Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 485

Search results for: polymeric surfactants

485 The Application of Polymers in Enhanced Oil Recovery: Recent Trends

Authors: Reza M. Rudd, Ali Saeedi, Colin Wood


In this article, the latest advancements made in the applications of polymers in the enhanced hydrocarbon recovery technologies are investigated. For this purpose, different classes of polymers are reviewed and the latest progresses made in making them suitable for application under harsh reservoir conditions are discussed. The main reservoir conditions whose effects are taken into account include the temperature, rock mineralogy and brine salinity and composition. For profile modification and blocking the thief zones, polymers are used in the form of nanocomposite hydrogels. Polymers are also used as thickeners during CO2 flooding. Also, they are used in enhanced gas recovery, to inhibit the mixing of injection gas with the in-situ natural gas. This review covers the main types of polymers, their functions and the challenges in their applications, some of which are mentioned above. Included in this review are also the latest progresses made in the development of new polymeric surfactants used for surfactant flooding.

Keywords: EOR, EGR, polymer flooding, profile modification, mobility control, nanocomposite hydrogels, CO2 flooding, polymeric surfactants

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484 Degradation of Hydrocarbons by Surfactants and Biosurfactants

Authors: Samira Ferhat, Redha Alouaoui, Leila Trifi, Abdelmalek Badis


The objective of this work is the use of natural surfactant (biosurfactant) and synthetic (sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween 80) for environmental application. In fact the solubility of the polycyclic hydrocarbon (naphthalene) and the desorption of the heavy metals in the presence of surfactants. The microorganisms selected in this work are bacterial strain (Bacillus licheniformis) for the production of biosurfactant for use in this study. In the first part of this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of surfactants solubilization certain hydrocarbons few soluble in water such as polyaromatic (case naphthalene). Tests have shown that from the critical micelle concentration, decontamination is performed. The second part presents the results on the desorption of heavy metals (for copper) by the three surfactants, using concentrations above the critical micelle concentration. The comparison between the desorption of copper by the three surfactants, it is shown that the biosurfactant is more effective than tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

Keywords: surfactants, biosurfactant, naphthalene, copper, critical micelle concentration, solubilization, desorption

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483 Adsorption and Desorption Behavior of Ionic and Nonionic Surfactants on Polymer Surfaces

Authors: Giulia Magi Meconi, Nicholas Ballard, José M. Asua, Ronen Zangi


Experimental and computational studies are combined to elucidate the adsorption proprieties of ionic and nonionic surfactants on hydrophobic polymer surface such us poly(styrene). To present these two types of surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate and poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene), commonly utilized in emulsion polymerization, are chosen. By applying quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring it is found that, at low surfactant concentrations, it is easier to desorb (as measured by rate) ionic surfactants than nonionic surfactants. From molecular dynamics simulations, the effective, attractive force of these nonionic surfactants to the surface increases with the decrease of their concentration, whereas, the ionic surfactant exhibits mildly the opposite trend. The contrasting behavior of ionic and nonionic surfactants critically relies on two observations obtained from the simulations. The first is that there is a large degree of interweavement between head and tails groups in the adsorbed layer formed by the nonionic surfactant (PEO/PE systems). The second is that water molecules penetrate this layer. In the disordered layer, these nonionic surfactants generate at the surface, only oxygens of the head groups present at the interface with the water phase or oxygens next to the penetrating waters can form hydrogen bonds. Oxygens inside this layer lose this favorable energy, with a magnitude that increases with the surfactants density at the interface. This reduced stability of the surfactants diminishes their driving force for adsorption. All that is shown to be in accordance with experimental results on the dynamics of surfactants desorption. Ionic surfactants assemble into an ordered structure and the attraction to the surface was even slightly augmented at higher surfactant concentration, in agreement with the experimentally determined adsorption isotherm. The reason these two types of surfactants behave differently is because the ionic surfactant has a small head group that is strongly hydrophilic, whereas the head groups of the nonionic surfactants are large and only weakly attracted to water.

Keywords: emulsion polymerization process, molecular dynamics simulations, polymer surface, surfactants adsorption

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482 A Multi-Family Offline SPE LC-MS/MS Analytical Method for Anionic, Cationic and Non-ionic Surfactants in Surface Water

Authors: Laure Wiest, Barbara Giroud, Azziz Assoumani, Francois Lestremau, Emmanuelle Vulliet


