Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Le Quang Huy

31 Blind Speech Separation Using SRP-PHAT Localization and Optimal Beamformer in Two-Speaker Environments

Authors: Hai Quang Hong Dam, Hai Ho, Minh Hoang Le Ngo

Abstract:

This paper investigates the problem of blind speech separation from the speech mixture of two speakers. A voice activity detector employing the Steered Response Power - Phase Transform (SRP-PHAT) is presented for detecting the activity information of speech sources and then the desired speech signals are extracted from the speech mixture by using an optimal beamformer. For evaluation, the algorithm effectiveness, a simulation using real speech recordings had been performed in a double-talk situation where two speakers are active all the time. Evaluations show that the proposed blind speech separation algorithm offers a good interference suppression level whilst maintaining a low distortion level of the desired signal.

Keywords: blind speech separation, voice activity detector, SRP-PHAT, optimal beamformer

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30 Generating Product Description with Generative Pre-Trained Transformer 2

Authors: Minh-Thuan Nguyen, Phuong-Thai Nguyen, Van-Vinh Nguyen, Quang-Minh Nguyen

Abstract:

Research on automatically generating descriptions for e-commerce products is gaining increasing attention in recent years. However, the generated descriptions of their systems are often less informative and attractive because of lacking training datasets or the limitation of these approaches, which often use templates or statistical methods. In this paper, we explore a method to generate production descriptions by using the GPT-2 model. In addition, we apply text paraphrasing and task-adaptive pretraining techniques to improve the qualify of descriptions generated from the GPT-2 model. Experiment results show that our models outperform the baseline model through automatic evaluation and human evaluation. Especially, our methods achieve a promising result not only on the seen test set but also in the unseen test set.

Keywords: GPT-2, product description, transformer, task-adaptive, language model, pretraining

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29 Directional Ground Improvement Technique for Urban Tunnel Projects in Vietnam

Authors: Le Quang Hanh

Abstract:

Almost all big cities in Vietnam are often located in the river deltas. Therefore the ground condition on these cities is mostly soft soil. As a result, the soil strengthen works are mandatory in order to prevent the harmful to the third parties and tunnel structure itself in urban tunnel projects in Vietnam. This paper will particularly introduce the large diameter jet-grouted column technique that is recently being successfully applied in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. The success application of this technique for protecting the historical sensitive building and for water cutoff objective of launching and arriving shafts in the urban tunnel project, will be analyzed from construction process, quality control and lessons learnt. From this situation, the large diameter jet-grouted column technique can extend to another urban tunnel projects in Vietnam and other countries which have similar soft soil conditions.

Keywords: large diameter, jet grouting, ground improvement, urban tunnel

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28 Persistent Homology of Convection Cycles in Network Flows

Authors: Minh Quang Le, Dane Taylor

Abstract:

Convection is a well-studied topic in fluid dynamics, yet it is less understood in the context of networks flows. Here, we incorporate techniques from topological data analysis (namely, persistent homology) to automate the detection and characterization of convective/cyclic/chiral flows over networks, particularly those that arise for irreversible Markov chains (MCs). As two applications, we study convection cycles arising under the PageRank algorithm, and we investigate chiral edges flows for a stochastic model of a bi-monomer's configuration dynamics. Our experiments highlight how system parameters---e.g., the teleportation rate for PageRank and the transition rates of external and internal state changes for a monomer---can act as homology regularizers of convection, which we summarize with persistence barcodes and homological bifurcation diagrams. Our approach establishes a new connection between the study of convection cycles and homology, the branch of mathematics that formally studies cycles, which has diverse potential applications throughout the sciences and engineering.

Keywords: homology, persistent homolgy, markov chains, convection cycles, filtration

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27 The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.

Keywords: The photon-drag effect, the constant current density, quantum wire, parabolic potential

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26 Study on Discontinuity Properties of Phased-Array Ultrasound Transducer Affecting to Sound Pressure Fields Pattern

Authors: Tran Trong Thang, Nguyen Phan Kien, Trinh Quang Duc

Abstract:

The phased-array ultrasound transducer types are utilities for medical ultrasonography as well as optical imaging. However, their discontinuity characteristic limits the applications due to the artifacts contaminated into the reconstructed images. Because of the effects of the ultrasound pressure field pattern to the echo ultrasonic waves as well as the optical modulated signal, the side lobes of the focused ultrasound beam induced by discontinuity of the phased-array ultrasound transducer might the reason of the artifacts. In this paper, a simple method in approach of numerical simulation was used to investigate the limitation of discontinuity of the elements in phased-array ultrasound transducer and their effects to the ultrasound pressure field. Take into account the change of ultrasound pressure field patterns in the conditions of variation of the pitches between elements of the phased-array ultrasound transducer, the appropriated parameters for phased-array ultrasound transducer design were asserted quantitatively.

