified electricians are required. This paper presents an overview of the intelligent tutor adaptive learning design and user interface with VR. We propose the develop of constructing a model domain of a subset of partial discharges enables adaptive training through a trainee model which represents the affective and knowledge states of trainees. According to the success of the intelligent tutor system with VR, it is also hypothesized that the trainees will able to learn the electrical domain installations of partial discharges and gain knowledge more efficient and well trained than trainees using traditional methods of teaching without running any risk of being in danger, traditional methods makes training lengthily, costly and dangerously.

Keywords: intelligent tutoring system, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, partials discharges, adaptive learning

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7176 Shift Work and Its Consequences

Authors: Parastoo Vasli

Abstract:

In today's society, more and more people work during ‘non-standard’ working hours, including shift and night work, which are perceived danger factors for health, safety and social prosperity. Appropriate preventive and protective measures are needed to reduce side effects and ensure that the worker can adapt sufficiently. Of the many health effects associated with shift work, sleep disorders are the most widely recognized. The most troubling acute symptoms are difficulty falling asleep, short sleep, and drowsiness during working hours that last for days on end. The outcomes checked on plainly exhibit that shift work is related to expanded mental, social, and physiological drowsiness. Apparently, the effects are due to circadian and hemostatic compounds (sleep loss). Drowsiness is especially evident during night shifts and may lead to drowsiness in real workplace accidents. In some occupations, this is clearly a risk that could endanger human lives and has enormous financial outcomes. These dangers clearly affect a large number of people and should be of great importance to society. In particular, safety in night shifts is consistently reduced.

Keywords: shift work, night work, safety, health, drowsiness

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7175 Safety Risks of Gaseous Toxic Compounds Released from Li Batteries

Authors: Jan Karl, Ondrej Suchy, Eliska Fiserova, Milan Ruzicka

Abstract:

The evolving electromobility and all the electronics also bring an increase of danger with used Li-batteries. Li-batteries have been used in many industries, and currently many types of the batteries are available. Batteries have different compositions that affect their behavior. In the field of Li-battery safety, there are some areas of little discussion, such as extinguishing of fires caused by Li-batteries as well as toxicity of gaseous compounds released from Li batteries, transport or storage. Technical Institute of Fire Protection, which is a part of Fire Brigades of the Czech Republic, is dealing with the safety of Li batteries. That is the reason why we are dealing with toxicity of gaseous compounds released under conditions of fire, mechanical damage, overcharging and other emergencies that may occur. This is necessary for protection of intervening of fire brigade units, people in the vicinity and other envirnomental consequences. In this work, different types of batteries (Li-ion, Li-Po, LTO, LFP) with different kind of damage were tested, and the toxicity and total amount of released gases were studied. These values were evaluated according to their environmental hazard. FTIR spectroscopy was used for the evaluation of toxicity. We used a FTIR gas cell for continuous measurement. The total amount of released gases was determined by collecting the total gas phase through the absorbers and then determining the toxicants absorbed into the solutions. Based on the obtained results, it is possible to determine the protective equipment necessary for the event of an emergency with a Li-battery, to define the environmental load and the immediate danger in an emergency.

Keywords: Li-battery, toxicity, gaseous toxic compounds, FTIR spectroscopy

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7174 Analyzing the Mission Drift of Social Business: Case Study of Restaurant Providing Professional Training to At-Risk Youth

Authors: G. Yanay-Ventura, H. Desivilya Syna, K. Michael

Abstract:

