Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4188

Search results for: shear stress TIG welding

4188 Operational Advantages of Tungsten Inert Gas over Metal Inert Gas Welding Process

Authors: Emmanuel Ogundimu, Esther Akinlabi, Mutiu Erinosho


In this research, studies were done on the material characterization of type 304 austenitic stainless steel weld produced by TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) and MIG (Metal Inert Gas) welding processes. This research is aimed to establish optimized process parameters that will result in a defect-free weld joint, homogenous distribution of the iron (Fe), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) was observed at the welded joint of all the six samples. The welded sample produced at the current of 170 A by TIG welding process had the highest ultimate tensile strength (UTS) value of 621 MPa at the welds zone, and the welded sample produced by MIG process at the welding current of 150 A had the lowest UTS value of 568 MPa. However, it was established that TIG welding process is more appropriate for the welding of type 304 austenitic stainless steel compared to the MIG welding process.

Keywords: microhardness, microstructure, tensile, MIG welding, process, tensile, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

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4187 Effect of Welding Current on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Tungsten Inert Gas Welding of Type-304 Austenite Stainless Steel

Authors: Emmanuel Ogundimu, Esther Akinlabi, Mutiu Erinosho


The aim of this paper is to study the effect of welding current on the microstructure and the mechanical properties. Material characterizations were conducted on a 6 mm thick plates of type-304 austenite stainless steel, welded by TIG welding process at two different welding currents of 150 A (Sample F3) and 170 A (Sample F4). The tensile strength and the elongation obtained from sample F4 weld were approximately 584 MPa and 19.3 %; which were higher than sample F3 weld. The average microhardness value of sample F4 weld was found to be 235.7 HV, while that of sample F3 weld was 233.4 HV respectively. Homogenous distribution of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were observed at the welded joint of the two samples. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that Fe, Cr, and Ni made up the composition formed in the weld zone. The optimum welding current of 170 A for TIG welding of type-304 austenite stainless steel can be recommended for high-tech industrial applications.

Keywords: microhardness, microstructure, tensile, MIG welding, process, tensile, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

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4186 Material Flow Modeling in Friction Stir Welding of AA6061-T6 Alloy and Study of the Effect of Process Parameters

Authors: B. SahaRoy, T. Medhi, S. C. Saha


To understand the friction stir welding process, it is very important to know the nature of the material flow in and around the tool. The process is a combination of both thermal as well as mechanical work i.e it is a coupled thermo-mechanical process. Numerical simulations are very much essential in order to obtain a complete knowledge of the process as well as the physics underlying it. In the present work a model based approach is adopted in order to study material flow. A thermo-mechanical based CFD model is developed using a Finite Element package, Comsol Multiphysics. The fluid flow analysis is done. The model simultaneously predicts shear strain fields, shear strain rates and shear stress over the entire workpiece for the given conditions. The flow fields generated by the streamline plot give an idea of the material flow. The variation of dynamic viscosity, velocity field and shear strain fields with various welding parameters is studied. Finally the result obtained from the above mentioned conditions is discussed elaborately and concluded.

Keywords: AA6061-T6, CFD modelling, friction stir welding, material flow

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4185 Laser Micro-Welding of an Isomorphous System with Different Geometries: An Investigation on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the Joint

Authors: Mahdi Amne Elahi, Marcus Koch, Peter Plapper


Due to the demand of miniaturizing in automotive industry, the application of laser welding is quite promising. The current study focused on laser micro-welding of CuSn6 bronze and nickel wire for a miniature electromechanical hybrid component. Due to the advantages of laser welding, the welding can be tailored specifically for the requirements of the part. Scanning electron and optical microscopy were implemented to study the microstructure and tensile-shear test was selected to represent the mechanical properties. Different welding sides, beam oscillations, and speeds have been investigated to optimize the tensile-shear load and microstructure. The results show that the mechanical properties and microstructure of the joint is highly under the influence of the mentioned parameters. Due to the lack of intermetallic compounds, the soundness of the joint is achievable by manipulating the geometry of the weld seam and minimize weld defects.