Keywords: phased-array ultrasound transducer, sound pressure pattern, discontinuous sound field, numerical visualization

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25 Numerical Modeling Analysis for the Double-Layered Asphalt Pavement Structure Behavior with Interface Bonding

Authors: Minh Tu Le, Quang Huy Nguyen, Mai Lan Nguyen

Abstract:

Bonding characteristics between pavement layers have an important influence on responses of pavement structures. This paper deals with analytical solution for the stresses, strains, and deflections of double-layered asphalt pavement structure. This solution is based on the homogeneous half-space of layered theory developed by Burmister (1943). The partial interaction between the layers is taken into account by considering an interface bonding behavior which is obtained by push-out shear test. Numerical applications considering three cases of bonding (unbonded, partially bonded, and fully bonded overlays) are carried out to the influence of the interface bonding on the structural behavior of asphalt pavement under static loading. Further, it was observed that numerical results indicate that the horizontal shear reaction modulus at the interface (Ks) will significantly affect pavement structure behavior.

Keywords: analytical solution, interface bonding, shear test keyword, double-layered asphalt, shear reaction modulus

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24 Advanced Catechol-Modified Chitosan Hydrogels with the Inducement of Iron (III) Ion at Acidic Condition

Authors: Ngoc Quang Nguyen, Daewon Sohn

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Chitosan (CS) is a natural polycationic polysaccharide and pH-sensitive polymer with incomplete deacetylation from claiming chitin. It is also a guaranteeing material in terms of pharmaceutical, chemical, and sustenance industry due to its exceptional structure (reactive –OH and –NH2 groups). In this study, a catechol-functionalized chitosan (CCS, for an eminent level for substitution) was synthesized and propelled by marine mussel cuticles in place on research those intricate connections between Fe³⁺ and catechol under acidic conditions. The ratios of catechol, chitosan and other reagents decide the structure of the hydrogel. The gel formation is then well-maintained by dual cross-linking through electrostatic interactions between Fe³⁺ and CCS and covalent catechol-coupling-based coordinate bonds. The hydrogels showed enhanced cohesiveness and shock-absorbing properties with increasing pH due to coordinate bonds inspired by mussel byssal threads. Thus, the gelation time, rheological properties, UV-vis and ¹H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, and the morphologic aspects were elucidated to describe those crosslinking components and the physical properties of the chitosan backbones and hydrogel frameworks.

Keywords: catechol, chitosan, iron ion, gelation, hydrogel

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23 Registration of Multi-Temporal Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Images for Facility Monitoring

Authors: Dongyeob Han, Jungwon Huh, Quang Huy Tran, Choonghyun Kang

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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been used for surveillance, monitoring, inspection, and mapping. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for automatic registration of UAV images for monitoring facilities such as building, green house, and civil structures. The two-step process is applied; 1) an image matching technique based on SURF (Speeded up Robust Feature) and RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus), 2) bundle adjustment of multi-temporal images. Image matching to find corresponding points is one of the most important steps for the precise registration of multi-temporal images. We used the SURF algorithm to find a quick and effective matching points. RANSAC algorithm was used in the process of finding matching points between images and in the bundle adjustment process. Experimental results from UAV images showed that our approach has a good accuracy to be applied to the change detection of facility.

Keywords: building, image matching, temperature, unmanned aerial vehicle

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22 Influence of Confined Acoustic Phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas Magnetoresistance Oscillations in a Doped Semiconductor Superlattice

Authors: Pham Ngoc Thang, Le Thai Hung, Nguyen Quang Bau

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The influence of confined acoustic phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations in a doped semiconductor superlattice (DSSL), subjected in a magnetic field, DC electric field, and a laser radiation, has been theoretically studied based on quantum kinetic equation method. The analytical expression for the magnetoresistance in a DSSL has been obtained as a function of external fields, DSSL parameters, and especially the quantum number m characterizing the effect of confined acoustic phonons. When m goes to zero, the results for bulk phonons in a DSSL could be achieved. Numerical calculations are also achieved for the GaAs:Si/GaAs:Be DSSL and compared with other studies. Results show that the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations amplitude decrease as the increasing of phonon confinement effect.