Social businesses are based on the idea that an enterprise can be established for the sake of profit and, at the same time, with the aim of fulfilling social goals. Yet, the question of how these goals can be integrated in practice to derive parallel benefit in both realms still needs to be examined. Particularly notable in this context is the ‘governance challenge’ of social businesses, meaning the danger of the mission drifts from the social goal in the pursuit of good business. This study is based on an evaluation study of a social business that operates as a restaurant providing professional training to at-risk youth. The evaluation was based on the collection of a variety of data through interviews with stakeholders in the enterprise (directors and managers, business partners, social partners, and position holders in the restaurant and the social enterprise), a focus group consisting of the youth receiving the professional training, observations of the restaurant’s operation, and analysis of the social enterprise’s primary documents. The evaluation highlighted significant strengths of the social enterprise, including reaching relatively fast business sustainability, effective management of the restaurant, stable employment of the restaurant staff, and effective management of the social project. The social enterprise and business management have both enjoyed positive evaluations from a variety of stakeholders. Clearly, the restaurant was deemed by all a promising young business. However, the social project suffered from a 90% dropout rate among the youth entering its ranks, extreme monthly fluctuation in the number of youths participating, and a distinct minority of the youth who have succeeded in completing their training period. Possible explanations of the high dropout rate included the small number of cooks, which impeded the effectiveness of the training process and the provision of advanced cooking skills; lack of clarity regarding the essence and the elements of training; and lack of a meaningful peer group for the youth engaged in the program. Paradoxically, despite the stakeholders’ great appreciation for the social enterprise, the challenge of governability was also formidable, revealing a tangible risk of mission drift in the reduction of the social enterprise’s target population and a breach of the commitment made to the youth with regard to practical training. The risk of mission drifts emerged as a hidden and evasive issue for the stakeholders, who revealed a deep appreciation for the management and the outcomes of the social enterprise. The challenge of integration, therefore, requires an in-depth examination of how to maintain a successful business without hindering the achievement of the social goal. The study concludes that clear conceptualization of the training process and its aims, increased cooks’ participation in the social project, and novel conceptions with regard to the evaluation of success could serve to benefit the youth and impede mission drift.

Keywords: evaluation study, management, mission drift, social business

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7173 Risks and Values in Adult Safeguarding: An Examination of How Social Workers Screen Safeguarding Referrals from Residential Homes

Authors: Jeremy Dixon

Abstract:

Safeguarding adults forms a core part of social work practice. The Government in England and Wales has made efforts to standardise practices through The Care Act 2014. The Act states that local authorities have duties to make inquiries in cases where an adult with care or support needs is experiencing or at risk of abuse and is unable to protect themselves from abuse or neglect. Despite the importance given to safeguarding adults within law there remains little research about how social workers conduct such decisions on the ground. This presentation reports on findings from a pilot research study conducted within two social work teams in a Local Authority in England. The objective of the project was to find out how social workers interpreted safeguarding duties as laid out by The Care Act 2014 with a particular focus on how workers assessed and managed risk. Ethnographic research methods were used throughout the project. This paper focusses specifically on decisions made by workers in the assessment team. The paper reports on qualitative observation and interviews with five workers within this team. Drawing on governmentality theory, this paper analyses the techniques used by workers to manage risk from a distance. A high proportion of safeguarding referrals came from care workers or managers in residential care homes. Social workers conducting safeguarding assessments were aware that they had a duty to work in partnership with these agencies. However, their duty to safeguard adults also meant that they needed to view them as potential abusers. In making judgments about when it was proportionate to refer for a safeguarding assessment workers drew on a number of common beliefs about residential care workers which were then tested in conversations with them. Social workers held the belief that residential homes acted defensively, leading them to report any accident or danger. Social workers therefore encouraged residential workers to consider whether statutory criteria had been met and to use their own procedures to manage risk. In addition social workers carried out an assessment of the workers’ motives; specifically whether they were using safeguarding procedures as a shortcut for avoiding other assessments or as a means of accessing extra resources. Where potential abuse was identified social workers encouraged residential homes to use disciplinary policies as a means of isolating and managing risk. The study has implications for understanding risk within social work practice. It shows that whilst social workers use law to govern individuals, these laws are interpreted against cultural values. Additionally they also draw on assumptions about the culture of others.

Keywords: adult safeguarding, governmentality, risk, risk assessment

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7172 'I'm in a Very Safe Place': Webcam Sex Workers in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Their Perceptions of Danger and Risk

Authors: Madeline V. Henry

Abstract:

Sex work is a contested subject in academia. Many authors now argue that the practice should be recognized as a legitimate and rationally chosen form of labor, and that decriminalization is necessary to ensure the safety of sex workers and reduce their stigmatization. However, a prevailing argument remains that the work is inherently violent and oppressive and that all sex workers are directly or indirectly coerced into participating in the industry. This argument has been complicated by the recent proliferation of computer-mediated technologies that allow people to conduct sex work without the need to be physically co-present with customers or pimps. One example of this is the practice of ‘camming’, wherein ‘webcam models’ stream themselves stripping and/or performing autoerotic stimulation in an online chat-room for payment. In this presentation, interviews with eight ‘camgirls’ (aged 22-34) will be discussed. Their talk has been analyzed using Foucauldian discourse analysis, focusing on common discursive threads in relation to the work and their subjectivities. It was found that the participants demonstrated appreciation for the lack of physical danger they were in, but emphasized the unique and significant dangers of online-based sex work (their images and videos being recorded and shared without their consent, for example). Participants also argued that their largest concerns were based around stigma, which they claimed remained prevalent despite the decriminalized legal model in Aotearoa/New Zealand (which has been in place for over 14 years). Overall, this project seeks to challenge commonplace academic approaches to sex work, adding further research to support sex workers’ rights and highlighting new issues to consider in a digital environment.