Keywords: bronze, laser micro-welding, microstructure, nickel, tensile shear test

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4184 Wall Shear Stress Under an Impinging Planar Jet Using the Razor Blade Technique

Authors: A. Ritcey, J. R. Mcdermid, S. Ziada


Wall shear stress was experimentally measured under a planar impinging air jet as a function of jet Reynolds number (Rejet = 5000, 8000, 11000) and different normalized impingement distances (H/D = 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) using the razor blade technique to complete a parametric study. The wall pressure, wall pressure gradient, and wall shear stress information were obtained.

Keywords: experimental fluid mechanics, impinging planar jets, skin friction factor, wall shear stress

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4183 Optimization of Friction Stir Spot Welding Process Parameters for Joining 6061 Aluminum Alloy Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Mohammed A. Tashkandi, Jawdat A. Al-Jarrah, Masoud Ibrahim


This paper investigates the shear strength of the joints produced by friction stir spot welding process (FSSW). FSSW parameters such as tool rotational speed, plunge depth, shoulder diameter of the welding tool and dwell time play the major role in determining the shear strength of the joints. The effect of these four parameters on FSSW process as well as the shear strength of the welded joints was studied via five levels of each parameter. Taguchi method was used to minimize the number of experiments required to determine the fracture load of the friction stir spot-welded joints by incorporating independently controllable FSSW parameters. Taguchi analysis was applied to optimize the FSSW parameters to attain the maximum shear strength of the spot weld for this type of aluminum alloy.

Keywords: Friction Stir Spot Welding, Al6061 alloy, Shear Strength, FSSW process parameters

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4182 Effect of Silt Presence on Shear Strength Parameters of Unsaturated Sandy Soils

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, E. Khavaninzadeh, M. Ghorbani Tochaee


Direct shear test is widely used in soil mechanics experiment to determine the shear strength parameters of granular soils. For analysis of soil stability problems such as bearing capacity, slope stability and lateral pressure on soil retaining structures, the shear strength parameters must be known well. In the present study, shear strength parameters are determined in silty-sand mixtures. Direct shear tests are performed on 161 Firoozkooh sand with different silt content at a relative density of 70% in three vertical stress of 100, 150, and 200 kPa. Wet tamping method is used for soil sample preparation, and the results include diagrams of shear stress versus shear deformation and sample height changes against shear deformation. Accordingly, in different silt percent, the shear strength parameters of the soil such as internal friction angle and dilation angle are calculated and compared. According to the results, when the sample contains up to 10% silt, peak shear strength and internal friction angle have an upward trend. However, if the sample contains 10% to 50% of silt a downward trend is seen in peak shear strength and internal friction angle.

Keywords: shear strength parameters, direct shear test, silty sand, shear stress, shear deformation

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4181 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Heat Input on the Weld Efficiency of TIG-MIG Hybrid Welding of Type-304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Emmanuel Ogundimu, Esther Akinlabi, Mutiu Erinosho


Welding is described as the process of joining metals so that bonding can be created as a result of inter-atomic penetration. This study investigated the influence of heat input on the efficiency of the welded joints of 304 stainless steel. Three welds joint were made from two similar 304 stainless steel plates of thickness 6 mm. The tensile results obtained showed that the maximum average tensile strength of 672 MPa is possessed by the sample A1 with low heat input. It was discovered that the tensile strength, % elongation and weld joint efficiency decreased with the increase in heat input into the weld. The average % elongation for the entire samples ranged from 28.4% to 36.5%. Sample A1 had the highest joint efficiency of 94.5%. However, the optimum welding current of 190 for TIG- MIG hybrid welding of type-304 austenite stainless steel can be recommended for advanced technological applications such as aircraft manufacturing, nuclear industry, automobile industry, and processing industry.

Keywords: microhardness, microstructure, tensile, MIG welding, process, tensile, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
4180 Modelling and Analysis of Shear Banding in Flow of Complex Fluids

Authors: T. Chinyoka


We present the Johnson-Segalman constitutive model to capture certain fluid flow phenomena that has been experimentally observed in the flow of complex polymeric fluids. In particular, experimentally observed phenomena such as shear banding, spurt and slip are explored and/or explained in terms of the non-monotonic shear-stress versus shear-rate relationships. We also explore the effects of the inclusion of physical flow aspects such as wall porosity on shear banding. We similarly also explore the effects of the inclusion of mathematical modelling aspects such as stress diffusion into the stress constitutive models in order to predict shear-stress (or shear-rate) paths. We employ semi-implicit finite difference methods for all the computational solution procedures.