Keywords: Shubnikov–de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations, quantum kinetic equation, confined acoustic phonons, laser radiation, doped semiconductor superlattices

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21 Review of K0-Factors and Related Nuclear Data of the Selected Radionuclides for Use in K0-NAA

Authors: Manh-Dung Ho, Van-Giap Pham, Van-Doanh Ho, Quang-Thien Tran, Tuan-Anh Tran

Abstract:

The k0-factors and related nuclear data, i.e. the Q0-factors and effective resonance energies (Ēr) of the selected radionuclides which are used in the k0-based neutron activation analysis (k0-NAA), were critically reviewed to be integrated in the “k0-DALAT” software. The k0- and Q0-factors of some short-lived radionuclides: 46mSc, 110Ag, 116m2In, 165mDy, and 183mW, were experimentally determined at the Dalat research reactor. The other radionuclides selected are: 20F, 36S, 49Ca, 60mCo, 60Co, 75Se, 77mSe, 86mRb, 115Cd, 115mIn, 131Ba, 134mCs, 134Cs, 153Gd, 153Sm, 159Gd, 170Tm, 177mYb, 192Ir, 197mHg, 239U and 239Np. The reviewed data as compared with the literature data were biased within 5.6-7.3% in which the experimental re-determined factors were within 6.1 and 7.3%. The NIST standard reference materials: Oyster Tissue (1566b), Montana II Soil (2711a) and Coal Fly Ash (1633b) were used to validate the new reviewed data showing that the new data gave an improved k0-NAA using the “k0-DALAT” software with a factor of 4.5-6.8% for the investigated radionuclides.

Keywords: neutron activation analysis, k0-based method, k0 factor, Q0 factor, effective resonance energy

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20 State Budget Accounting: Factors Affected and Basic Orientation to Vietnamese Public Sector Entities

Authors: Pham Quang Huy

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State budget is considered as an effective tool for controlling, adjusting and regulating the market economy of any countries. To ensure that the activities of the state in the fields of politics, economy and society has been efficiency, it requires major sources of certain budget. These financial funds are formed from tax revenues and tax revenues beyond. Therefore, the Governments need to have an accounting regime to manage the receipt, expenditure which are suitable for recording a full range of items. From that, it can help to increase the transparency and accountability in budget system. One of the main requirements in Vietnamese policies is to improve that accounting system of revenues and expenditures which can provide many reports to meet the information required of government and users, as well as directions to the trends of international standards requirements. By using quantitative research methods and analytical models to exploring factors, the main purpose of this article is to identify the factors affecting budget accounting and providing some direction for Vietnamese public sector in the future. The results indicated that Vietnam budget accounting has been impacted by seven factors and aims to implement three main orientations in the public sector units.

Keywords: state budget, accounting, IPSAS, budget management, government, public sector

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19 Applying an Application-Based Knowledge Capturing and Reusing for Construction Consultant Organizations Applying

Authors: Phan Nghiem Vu, Le Tuan Vu, Ta Quang Tai

Abstract:

Knowledge Management effectively is critical to the survival and advance of a company, especially in company-based industries such as construction. Knowledge management practice is crucial to the survival and progress of a company, especially company-based knowledge such as construction consultancy. Effective knowledge management practices are very significant to the competitive and development of a consulting organization. Hence, the success of knowledge management implementation depends on knowledge capturing and reusing effectively. In this paper, a survey was carried out of engineers and managers with experience in seven construction consulting organizations that provide services on the north-central coast of Vietnam. The main objectives of the survey to finding out how these organizations capture and reuse knowledge and significant barriers to the implementation of knowledge management. A conceptual framework based-on Trello application is proposed to formalize the knowledge-capturing and reusing process within construction consulting companies. It is showed that the conceptual framework could be used to manage both implicit and explicit knowledge effectively in construction consultant organizations.

Keywords: knowledge management, construction consultant organization, knowledge capturing, reusing knowledge, application-based technology

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18 Numerical Simulation of High Strength Steel Hot-Finished Elliptical Hollow Section Subjected to Uniaxial Eccentric Compression

Authors: Zhengyi Kong, Xueqing Wang, Quang-Viet Vu

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In this study, the structural behavior of high strength steel (HSS) hot-finished elliptical hollow section (EHS) subjected to uniaxial eccentric compression is investigated. A finite element method for predicting the cross-section resistance of HSS hot-finished EHS is developed using ABAQUS software, which is then verified by comparison with previous experiments. The validated finite element method is employed to carry out parametric studies for investigating the structural behavior of HSS hot-finished EHS under uniaxial eccentric compression and evaluate the current design guidance for HSS hot-finished EHS. Different parameters, such as the radius of the larger and smaller outer diameter of EHS, thickness of EHS, eccentricity, and material property, are considered. The resulting data from 84 finite element models are used to obtain the relationship between the cross-section resistance of HSS hot-finished EHS and cross-section slenderness. It is concluded that current design provisions, such as EN 1993-1-1, BS 5950-1, AS4100, and Gardner et al., are conservative for predicting the HSS hot-finished EHS under uniaxial eccentric compression.