Keywords: camming, sex work, stigma, risk

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7171 Tracing the Direction of Media Activism: Public Perspective

Authors: G. Arockiasamy, B. Sujeevan Kumar, Surendheran

Abstract:

Human progress and development are highly influenced by the power of information access and technology. A global and multi-national transformation all over the word is possible due to digitalization. In the process of exchanging information, experience, and resources, there is a radical shift in who controls them. Mass media has turned the world into a global village by strengthening communication network. As a result, a new digital culture has emerged as a social network commonly known as new media. Today the advancement of technology is at the doorstep of everyone linking to anywhere. The traditional social restrictions are broken down by the new type of virtual communication modality that transcends people beyond boundaries At the same time media empire has invaded every nook and corner of the world through great expansion. Media activism is growing stronger and stronger but the truth and true meaning lost in the process. This paper explores the peoples’ attitude to media activism and tracing its direction. The methodology employed is random sampling survey and content analysis method. Both qualitatively and quantitatively measured. The findings tend to show 60 percent indicate media activism as positive and others indicate as negative. As a conclusion, media activism has danger within but depends on nature of the development of human orientation.

Keywords: media activism, media industry, program, truth information, orientation and nature

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7170 The Shadow of Terrorism in the World Tourism Industry: Impacts, Prevention and Recovery Strategies

Authors: Maria Brás

Abstract:

The main purpose of the presentation is to identify the impacts and appropriate measures to prevent potential attacks, or minimize the risk of an attack in tourist destination. Terrorism has been growing in the shadow of unpredictability, however, is possible to minimize the danger of a terrorist attack by doing the: (1) recognition; (2); evaluation; (3) avoidance; (4) threat reduction. The vulnerability of tourism industry to terrorism is an undeniable fact, and terrorists know it. They use this advantage attacking tourists for very specific reasons, such as the: (1) international coverage by the media, “if it bleeds it leads” ; (2) chances of getting different nationalities at the same place and time; (3) possibility of destroyed the economy of a destination, or destinations (“terrorism contamination effect”), through the reduction of tourist demand; (4) psychological, and social disruption based on fear of negative consequences. Security incidents, such as terrorism, include different preventive measures that can be conducted in partnership with: tourism industry (hotels, airports, tourist attractions, among others); central government; public and/or private sector; local community; and media. The recovery strategies must be based on the dissemination of positive information to the media; in creating new marketing strategies that emphasize the social and cultural values of the destination; encourage domestic tourism; get government, or state, financial support.

Keywords: terrorism, tourism, safety, security, impacts, prevention, recovery

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7169 Perinatal and Postnatal Counseling as Determinants of Early Newborn Sepsis in Rural Bangladesh

Authors: Sajia Islam, T. Tahsina, S. Raihana, M. M. Rahman, Q. S. Rahman, T. M. Huda, S. E. Arifeen, M. J. Dibley

Abstract:

Early neonatal sepsis accounts for more than two-thirds of all deaths in the first year of life. This study assessed the counseling during antenatal, perinatal, post natal periods and its association with possible sepsis in rural Bangladesh. Method: Data were collected from a large community-based trial in Bangladesh where pregnant women were enrolled from 2013-2015 covering 29,497 newborns. Sepsis was defined using neonatal danger signs reported by 'The Young-Infants Clinical Science Study Group. 'Result: Signs of sepsis was found among 15% of the neonates. Neonatal sepsis was higher among those who did not receive advice on TT vaccinations (15.4% vs. 11%, p < 0.05) and danger signs (14.8% vs. 12.8%, p < 0.05) during pregnancy. Advice on delivering in well-lit place was significantly associated with lower incidence of sepsis (12.7% vs. 14.8% p < 0.05). Sepsis was lower among neonates whose mothers were counseled on immediate newborn care for bathing after 3 days of delivery (13.4% vs. 15.2% p=0), breastfeeding within 1hr of birth (13.82 % vs. 15.28% p=0), apply nothing on the cord (11.54 vs. 15.06 p=0), immediate drying of child (12.62% vs. 14.89%, p=0). Neonatal sepsis was lower among children whose mothers received 2-4 advice [OR=0.91(95% CI: 0.85-0.97)] compared to neonates whose mothers received only 1 or none. Overall, children to mothers who received ≥ 5 advice had lowest incidence of sepsis [OR=0.83 (95% CI: 0.71-0.97)] Conclusion: Advice on antenatal, prenatal and post natal is significantly reduced with early newborn sepsis. Further research is required to identify specific type of counseling messages that translate into practices and reduce pathways towards early-newborn morbidities.