Keywords: Johnson-Segalman model, diffusive Johnson-Segalman model, shear banding, finite difference methods, complex fluid flow

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4179 Shear Reinforcement of Stone Columns During Soil Liquefaction

Authors: Zeineb Ben Salem, Wissem Frikha, Mounir Bouassida


The aim of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of stone columns as a liquefaction countermeasure focusing on shear reinforcementbenefit. In fact, stone columns which have high shear modulus relative to the surrounding soils potentially can carry higher shear stress levels. Thus, stone columns provide shear reinforcement and decrease the Cyclic Shear Stress Ratio CSR to which the treated soils would be subjected during an earthquake. In order to quantify the level of shear stress reduction in reinforced soil, several approaches have been developed. Nevertheless, the available approaches do not take into account the improvement of the soil parameters, mainly the shear modulusdue to stone columns installation. Indeed, in situ control tests carried out before and after the installation of stone columns based upon the results of collected data derived from 24 case histories have given evidence of the improvement of the existing soil properties.In this paper, the assessment of shear reinforcement of stone columns that accounts such improvement of the soil parameters due to stone column installation is investigated. Comparative results indicate that considering the improvement effects considerably affect the assessment of shear reinforcement for liquefaction analysis of reinforced soil by stone columns.

Keywords: stone column, liquefaction, shear reinforcement, CSR, soil improvement

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4178 Free Vibration and Buckling of Rectangular Plates under Nonuniform In-Plane Edge Shear Loads

Authors: T. H. Young, Y. J. Tsai


A method for determining the stress distribution of a rectangular plate subjected to two pairs of arbitrarily distributed in-plane edge shear loads is proposed, and the free vibration and buckling of such a rectangular plate are investigated in this work.  The method utilizes two stress functions to synthesize the stress-resultant field of the plate with each of the stress functions satisfying the biharmonic compatibility equation. The sum of stress-resultant fields due to these two stress functions satisfies the boundary conditions at the edges of the plate, from which these two stress functions are determined. Then, the free vibration and buckling of the rectangular plate are investigated by the Galerkin method. Numerical results obtained by this work are compared with those appeared in the literature, and good agreements are observed.

Keywords: stress analysis, free vibration, plate buckling, nonuniform in-plane edge shear

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4177 Determination of Stress-Strain Curve of Duplex Stainless Steel Welds

Authors: Carolina Payares-Asprino


Dual-phase duplex stainless steel comprised of ferrite and austenite has shown high strength and corrosion resistance in many aggressive environments. Joining duplex alloys is challenging due to several embrittling precipitates and metallurgical changes during the welding process. The welding parameters strongly influence the quality of a weld joint. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify the weld bead’s integral properties as a function of welding parameters, especially when part of the weld bead is removed through a machining process due to aesthetic reasons or to couple the elements in the in-service structure. The present study uses the existing stress-strain model to predict the stress-strain curves for duplex stainless-steel welds under different welding conditions. Having mathematical expressions that predict the shape of the stress-strain curve is advantageous since it reduces the experimental work in obtaining the tensile test. In analysis and design, such stress-strain modeling simplifies the time of operations by being integrated into calculation tools, such as the finite element program codes. The elastic zone and the plastic zone of the curve can be defined by specific parameters, generating expressions that simulate the curve with great precision. There are empirical equations that describe the stress-strain curves. However, they only refer to the stress-strain curve for the stainless steel, but not when the material is under the welding process. It is a significant contribution to the applications of duplex stainless steel welds. For this study, a 3x3 matrix with a low, medium, and high level for each of the welding parameters were applied, giving a total of 27 weld bead plates. Two tensile specimens were manufactured from each welded plate, resulting in 54 tensile specimens for testing. When evaluating the four models used to predict the stress-strain curve in the welded specimens, only one model (Rasmussen) presented a good correlation in predicting the strain stress curve.