Keywords: hot-finished, elliptical hollow section, uniaxial eccentric compression, finite element method

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17 Population and Age Structure of the Goby Stigmatogobius pleurostigma in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Authors: Quang M. Dinh

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Stigmatogobius pleurostigma is a commercial fish being caught increasingly in the Mekong Delta. Although it plays an important role for food supply, little is known about this species including morphology, distribution and growth pattern. Meanwhile, its population and age structure is unknown. The present study was conducted in the Mekong Delta to provide new data on population parameters of this goby species. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L∞= 8.6 cm, K = 0.83 yr⁻¹, and t0 = -0.07 yr⁻¹ basing on length frequency data analysis of 601 individuals. The fish total length at first capture was 3.8 cm; and fishing, natural and total mortalities of the fish population were 2.31 yr⁻¹, 1.17 yr⁻¹, and 3.48 yr⁻¹ respectively. The maximum fish yield (Eₘₐₓ), economic yield (E₀.₁) and yield of 50% reduction of exploitation (E₅₀) rates were 0.704, 0.555 and 0.335 based on the relative yield-per-recruit and biomass-per-recruit analyses. The fish longevity was 3.61 yr, and growth performance was 1.79. Three fish age groups were recorded in this study (0+, 1+ and 2+). The species is a potential aquaculture candidate because of its high growth parameter. This goby stock was overexploited in the Mekong Delta as its exploitation rate (E=0.34) was higher than E₅₀ (0.335). The mesh size of gillnets should be increased and avoid catching fish in June, recruitment time, for future sustainable fishery management.

Keywords: Stigmatogobius pleurostigma, age, population structure, Vietnam

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16 Age and Population Structure of the Goby Parapocryptes Serperaster in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, Based on Length-Frequency and Otolith Analyses

Authors: Quang Minh Dinh, Jian Guang Qin, Sabine Dittmann, Dinh Dac Tran

Abstract:

The age and population structure the dermal gopy Parapocryptes serperaster were studied using length distributions, otolith and von Bertalanffy model in the Mekong Delta over a whole year through monthly sampling. The sex ratio of P. serperaster was near 1:1, and von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L∞= 25.2 cm, K = 0.74 yr-1, and t0 = -0.22 yr-1. Fish size at first entry to fishery was 14.6 cm, and fishing mortality (1.57 yr-1) and natural mortality (1.51 yr-1) accounted for 51% and 49% of the total mortality (3.07 yr-1), respectively. Relative yield-per-recruit and biomass-per-recruit analyses revealed the levels of maximum exploitation yield (Emax = 0.83), maximum economic yield (E0.1 = 0.71) and the yield at 50% reduction of exploitation (E0.5 = 0.37). Otoliths from 164 female and 196 male gobies were readable, and the otolith morphometry data were used for age identification. The mean age estimated by reading otolith annual rings and by analysing length frequency distribution was consistent. This study shows that the otolith morphometry is a reliable method for aging this goby and possibly also applicable for other tropical gobies. The fishery analysis indicates that this goby stock has not been overexploited in the Mekong Delta.

Keywords: Parapcryptes serperaster, otolith, age, pulation structure, Vietnam

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15 Tourist Attraction through Agricultural Way of Life: A Case Study at Tra Que Village, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam

Authors: Ha Van Trung, Suchint Simaraks

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Agro-tourism is a form of rural tourism that has actively developed in recent years. Tra Que vegetable village has developed this type of tourism to meet the needs of visitors to visit and experience. However, in the process of agricultural tourism development, Tra Que village is facing many issues related to the agricultural way of life, affecting the attraction of tourists. The purpose of this study is to find those issues. The survey questionnaire of 71 households and a semi-structured group interview of 30 households has been applied for the data collection. Research results show that there is a shortage of young workers, lack of training in tourism and agricultural production, and households only exploit a few agricultural activities for tourism. The number of households receiving tourists tends to decrease, and the number of households selling products to tourists at farms accounts for a small proportion. These will affect sustainable agro-tourism development in the future. Focusing on training local households in tourism and agricultural production, encourage young generation to preserve the agricultural way of life, upgrade infrastructure and public services, develop agro-products and tourism services will contribute to the sustainable development of agro-tourism in Tra Que vegetable village in the future.