Keywords: ante natal care, counseling, neonatal sepsis, post natal care

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7168 Anti-Social Media: Implications of Social Media in the Form of Stressors on Our Daily Lives

Authors: Aimen Batool Bint-E-Rashid, Huma Irfan

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This research aims to investigate the role of social media (Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter, etc.) in our daily lives and its implication on our everyday routine in the form of stressors. The study has been validated by a social media survey with 150 social media users belonging to various age groups. The study explores how social media can make an individual anti-social in his or her life offline. To explain the phenomenon, we have proposed and evaluated a model based on social media usage and stressors including burnout and social overload. Results, through correlation and regression tests, have revealed that with increase in social media usage, social overload and burnout also increases. Evidence for the fact that excessive social media usage causes social overload and burnout has been provided in the study.

Keywords: burnout, emotional exhaustion, fatigue, stressors, social networking, social media, social overload

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7167 Relationships between Social Entrepreneurship, CSR and Social Innovation: In Theory and Practice

Authors: Krisztina Szegedi, Gyula Fülöp, Ádám Bereczk

Abstract:

The shared goal of social entrepreneurship, corporate social responsibility and social innovation is the advancement of society. The business model of social enterprises is characterized by unique strategies based on the competencies of the entrepreneurs, and is not aimed primarily at the maximization of profits, but rather at carrying out goals for the benefit of society. Corporate social responsibility refers to the active behavior of a company, by which it can create new solutions to meet the needs of society, either on its own or in cooperation with other social stakeholders. The objectives of this article are to define concepts, describe and integrate relevant theoretical models, develop a model and introduce some examples of international practice that can inspire initiatives for social development.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, CSR, social innovation, social entrepreneurship

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7166 Transmission of Intergenerational Trauma: Protecting Those who Still Suffer from Pain of their Ancestors’ Trauma

Authors: Bonnie Pollak

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As the world continues to suffer grievous injuries, future generations will suffer from trauma that was inflicted on innocent victims. Trauma can result from refugees fleeing their homes, exposure to warfare, loss of loved ones, and lack of shelter and basic necessities. The Holocaust continues to cause pain even though WWII ended nearly 80 years ago. One cannot forget the inhumane treatment and murder of relatives. The pain and trauma may continue for generations. The purpose of the Final Solution was to eliminate Jews in totality. Though Hitler’s plan was not successful, he managed to cause trauma that will continue with no end date in sight. “The Effects of Trauma and Secondary Trauma,” Trauma can cause life-long challenges, eating disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, sleeping difficulties, fear of going outside, guilt, separation problems, and epigenetic changes. Secondary Trauma, witnessing a loved one in danger or hearing about the danger, can cause similar symptoms as seen in primary trauma. The transmission of trauma was demonstrated in children of Holocaust survivors and in communities where oppression was commonplace. We are witnessing a repeat of widescale death and horrific injuries today in Ukraine and in other parts of the world, where concern for pain and trauma is not acknowledged by perpetrators. Lessons from the Holocaust can be applied to help others who have been traumatized by widescale terrorism resulting in death of loved ones, loss of home and shelter, food and other life-sustaining measures. The world must help victims by providing basic necessities but also by using trauma-informed care, focusing on strength and resilience, and helping individuals to feel pride in their identity.