Keywords: duplex stainless steels, modeling, stress-stress curve, tensile test, welding

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4176 Effect of Vibration Amplitude and Welding Force on Weld Strength of Ultrasonic Metal Welding

Authors: Ziad. Sh. Al Sarraf


Ultrasonic metal welding has been the subject of ongoing research and development, most recently concentrating on metal joining in miniature devices, for example to allow solder-free wire bonding. As well as at the small scale, there are also opportunities to research the joining of thicker sheet metals and to widen the range of similar and dissimilar materials that can be successfully joined using this technology. This study presents the design, characterisation and test of a lateral-drive ultrasonic metal spot welding device. The ultrasonic metal spot welding horn is modelled using finite element analysis (FEA) and its vibration behaviour is characterised experimentally to ensure ultrasonic energy is delivered effectively to the weld coupon. The welding stack and fixtures are then designed and mounted on a test machine to allow a series of experiments to be conducted for various welding and ultrasonic parameters. Weld strength is subsequently analysed using tensile-shear tests. The results show how the weld strength is particularly sensitive to the combination of clamping force and ultrasonic vibration amplitude of the welding tip, but there are optimal combinations of these and also limits that must be clearly identified.

Keywords: ultrasonic welding, vibration amplitude, welding force, weld strength

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4175 Influence of Composite Adherents Properties on the Dynamic Behavior of Double Lap Bonded Joint

Authors: P. Saleh, G. Challita, R. Hazimeh, K. Khalil


In this paper 3D FEM analysis was carried out on double lap bonded joint with composite adherents subjected to dynamic shear. The adherents are made of Carbon/Epoxy while the adhesive is epoxy Araldite 2031. The maximum average shear stress and the stress homogeneity in the adhesive layer were examined. Three fibers textures were considered: UD; 2.5D and 3D with same volume fiber then a parametric study based on changing the thickness and the type of fibers texture in 2.5D was accomplished. Moreover, adherents’ dissimilarity was also investigated. It was found that the main parameter influencing the behavior is the longitudinal stiffness of the adherents. An increase in the adherents’ longitudinal stiffness induces an increase in the maximum average shear stress in the adhesive layer and an improvement in the shear stress homogeneity within the joint. No remarkable improvement was observed for dissimilar adherents.

Keywords: adhesive, composite adherents, impact shear, finite element

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4174 A New Developed Formula to Determine the Shear Buckling Stress in Welded Aluminum Plate Girders

Authors: Badr Alsulami, Ahmed S. Elamary


This paper summarizes and presents main results of an in-depth numerical analysis dealing with the shear buckling resistance of aluminum plate girders. The studies conducted have permitted the development of a simple design expression to determine the critical shear buckling stress in aluminum web panels. This expression takes into account the effects of reduction of strength in aluminum alloys due to the welding process. Ultimate shear resistance (USR) of plate girders can be obtained theoretically using Cardiff theory or Hӧglund’s theory. USR of aluminum alloy plate girders predicted theoretically using BS8118 appear inconsistent when compared with test data. Theoretical predictions based on Hӧglund’s theory, are more realistic. Cardiff theory proposed to predict the USR of steel plate girders only. Welded aluminum alloy plate girders studied experimentally by others; the USR resulted from tests are reviewed. Comparison between the test results with the values obtained from Hӧglund’s theory, BS8118 design method, and Cardiff theory performed theoretically. Finally, a new equation based on Cardiff tension-field theory proposed to predict theoretically the USR of aluminum plate girders.

Keywords: shear resistance, aluminum, Cardiff theory, Hӧglund's theory, plate girder

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4173 Microfluidic Fluid Shear Mechanotransduction Device Using Linear Optimization of Hydraulic Channels

Authors: Sanat K. Dash, Rama S. Verma, Sarit K. Das


A logarithmic microfluidic shear device was designed and fabricated for cellular mechanotransduction studies. The device contains four cell culture chambers in which flow was modulated to achieve a logarithmic increment. Resistance values were optimized to make the device compact. The network of resistances was developed according to a unique combination of series and parallel resistances as found via optimization. Simulation results done in Ansys 16.1 matched the analytical calculations and showed the shear stress distribution at different inlet flow rates. Fabrication of the device was carried out using conventional photolithography and PDMS soft lithography. Flow profile was validated taking DI water as working fluid and measuring the volume collected at all four outlets. Volumes collected at the outlets were in accordance with the simulation results at inlet flow rates ranging from 1 ml/min to 0.1 ml/min. The device can exert fluid shear stresses ranging four orders of magnitude on the culture chamber walls which will cover shear stress values from interstitial flow to blood flow. This will allow studying cell behavior in the long physiological range of shear stress in a single run reducing number of experiments.