Keywords: agro-tourism, way of life, Vietnamese tourists, Tra Que vegetable village

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14 The Hall Coefficient and Magnetoresistance in Rectangular Quantum Wires with Infinitely High Potential under the Influence of a Laser Radiation

Authors: Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

The Hall Coefficient (HC) and the Magnetoresistance (MR) have been studied in two-dimensional systems. The HC and the MR in Rectangular Quantum Wire (RQW) subjected to a crossed DC electric field and magnetic field in the presence of a Strong Electromagnetic Wave (EMW) characterized by electric field are studied in this work. Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with optical phonons, we obtain the analytic expressions for the HC and the MR with a dependence on magnetic field, EMW frequency, temperatures of systems and the length characteristic parameters of RQW. These expressions are different from those obtained for bulk semiconductors and cylindrical quantum wires. The analytical results are applied to GaAs/GaAs/Al. For this material, MR depends on the ratio of the EMW frequency to the cyclotron frequency. Indeed, MR reaches a minimum at the ratio 5/4, and when this ratio increases, it tends towards a saturation value. The HC can take negative or positive values. Each curve has one maximum and one minimum. When magnetic field increases, the HC is negative, achieves a minimum value and then increases suddenly to a maximum with a positive value. This phenomenon differs from the one observed in cylindrical quantum wire, which does not have maximum and minimum values.

Keywords: hall coefficient, rectangular quantum wires, electron-optical phonon interaction, quantum kinetic equation

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13 Hall Coefficient in the Presence of Strong Electromagnetic Waves Caused by Confined Electrons and Phonons in a Rectangular Quantum Wire

Authors: Nguyen Quang Bau, Nguyen Thu Huong, Dang Thi Thanh Thuy

Abstract:

The analytic expression for the Hall Coefficient (HC) caused by the confined electrons in the presence of a strong electromagnetic wave (EMW) including the effect of phonon confinement in rectangular quantum wires (RQWs) is calculated by using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons in the case of electron - optical phonon scattering. It is because the expression of the HC for the confined phonon case contains indexes m, m’ which are specific to the phonon confinement. The expression in a RQW is different from that for the case of unconfined phonons in a RQW or in 2D. The results are numerically calculated and discussed for a GaAs/GaAsAl RQW. The numerical results show that HC in a RQW can have both negative and positive values. This is different from the case of the absence of EMW and the case presence of EMW including the effect of phonon unconfinement in a RQW. These results are also compared with those in the case of unconfined phonons in a RQW and confined phonons in a quantum well. The conductivity in the case of confined phonon has more resonance peaks compared with that in case of unconfined phonons in a RQW. This new property is the same in quantum well. All results are compared with the case of unconfined phonons to see differences.

Keywords: Hall coefficient, rectangular quantum wires, electron-optical phonon interaction, quantum kinetic equation, confined phonons

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12 Flood Planning Based on Risk Optimization: A Case Study in Phan-Calo River Basin in Vinh Phuc Province, Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Quang Kim, Nguyen Thu Hien, Nguyen Thien Dung

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Flood disasters are increasing worldwide in both frequency and magnitude. Every year in Vietnam, flood causes great damage to people, property, and environmental degradation. The flood risk management policy in Vietnam is currently updated. The planning of flood mitigation strategies is reviewed to make a decision how to reach sustainable flood risk reduction. This paper discusses the basic approach where the measures of flood protection are chosen based on minimizing the present value of expected monetary expenses, total residual risk and costs of flood control measures. This approach will be proposed and demonstrated in a case study for flood risk management in Vinh Phuc province of Vietnam. Research also proposed the framework to find a solution of optimal protection level and optimal measures of the flood. It provides an explicit economic basis for flood risk management plans and interactive effects of options for flood damage reduction. The results of the case study are demonstrated and discussed which would provide the processing of actions helped decision makers to choose flood risk reduction investment options.