Keywords: transmission of intergenerational trauma, impact on religious beliefs and practices, 2nd generation, identity

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7165 Orientation towards Social Entrepreneurship-Prioritary: Givens for Overcoming Social Inequality

Authors: Revaz Gvelesiani

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Nowadays, social inequality increasingly strengthens the trend from business entrepreneurship to social entrepreneurship. It can be said that business entrepreneurs, according to their interests, move towards social entrepreneurship. Effectively operating markets create mechanisms, which lead to 'good' behavior. This is the most important feature of the rationally functioning society. As for the prospects of social entrepreneurship, expansion of entrepreneurship concept at the social arena may lead to such an outcome, when people who are skeptical about business, become more open towards entrepreneurship as a type of activity. This is the way which by means of increased participation in entrepreneurship promotes fair distribution of wealth. Today 'entrepreneurship for all' is still a dream, although the one, which may come true.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, business entrepreneurship, functions of entrepreneurship, social inequality, social interests, interest groups, interest conflicts

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7164 Comprehensive Evaluation of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology in "COVID-19"

Authors: Sahar Heidary, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurrence has carried considerabletrials to the world health system, comprising the training of dental and maxillofacial radiology (DMFR). DMFR will keep avital role in healthcare throughout this disaster. Severe acute breathing disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus producing the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, is not only extremely contagious but can make solemn consequences in susceptible persons comprising dental patients and dental health care personnel (DHCPs). Reactions to COVID-19 have been available by the Cores for Infection Switch and Inhibition and the American Dental Association, but a more detailed answer is necessary for the harmless preparation of oral and maxillofacial radiology. Our goal is to evaluation the existing information just how the illness threatens patients and DHCPs and how to define which patients are possible to be SARS-CoV-2 infected; study how the usage of private shielding utensils and contamination control measures based on recent top observes, and knowledge can decrease the danger of virus spread in radiologic trials; and scrutinize how intraoral radiography, with its actually superior danger of scattering the infection, might be changed by extraoralradiographic methods for definite diagnostic jobs. In the pandemic, teleradiology has been extensively recycled for diagnostic determinations of COVID-19 patients, for discussions with radiologists in crisis cases, or managing of distance among radiology clinics. Dentists can have the digital radiographic images of their emergency patients through online service area also by electronic message or messaging applications to view in their smart phones, laptops, or other electronic devices.

Keywords: radiology, dental, oral, COVID-19, infection

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7163 Social Business: Opportunities and Challenges

Authors: Muhammad Mustafizur Rahaman

Abstract:

Social business is a new concept in the field of Business Economics and Capitalist Economy. It has increased the importance in economic and social development in emerging economies. Professor Muhammad Yunus is the founding father of the notion. While conventional business underscores profit maximization as a core business principle, social business calls for addressing social problems at the expense of profit. This underlying principle gives social business advantageous position over conventional businesses to serve those who live at the bottom of the pyramid. It also poses grave challenges to the social business because social business sacrifices profit at one hand and seeks financial sustainability on the other. For the sake of its financial sustainability, the social business might increase the price of its product or service which might lower its social impact, thus, makes the business self-defeating. Therefore, social business should be more innovative in every business process including production, marketing, and management. Otherwise, the business is unlikely to be driven out from the society.

Keywords: innovativeness, self-defeat, social business, social problem

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7162 Determinants of Internationalization of Social Enterprises: A 20-Year Review

Authors: Xiaoqing Li

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship drives the global movement as social enterprises create best ways to satisfy social needs through connecting international resources. However, what determines social enterprises to internationalize is underexplored. This study aims to answer this question by conducting a systematic review of studies of past 20 years on social enterprises' internationalization. Findings reveal that factors at the individual (entrepreneur), firm, and environment (home and host country) levels determine the degree of social enterprises' internationalization. Future research is challenged by: a. adopting an integrated approach examining the three levels to explain social enterprises' internationalization; b. the different nature of social enterprises from commercial businesses demands scholars to refine and develop appropriate theoretical models to capture the dynamism of social enterprises' internationalization behavior.

Keywords: determinants, entrepreneurship, internationalization, social enterprises

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7161 Social Business Models: When Profits and Impacts Are Not at Odds

Authors: Elisa Pautasso, Matteo Castagno, Michele Osella

Abstract:

In the last decade, the emergence of new social needs as an effect of the economic crisis has stimulated the flourishing of business endeavours characterised by explicit social goals. Social start-ups, social enterprises or Corporate Social Responsibility operations carried out by traditional companies are quintessential examples in this regard. This paper analyses these kinds of initiatives in order to discover the main characteristics of social business models and to provide insights to social entrepreneurs for developing or improving their strategies. The research is conducted through the integration of literature review and case study analysis and, thanks to the recognition of the importance of both profits and social impacts as the key success factors for a social business model, proposes a framework for identifying indicators suitable for measuring the social impacts generated.