Keywords: microfluidics, mechanotransduction, fluid shear stress, physiological shear

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4172 Influence of Yield Stress and Compressive Strength on Direct Shear Behaviour of Steel Fibre-Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Bensaid Boulekbache, Mostefa Hamrat, Mohamed Chemrouk, Sofiane Amziane


This study aims in examining the influence of the paste yield stress and compressive strength on the behaviour of fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) versus direct shear. The parameters studied are the steel fibre contents, the aspect ratio of fibres and the concrete strength. Prismatic specimens of dimensions 10x10x35cm made of concrete of various yield stress reinforced with steel fibres hooked at the ends with three fibre volume fractions (i.e. 0, 0.5, and 1%) and two aspects ratio (65 and 80) were tested to direct shear. Three types of concretes with various compressive strength and yield stress were tested, an ordinary concrete (OC), a self-compacting concrete (SCC) and a high strength concrete (HSC). The concrete strengths investigated include 30 MPa for OC, 60 MPa for SCC and 80 MPa for HSC. The results show that the shear strength and ductility are affected and have been improved very significantly by the fibre contents, fibre aspect ratio and concrete strength. As the compressive strength and the volume fraction of fibres increase, the shear strength increases. However, yield stress of concrete has an important influence on the orientation and distribution of the fibres in the matrix. The ductility was much higher for ordinary and self-compacting concretes (concrete with good workability). The ductility in direct shear depends on the fibre orientation and is significantly improved when the fibres are perpendicular to the shear plane. On the contrary, for concrete with poor workability, an inadequate distribution and orientation of fibres occurred, leading to a weak contribution of the fibres to the direct shear behaviour.

Keywords: concrete, fibre, direct shear, yield stress, orientation, strength

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4171 The Effect of Combined Fluid Shear Stress and Cyclic Stretch on Endothelial Cells

Authors: Daphne Meza, Louie Abejar, David A. Rubenstein, Wei Yin


Endothelial cell (ECs) morphology and function is highly impacted by the mechanical stresses these cells experience in vivo. Any change in the mechanical environment can trigger pathological EC responses. A detailed understanding of EC morphological response and function upon subjection to individual and simultaneous mechanical stimuli is needed for advancement in mechanobiology and preventive medicine. To investigate this, a programmable device capable of simultaneously applying physiological fluid shear stress (FSS) and cyclic strain (CS) has been developed, characterized and validated. Its validation was performed both experimentally, through tracer tracking, and theoretically, through the use of a computational fluid dynamics model. The effectiveness of the device was evaluated through EC morphology changes under mechanical loading conditions. Changes in cell morphology were evaluated through: cell and nucleus elongation, cell alignment and junctional actin production. The results demonstrated that the combined FSS-CS stimulation induced visible changes in EC morphology. Upon simultaneous fluid shear stress and biaxial tensile strain stimulation, cells were elongated and generally aligned with the flow direction, with stress fibers highlighted along the cell junctions. The concurrent stimulation from shear stress and biaxial cyclic stretch led to a significant increase in cell elongation compared to untreated cells. This, however, was significantly lower than that induced by shear stress alone, indicating that the biaxial tensile strain may counteract the elongating effect of shear stress to maintain the shape of ECs. A similar trend was seen in alignment, where the alignment induced by the concurrent application of shear stress and cyclic stretch fell in between that induced by shear stress and tensile stretch alone, indicating the opposite role shear stress and tensile strain may play in cell alignment. Junctional actin accumulation was increased upon shear stress alone or simultaneously with tensile stretch. Tensile stretch alone did not change junctional actin accumulation, indicating the dominant role of shear stress in damaging EC junctions. These results demonstrate that the shearing-stretching device is capable of applying well characterized dynamic shear stress and tensile strain to cultured ECs. Using this device, EC response to altered mechanical environment in vivo can be characterized in vitro.

Keywords: cyclic stretch, endothelial cells, fluid shear stress, vascular biology

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4170 Simulations of Welding and Heat Treatment through Steel Production Process

Authors: He Gao, Ellen Vd Aa, Tony Vd Veldt


After liquid steel is cast and hot-rolled, welding is extensively applied at different production lines, e.g. pickling, cold rolling, galvanising and packaging. However, welding problems are inevitable and frequently reported from production, which leads to a line stop associated with considerable costs. In this work, a thorough numerical process model is created to simulate a laser welding, heat treatment and external tension process. The welding model is firstly validated with thermocouple and weld fusion measurements. Then the weld history is predefined to a heat treatment model to study stress relaxation and redistribution. The welded and heat-treated workpiece is subsequently subject to external tension, and a critical condition for a safe process is determined.