Keywords: drainage plan, flood planning, flood risk, residual risk, risk optimization

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11 Optimizing Design Works in Construction Consultant Company: A Knowledge-Based Application

Authors: Phan Nghiem Vu, Le Tuan Vu, Ta Quang Tai

Abstract:

The optimal construction design used during the execution of a construction project is a key factor in determining high productivity and customer satisfaction, however, this management process sometimes is carried out without care and the systematic method that it deserves, bringing negative consequences. This study proposes a knowledge management (KM) approach that will enable the intelligent use of experienced and acknowledged engineers to improve the management of construction design works for a project. Then a knowledge-based application to support this decision-making process is proposed and described. To define and design the system for the application, semi-structured interviews were conducted within five construction consulting organizations with the purpose of studying the way that the method’ optimizing process is implemented in practice and the knowledge supported with it. A system of an optimizing construction design works (OCDW) based on knowledge was developed then validated with construction experts. The OCDW was liked as a valuable tool for construction design works’ optimization, by supporting organizations to generate a corporate memory on this issue, reducing the reliance on individual knowledge and also the subjectivity of the decision-making process. The benefits are described as provided by the performance support system, reducing costs and time, improving product design quality, satisfying customer requirements, expanding the brand organization.

Keywords: optimizing construction design work, construction consultant organization, knowledge management, knowledge-based application

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10 The Light-Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with an Infinite Potential for the Case of Electrons: Optical Phonon Scattering

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Vu Nhan, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

The light-effect in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons, optical phonon scattering, is studied based on the quantum kinetic equation. The density of the direct current in a cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field, and an intense laser field is calculated. Analytic expressions for the density of the direct current are studied as a function of the frequency of the laser radiation field, the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, the temperature of system, and the size of quantum wire. The density of the direct current in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons – optical phonon scattering is nonlinearly dependent on the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The analytic expressions are numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wire, GaAs/GaAsAl.

Keywords: the light–effect, cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential, the density of the direct current, electrons-optical phonon scattering

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9 Thermophilic Anaerobic Granular Membrane Distillation Bioreactor for Wastewater Reuse

Authors: Duong Cong Chinh, Shiao-Shing Chen, Le Quang Huy

Abstract:

Membrane distillation (MD) is actually claimed to be a cost-effective separation process when waste heat, alternative energy sources, or wastewater are used. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that a thermophilic anaerobic granular bioreactor is integrated with membrane distillation (ThAnMDB) was investigated. In this study, the laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactor (1.2 litter) was set-up. The bioreactor was maintained at temperature 55 ± 2°C, hydraulic retention time = 0.5 days, organic loading rates of 7 and 10 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m³/day. Side-stream direct contact membrane distillation with the polytetrafluoroethylene membrane area was 150 cm². The temperature of the distillate was kept at 25°C. Results show that distillate flux was 19.6 LMH (Liters per square meter per hour) on the first day and gradually decreased to 6.9 LMH after 10 days, and the membrane was not wet. Notably, by directly using the heat from the thermophilic anaerobic for MD separation process, all distilled water from wastewater was reuse as fresh water (electrical conductivity < 120 µs/cm). The ThAnMDB system showed its high pollutant removal performance: chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 99.6 to 99.9%, NH₄⁺ from 60 to 95%, and PO₄³⁻ complete removal. In addition, methane yield was from 0.28 to 0.34 lit CH₄/gram COD removal (80 – 97% of the theoretical) demonstrated that the ThAnMDB system was quite stable. The achievement of the ThAnMDB is not only in removing pollutants and reusing wastewater but also in absolutely unnecessarily adding alkaline to the anaerobic bioreactor system.

Keywords: high rate anaerobic digestion, membrane distillation, thermophilic anaerobic, wastewater reuse

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8 Applied Free Living Nematode as Bioindicator to Assess Environmental Impact of Dam Construction in Ba Lai Estuary, Vietnam

Authors: Ngo Xuan Quang, Tran Thanh Thai, Ann Vanreusel

Abstract:

The Ba Lai dam construction was created in 2000 in the Ba Lai estuarine river, Ben Tre province, Vietnam to prevent marine water infiltration, drainage and de-acidification, and to build a reservoir of freshwater for land reclamation in the Ba Lai tributary. However, this dam is considered as an environmental failure for the originally connected estuarine and river ecosystem, especially to bad effect to benthic fauna distribution. This research aims to study applying free living nematode communities’ distribution in disturbance of dam construction as bioindicator to detect environmental impact. Nematode samples were collected together measuring physical–chemical environmental parameters such as chlorophyll, CPE, coliform, nutrient, grain size, salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, temperature in three stations within three replicates. Results showed that free living nematode communities at the dam construction was significantly low densities, low diversity (Hurlbert’s index, Hill diversity indices) and very low maturity index in comparison with two remaining stations. Strong correlation of nematode feeding types and communities’ structure was found in relation with sediment grain size and nutrient enrichment such nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and pigment concentration. Moreover, greatly negative link between nematode maturity index with nutrient parameters can serve as warning organic pollution of the Ba Lai river due to dam construction.