Keywords: business model, case study, impacts, social business

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7160 The Effectiveness of Social Story with the Help Smart Board use to Teach Social Skills for Preschool Children with ASD

Authors: Dilay Akgun Giray

Abstract:

Basic insuffiency spaces of ASD diagnosed individuals can be grouped as cognitive and academic characteristics, communicational characteristics, social characteristics and emotional characteristics. Referring to the features that children with ASD exhibit on social events, it is clear they have limitations for several social skills. One of the evidence based practices which has been developed and used for the limitations of definite social skills for individuals with autism is “Social Story Method”. Social stories was designed and applied for the first time in 1991, a special education teacher, in order to acquire social skills and improve the existing social skills for children with ASD. Many studies have revealed the effectiveness of social stories for teaching the social skills to individuals with ASD. In this study, three social skills that the child ,who was diagnosed ASD, is going to need primarily will be studied with smart board. This study is multiple probe across-behavior design which is one of the single subject research models.

Keywords: authism spectrum disorders, social skills, social story, smart board

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7159 Social Structure, Involuntary Relations and Urban Poverty

Authors: Mahmood Niroobakhsh

Abstract:

This article deals with special structuralism approaches to explain a certain kind of social problem. Widespread presence of poverty is a reminder of deep-rooted unresolved problems of social relations. The expected role from an individual for the social system recognizes poverty derived from an interrelated social structure. By the time, enabled to act on his role in the course of social interaction, reintegration of the poor in society may take place. Poverty and housing type are reflections of the underlying social structure, primarily structure’s elements, systemic interrelations, and the overall strength or weakness of that structure. Poverty varies based on social structure in that the stronger structures are less likely to produce poverty.

Keywords: absolute poverty, relative poverty, social structure, urban poverty

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7158 The Journey to Social Entrepreneurship: Profile Analysis of Social Enterprises in Morocco

Authors: Zeinab Hmama

Abstract:

Much recent discourse has highlighted the supporting role of social entrepreneurs in solving social problems. However, the identification of social enterprise’s characteristics in emerging countries has not yet been thoroughly examined. This research seeks to explores the profile of social enterprises in Morocco. In this perspective, we conduct a quantitative study on a sample of 87 social enterprises. This study was undertaken in Morocco based on a quantitative study lead among sample consists of 82 organizations qualified as social enterprises. Therefore, the response rate was 45.12% (37/82). Participants in the study were described on the basis of the following demographic characteristics: Gender, Age, Education Level and field, Entrepreneurial activity age, Legal forms, Line of business.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social enterprise, problem resolution, value creation

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7157 Water Problems, Social Mobilization and Migration: A Case Study of Lake Urmia

Authors: Fatemeh Dehghan Khangahi, Hakan Gunes

Abstract:

Transforming a public necessity into a commercial commodity becomes more and more evident as time goes on, and it is one of the issues of water shortage. Development projects of countries, consume the water and waterbeds in various forms, ignoring the concepts such as sustainability and the negative effects they place on the environment, pollute and change the ways of waterways. Throughout these processes, the water basins and all the vital environments sometimes can suffer damage to the irreparable level. In this context, the issue of Lake Urmia that is located in the North West of Iran left alone by drought, has been researched. The lake, which is on the list of UNESCO's biosphere reserves, is now exposed to the danger of desiccation. If the desiccation is fully realized, more than 5.000.000 people that they are living around the lake, will have to migrate as a result of negative living conditions. As a matter of fact, along with the recent years of increasing drought level, regional migrations have begun. In addition to migration issues, it is also necessary to specify the negative effects on human and all-round’s life that depend on the formation of salt storms, mixing of salt into the air and soil, which threaten human health seriously because the lake is salty. The main aim of this work is to raise national and international awareness of this problem, which is an environment and a human tragedy at the same time. This research has two basic questions: 1) In the case of Lake Urmia, what are environmental problems and how they have emerged and what is the role of governments? 2) What is the social consequence of this problem in relation to the first question? In response, after the literature search, having a comparative view of the situation of the Aral Sea and the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA), which involved the two major international examples. The first, one is related to the terms of population and migration, the second is about biological properties. Then, data and status information that provided after 3 years area research has been evaluated. Towards the end, with the support of qualitative and quantitative methods, the study of social mobilization in the region has been carried out. An example of it is using the public space of TRAXTOR matches like a protests area.

Keywords: environment problems, water, social mobilization, Lake Urmia, migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 59