Keywords: laser welding, heat treatment, FEM, AHSS

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4169 Resistance Spot Welding of Boron Steel 22MnB5 with Complex Welding Programs

Authors: Szymon Kowieski, Zygmunt Mikno


The study involved the optimization of process parameters during resistance spot welding of Al-coated martensitic boron steel 22MnB5, applied in hot stamping, performed using a programme with a multiple current impulse mode and a programme with variable pressure force. The aim of this research work was to determine the possibilities of a growth in welded joint strength and to identify the expansion of a welding lobe. The process parameters were adjusted on the basis of welding process simulation and confronted with experimental data. 22MnB5 steel is known for its tendency to obtain high hardness values in weld nuggets, often leading to interfacial failures (observed in the study-related tests). In addition, during resistance spot welding, many production-related factors can affect process stability, e.g. welding lobe narrowing, and lead to the deterioration of quality. Resistance spot welding performed using the above-named welding programme featuring 3 levels of force made it possible to achieve 82% of welding lobe extension. Joints made using the multiple current impulse program, where the total welding time was below 1.4s, revealed a change in a peeling mode (to full plug) and an increase in weld tensile shear strength of 10%.

Keywords: 22MnB5, hot stamping, interfacial fracture, resistance spot welding, simulation, single lap joint, welding lobe

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4168 Depth-Averaged Velocity Distribution in Braided Channel Using Calibrating Coefficients

Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua


Rivers are the backbone of human civilization as well as one of the most important components of nature. In this paper, a method for predicting lateral depth-averaged velocity distribution in a two-flow braided compound channel is proposed. Experiments were conducted to study the boundary shear stress in the tip of the two flow path. The cross-section of the channel is divided into several panels to study the flow phenomenon on both the main channel and the flood plain. It can be inferred from the study that the flow coefficients get affected by boundary shear stress. In this study, the analytical solution of Shiono and knight (SKM) for lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity and bed shear stress has been taken into account. The SKM is based on hydraulic parameters, which signify the bed friction factor (f), lateral eddy viscosity, and depth-averaged flow. While applying the SKM to different panels, the equations are solved considering the boundary conditions between panels. The boundary shear stress data, which are obtained from experimentation, are compared with CES software, which is based on quasi-one-dimensional Reynold's Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach.

Keywords: boundary shear stress, lateral depth-averaged velocity, two-flow braided compound channel, velocity distribution

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4167 Influences of Plunge Speed on Axial Force and Temperature of Friction Stir Spot Welding in Thin Aluminum A1100

Authors: Suwarsono, Ario S. Baskoro, Gandjar Kiswanto, Budiono


Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new technique for joining metal. In some cases on aluminum joining, FSW gives better results compared with the arc welding processes, including the quality of welds and produces less distortion.FSW welding process for a light structure and thin materials requires small forces as possible, to avoid structure deflection. The joining process on FSW occurs because of melting temperature and compressive forces, the temperature generation of caused by material deformation and friction between the cutting tool and material. In this research, High speed rotation of spindle was expected to reduce the force required for deformation. The welding material was Aluminum A1100, with thickness of 0.4 mm. The tool was made of HSS material which was shaped by micro grinding process. Tool shoulder diameter is 4 mm, and the length of pin was 0.6 mm (with pin diameter= 1.5 mm). The parameters that varied were the plunge speed (2 mm/min, 3 mm/min, 4 mm/min). The tool speed is fixed at 33,000 rpm. Responses of FSSW parameters to analyze were Axial Force (Z-Force), Temperature and the Shear Strength of welds. Research found the optimum µFSSW parameters, it can be concluded that the most important parameters in the μFSSW process was plunge speed. lowest plunge speed (2 mm / min) causing the lowest axial force (110.40 Newton). The increases of plunge speed will increase the axial force (maximum Z-Farce= 236.03 Newton), and decrease the shear strength of welds.