Keywords: Ba Lai, dam impact, nematode, environment

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7 Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous People of Community Forest User Groups of Parbat District, Nepal

Authors: Gokul Gaudel, Zhang Wen Hui, Dang Quang Hung, Le Thi Hien, Liang Xiao

Abstract:

The community forests of Nepal serve as a major source of medicinal plants for majority of local people who are dependent on traditional health care system. This study aims to explore the ethnobotanical information of the medicinal plants used by five different community forest user groups of Parbat district of Nepal. The research was conducted during different periods of the year 2015, using semi-structured, open-ended questionnaires, formal and informal interviews, and group discussions. In total 145 different plant species within 77 families were documented, the majority of them being herb were found to be used to treat 84 different ailments. In terms of plant parts use: whole plants, barks, fruits, leaves were found to be in top priorities. Oral administration was the dominant route (57%), followed by both oral and dermal route (29%) and dermal only (14%). Females were found to have 24% more ethnobotanical knowledge than male. The knowledge of ethnobotanical medicinal plants was found excellent on age group 65-75. This study showed that community forests of Parbat district are rich in medicinal plants but the new generation was found less interested in using them. Easy access to modern medicines, lack of documentation and knowledge transfer to young generations are the major causes of diminishing utility of traditional medicinal practices.

Keywords: ailments, community forest, ethnobotany, medicinal plants, Parbat

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6 Evidence of Total Mercury Biomagnification in Tropical Estuary Lagoon in East Coast of Peninsula, Malaysia

Authors: Quang Dung Le, Kentaro Tanaka, Viet Dung Luu, Kotaro Shirai

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Mercury pollutant is great concerns in globe due to its toxicity and biomagnification through the food web. Recently increasing approaches of stable isotope analyses which have applied in food-web structure are enabled to elucidate more insight trophic transfer of pollutants in ecosystems. In this study, the integration of total mercury (Hg) and stable isotopic analyses (δ13C and δ15N) were measured from basal food sources to invertebrates and fishes in order to determine Hg transfer in Setiu lagoon food webs. The average Hg concentrations showed the increasing trend from low to high trophic levels. The result also indicated that potential Hg exposure from inside mangrove could be higher than that from the tidal flat of mangrove creek. Fish Hg concentrations are highly variable, and many factors driving this variability need further examinations. A positive correlation found between Hg concentrations and δ15N values (the trophic magnification factor was 3.02), suggesting Hg biomagnification through the lagoon food web. Almost all Hg concentrations in fishes and mud crabs did not present a risk for human consumption, however, the Hg concentrations of Caranx ignobilis exceed the permitted level could raise a concern of the potential risk for the marine system. Further investigations should be done to elucidate whether trophic relay relates to high Hg concentrations of some fish species in coastal systems.

Keywords: mercury, transfer, stable isotopes, health risk, mangrove, food web

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5 Determining Water Quantity from Sprayer Nozzle Using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Image Processing Techniques

Authors: M. Nadeem, Y. K. Chang, C. Diallo, U. Venkatadri, P. Havard, T. Nguyen-Quang

Abstract:

Uniform distribution of agro-chemicals is highly important because there is a significant loss of agro-chemicals, for example from pesticide, during spraying due to non-uniformity of droplet and off-target drift. Improving the efficiency of spray pattern for different cropping systems would reduce energy, costs and to minimize environmental pollution. In this paper, we examine the water jet patterns in order to study the performance and uniformity of water distribution during the spraying process. We present a method to quantify the water amount from a sprayer jet by using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The results of the study will be used to optimize sprayer or nozzles design for chemical application. For this study, ten sets of images were acquired by using the following PIV system settings: double frame mode, trigger rate is 4 Hz, and time between pulsed signals is 500 µs. Each set of images contained different numbers of double-framed images: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 at eight different pressures 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 kPa. The PIV images obtained were analysed using custom-made image processing software for droplets and volume calculations. The results showed good agreement of both manual and PIV measurements and suggested that the PIV technique coupled with image processing can be used for a precise quantification of flow through nozzles. The results also revealed that the method of measuring fluid flow through PIV is reliable and accurate for sprayer patterns.