Keywords: friction stir spot welding, aluminum A1100, plunge speed, axial force, shear strength

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4166 Study the Effect of Roughness on the Higher Order Moment to Extract Information about the Turbulent Flow Structure in an Open Channel Flow

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar


The present study was carried out to understand the extent of effect of roughness and Reynolds number in open channel flow (OCF). To this extent, four different types of bed surface conditions consisting smooth, distributed roughness, continuous roughness, natural sand bed and two different Reynolds number for each bed surfaces were adopted in this study. Particular attention was given on mean velocity, turbulence intensity, Reynolds shear stress, correlation, higher order moments and quadrant analysis. Further, the extent of influence of roughness and Reynolds number in the depth-wise direction also studied. Increasing Reynolds shear stress near rough beds are noticed due to arrays of discrete roughness elements and flow over these elements generating a series of wakes which contributes to the generation of significantly higher Reynolds shear stress.

Keywords: bed roughness, ejection and sweep, open channel flow, Reynolds shear stress, turbulent boundary layer, velocity triple product

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4165 A New Approach to the Boom Welding Technique by Determining Seam Profile Tracking

Authors: Muciz Özcan, Mustafa Sacid Endiz, Veysel Alver


In this paper we present a new approach to the boom welding related to the mobile cranes manufacturing, implementing a new method in order to get homogeneous welding quality and reduced energy usage during booms production. We aim to get the realization of the same welding quality carried out on the boom in every region during the manufacturing process and to detect the possible welding errors whether they could be eliminated using laser sensors. We determine the position of the welding region directly through our system and with the help of the welding oscillator we are able to perform a proper boom welding. Errors that may occur in the welding process can be observed by monitoring and eliminated by means of an operator. The major modification in the production of the crane booms will be their form of the booms. Although conventionally, more than one welding is required to perform this process, with the suggested concept, only one particular welding is sufficient, which will be more energy and environment-friendly. Consequently, as only one welding is needed for the manufacturing of the boom, the particular welding quality becomes more essential. As a way to satisfy the welding quality, a welding manipulator was made and fabricated. By using this welding manipulator, the risks of involving dangerous gases formed during the welding process for the operator and the surroundings are diminished as much as possible.

Keywords: boom welding, seam tracking, energy saving, global warming

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4164 Inertia Friction Pull Plug Welding, a New Weld Repair Technique of Aluminium Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Guoqing Wang, Yanhua Zhao, Lina Zhang, Jingbin Bai, Ruican Zhu


Friction stir welding with bobbin tool is a simple technique compared to conventional FSW since the backing fixture is no longer needed and assembling labor is reduced. It gets adopted more and more in the aerospace industry as a result. However, a post-weld problem, the left keyhole, has to be fixed by forced repair welding. To close the keyhole, the conventional fusion repair could be an option if the joint properties are not deteriorated; friction push plug welding, a forced repair, could be another except that a rigid support unit is demanded at the back of the weldment. Therefore, neither of the above ways is satisfaction in welding a large enclosed structure, like rocket propellant tank. Although friction pulls plug welding does not need a backing plate, the wide applications are still held back because of the disadvantages in respects of unappropriated tensile stress, (i.e. excessive stress causing neck shrinkage of plug that will bring about back defects while insufficient stress causing lack of heat input that will bring about face defects), complicated welding parameters (including rotation speed, transverse speed, friction force, welding pressure and upset),short welding time (approx. 0.5 sec.), narrow windows and poor stability of process. In this research, an updated technique called inertia friction pull plug welding, and its equipment was developed. The influencing rules of technological parameters on joint properties of inertia friction pull plug welding were observed. The microstructure characteristics were analyzed. Based on the elementary performance data acquired, the conclusion is made that the uniform energy provided by an inertia flywheel will be a guarantee to a stable welding process. Meanwhile, due to the abandon of backing plate, the inertia friction pull plug welding is considered as a promising technique in repairing keyhole of bobbin tool FSW and point type defects of aluminium base material.

Keywords: defect repairing, equipment, inertia friction pull plug welding, technological parameters

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4163 A Mathematical Model of Pulsatile Blood Flow through a Bifurcated Artery

Authors: D. Srinivasacharya, G. Madhava Rao


In this article, the pulsatile flow of blood flow in bifurcated artery with mild stenosis is investigated. Blood is treated to be a micropolar fluid with constant density. The arteries forming bifurcation are assumed to be symmetric about its axes and straight cylinders of restricted length. As the geometry of the stenosed bifurcated artery is irregular, it is changed to regular geometry utilizing the appropriate transformations. The numerical solutions, using the finite difference method, are computed for the flow rate, the shear stress, and the impedance. The influence of time, coupling number, half of the bifurcated angle and Womersley number on shear stress, flow rate and impedance (resistance to the flow) on both sides of the flow divider is shown graphically. It has been observed that the shear stress and flow rate are increasing with increase in the values of Womersley number and bifurcation angle on both sides of the apex. The shear stress is increasing along the inner wall and decreasing along the outer wall of the daughter artery with an increase in the value of coupling number. Further, it has been noticed that the shear stress, flow rate, and impedance are perturbed largely near to the apex in the parent artery due to the presence of backflow near the apex.

Keywords: micropolar fluid, bifurcated artery, stenosis, back flow, secondary flow, pulsatile flow, Womersley number

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4162 Bending Test Characteristics for Splicing of Thermoplastic Polymer Using Hot Gas Welding

Authors: Prantasi Harmi Tjahjanti, Iswanto Iswanto, Edi Widodo, Sholeh Pamuji


Materials of the thermoplastic polymer when they break is usually thrown away, or is recycled which requires a long process. The purpose of this study is to splice the broken thermoplastic polymer using hot gas welding with different variations of welding wire/electrodes. Materials of thermoplastic polymer used are Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by using welding wire like the three materials. The method is carried out by using hot gas welding; there are two materials that cannot be connected, namely PE with PVC welding wire, and PP with PVC welding wire. The permeable liquid penetrant test is PP with PE welding wire, and PVC with PE welding wire. The best bending test result with the longest elongation is PE with PE welding wire with a bending test value of 179.03 kgf/mm². The microstructure was all described in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations.

Keywords: thermoplastic polymers, bending test, polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), hot gas welding, bending test

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4161 The Mechanical Behavior of a Chemically Stabilized Soil

Authors: I Lamri, L Arabet, M. Hidjeb


The direct shear test was used to determine the shear strength parameters C and Ø of a series of samples with different cement content. Samples stabilized with a certain percentage of cement showed a substantial gain in compressive strength and a significant increase in shear strength parameters. C and Ø. The laboratory equipment used in UCS tests consisted of a conventional 102mm diameter sample triaxial loading machine. Beyond 4% cement content a very important increase in shear strength was observed. It can be deduced from a comparative study of shear strength of soil samples with 4%, 7%, and 10% cement with sample containing 2 %, that the sample with a 4% cement content showed 90% increase in shear strength while those with 7% and 10% showed an increase of around 13 and 21 fold.

Keywords: cement, compression strength, shear stress, cohesion, angle of internal friction

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4160 Effect of Hydrostatic Stress on Yield Behavior of the High Density Polyethylene

Authors: Kamel Hachour, Lydia Sadeg, Djamel Sersab, Tassadit Bellahcen


The hydrostatic stress is, for polymers, a significant parameter which affects the yield behavior of these materials. In this work, we investigate the influence of this parameter on yield behavior of the high density polyethylene (hdpe). Some tests on specimens with diverse geometries are described in this paper. Uniaxial tests: tensile on notched round bar specimens with different curvature radii, compression on cylindrical specimens and simple shear on parallelepiped specimens were performed. Biaxial tests with various combinations of tensile/compressive and shear loading on butterfly specimens were also realized in order to determine the hydrostatic stress for different states of solicitation. The experimental results show that the yield stress is very affected by the hydrostatic stress developed in the material during solicitations.

Keywords: biaxial tests, hdpe, Hydrostatic stress, yield behavior

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4159 Effect of Welding Parameters on Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Aluminum Alloys Produced by Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Khalil Aghapouramin


The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical and microstructural properties of dissimilar and similar aluminum alloys welded by Friction Stir Welding (FSW). The specimens investigated by applying different welding speed and rotary speed. Typically, mechanical properties of the joints performed through tensile test fatigue test and microhardness (HV) at room temperature. Fatigue test investigated by using electromechanical testing machine under constant loading control with similar since wave loading. The Maximum stress versus minimum got the range between 0.1 to 0.3 in the research. Based upon welding parameters by optical observation and scanning electron microscopy microstructural properties fulfilled with a cross section of welds, in addition, SEM observations were made of the fracture surfaces

Keywords: friction stir welding, fatigue and tensile test, Al alloys, microstructural behavior

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