Keywords: image processing, PIV, quantifying the water volume from nozzle, spraying pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
4 Payments for Forest Environmental Services: Advantages and Disadvantages in the Different Mechanisms in Vietnam North Central Area

Authors: Huong Nguyen Thi Thanh, Van Mai Thi Khanh

Abstract:

For around the world, payments for environmental services have been implemented since the late 1970s in Europe and North America; then, it was spread to Latin America, Asia, Africa, and finally Oceania in 2008. In Vietnam, payments for environmental services are an interesting issue recently with the forest as the main focus and therefore known as the program on payment for forest environmental services (PFES). PFES was piloted in Lam Dong and Son La in 2008 and has been widely applied in many provinces after 2010. PFES is in the orientation for the socialization of national forest protection in Vietnam and has made great strides in the last decade. By using the primary data and secondary data simultaneously, the paper clarifies two cases of implementing PFES in the Vietnam North Central area with the different mechanisms of payment. In the first case at Phu Loc district (Thua Thien Hue province), PFES is an indirect method by a water supply company via the Forest Protection and Development Fund. In the second one at Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park (Quang Binh Province), tourism companies are the direct payers to forest owners. The paper describes the PFES implementation process at each site, clarifies the payment mechanism, and models the relationship between stakeholders in PFES implementation. Based on the current status of PFES sites, the paper compares and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the two payment methods. Finally, the paper proposes recommendations to improve the existing shortcomings in each payment mechanism.

Keywords: advantages and disadvantages, forest environmental services, forest protection, payment mechanism

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3 Creating Database and Building 3D Geological Models: A Case Study on Bac Ai Pumped Storage Hydropower Project

Authors: Nguyen Chi Quang, Nguyen Duong Tri Nguyen

Abstract:

This article is the first step to research and outline the structure of the geotechnical database in the geological survey of a power project; in the context of this report creating the database that has been carried out for the Bac Ai pumped storage hydropower project. For the purpose of providing a method of organizing and storing geological and topographic survey data and experimental results in a spatial database, the RockWorks software is used to bring optimal efficiency in the process of exploiting, using, and analyzing data in service of the design work in the power engineering consulting. Three-dimensional (3D) geotechnical models are created from the survey data: such as stratigraphy, lithology, porosity, etc. The results of the 3D geotechnical model in the case of Bac Ai pumped storage hydropower project include six closely stacked stratigraphic formations by Horizons method, whereas modeling of engineering geological parameters is performed by geostatistical methods. The accuracy and reliability assessments are tested through error statistics, empirical evaluation, and expert methods. The three-dimensional model analysis allows better visualization of volumetric calculations, excavation and backfilling of the lake area, tunneling of power pipelines, and calculation of on-site construction material reserves. In general, the application of engineering geological modeling makes the design work more intuitive and comprehensive, helping construction designers better identify and offer the most optimal design solutions for the project. The database always ensures the update and synchronization, as well as enables 3D modeling of geological and topographic data to integrate with the designed data according to the building information modeling. This is also the base platform for BIM & GIS integration.

Keywords: database, engineering geology, 3D Model, RockWorks, Bac Ai pumped storage hydropower project

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2 The Effects of Climate Change and Upstream Dam Development on Sediment Distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

Authors: Trieu Anh Ngoc, Nguyen Quang Kim

Abstract:

Located at the downstream of the Mekong Delta, the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is well-known as 'rice bowl' of Vietnam. The Vietnamese Mekong Delta experiences widespread flooding annually where is habitat for about 17 million people. The economy of this region mainly depends on the agricultural productivities. The suspended sediment load in the Mekong River plays an important role in carrying contaminants and nutrients to the delta and changing the geomorphology of the delta river system. In many past decades, flooding and suspended sediment were considered as indispensable factors in agricultural cultivations. Although flooding in the wet season caused serious inundation in paddy field and affected livelihoods, it is an effective facility for flushing acid and saline to this area - alluvial soil heavily contaminated with acid and salt intrusion. In addition, sediment delivery to this delta contained rich-nutrients distributed and deposited on the fields through flooding process. In recent decades, the changing of flow and sediment transport have been strongly and clearly occurring due to upstream dam development and climate change. However, effects of sediment delivery on agricultural cultivations were less attention. This study investigated the impacts of upstream flow on sediment distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Flow fluctuation and sediment distribution were simulated by the Mike 11 model, including hydrodynamics model and advection-dispersion model. Various scenarios were simulated based on anticipated upstream discharges. Our findings indicated that sediment delivery into the Vietnamese Mekong Delta come from not only Tien River but also border of Cambodia floodplains. Sediment distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is dramatically changed by the distance from the main rivers and the secondary channels. The dam development in the upstream is one of the major factors leading a decrease in sediment discharge as well as sediment deposition. Moreover, sea level rise partially contributed to decrease in sediment transport and change of sediment distribution between upstream and downstream of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta.

Keywords: sediment transport, sea level rise, climate change, Mike Model

Procedia PDF Downloads 183