Due to their production at high tonnages and their extensive use, surfactants are contaminants among those determined at the highest concentrations in wastewater. However, analytical methods and data regarding their occurrence in river water are scarce and concern only a few families, mainly anionic surfactants. The objective of this study was to develop an analytical method to extract and analyze a wide variety of surfactants in a minimum of steps, with a sensitivity compatible with the detection of ultra-traces in surface waters. 27 substances, from 12 families of surfactants, anionic, cationic and non-ionic were selected for method optimization. Different retention mechanisms for the extraction by solid phase extraction (SPE) were tested and compared in order to improve their detection by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The best results were finally obtained with a C18 grafted silica LC column and a polymer cartridge with hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB), and the method developed allows the extraction of the three types of surfactants with satisfactory recoveries. The final analytical method comprised only one extraction and two LC injections. It was validated and applied for the quantification of surfactants in 36 river samples. The method's limits of quantification (LQ), intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were evaluated, and good performances were obtained for the 27 substances. As these compounds have many areas of application, contaminations of instrument and method blanks were observed and considered for the determination of LQ. Nevertheless, with LQ between 15 and 485 ng/L, and accuracy of over 80%, this method was suitable for monitoring surfactants in surface waters. Application on French river samples revealed the presence of anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants with median concentrations ranging from 24 ng/L for octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEO) to 4.6 µg/L for linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS). The analytical method developed in this work will therefore be useful for future monitoring of surfactants in waters. Moreover, this method, which shows good performances for anionic, non-ionic and cationic surfactants, may be easily adapted to other surfactants.

Keywords: anionic surfactant, cationic surfactant, LC-MS/MS, non-ionic surfactant, SPE, surface water

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481 Scanning Electronic Microscopy for Analysis of the Effects of Surfactants on De-Wrinkling and Dispersion of Graphene

Authors: Kostandinos Katsamangas, Fawad Inam


Graphene was dispersed using a tip sonicator and the effect of surfactants were analysed. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) were compared to observe whether or not they had any effect on any de-wrinkling, and secondly whether they aided to achieve better dispersions. There is a huge demand for wrinkle free graphene as this will greatly increase its usefulness in various engineering applications. A comprehensive literature on de-wrinkling graphene has been discussed. Low magnification Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) was conducted to assess the quality of graphene de-wrinkling. The utilization of the PVA has a significant effect on de-wrinkling whereas SDS had minimal effect on the de-wrinkling of graphene.

Keywords: Graphene, de-wrinkling, dispersion, surfactants, scanning electronic microscopy

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480 Luminescent Enhancement with Morphology Controlled Gd2O3:Eu Phosphors

Authors: Ruby Priya, Om Parkash Pandey


Eu doped Gd₂O₃ phosphors are synthesized via co-precipitation method using ammonia as a precipitating agent. The concentration of the Eu was set as 4 mol% for all the samples. The effect of the surfactants (CTAB, PEG, and SDS) on the structural, morphological and luminescent properties has been studied in details. The as-synthesized phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence technique. It was observed that the surfactants have not changed the crystal structure, but influenced the morphology of as-synthesized phosphors to a great extent. The as-synthesized phosphors are expected to be promising candidates for optoelectronic devices, biosensors, MRI contrast agents and various biomedical applications.

Keywords: co-precipitation, Europium, photoluminescence, surfactants

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479 Synthesis of Solid Polymeric Materials by Maghnite-H⁺ as a Green Catalyst

Authors: Draoua Zohra, Harrane Amine


The Solid Polymeric Materials have been successfully prepared by the copolymerization of e-caprolactone (CL) and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) employing Maghnite-H+ at 80°C. Maghnite-H+ is a solid catalyst non-toxic. The presence of PEG chains leads to a break in the growth of PCL chains and consequently leads to the copolymer tri-block PCL-PEG-PCL. The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize of Solid Polymeric Materials. The highly hydrophilic nature of polyethylene glycol has sparked our interest in developing a Solid Polymeric based e-caprolactone and poly (ethylene glycol). PCL and PEG are biocompatible materials. Their ring-opening copolymerization using Maghnite H+ makes to the Solid Polymeric Materials. The morphology and structure of Solid polymeric Materials were characterized by ¹H and ¹³C-NMR spectra and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). This paper developed the application of Maghnite-H+ as an efficient catalyst by an easy-to-handle procedure to get solid polymeric materials. A cationic mechanism for the copolymerization reaction was proposed.

Keywords: block copolymers, maghnite, montmorillonite, poly(e-caprolactone)

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478 Quantum Chemical Calculations Synthesis and Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Nonionic Surfactants on API X65 Steel Surface under H2s Environment

Authors: E. G. Zaki, M. A. Migahed, A. M. Al-Sabagh, E. A. Khamis


Inhibition effect of four novel nonionic surfactants based on sulphonamide, of linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid (LABS), was reacted with 1 mole triethylenetetramine, tetraethylenepentamine then Ethoxylation of amide X 65 type carbon steel in oil wells formation water under H2S environment was investigated by electrochemical measurements. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) were used to characterize the steel surface. The results showed that these surfactants act as a corrosion inhibitor in and their inhibition efficiencies depend on the ethylene oxide content in the system. The obtained results showed that the percentage inhibition efficiency (η%) was increased by increasing the inhibitor concentration until the critical micelle concentration (CMC) reached The quantum chemistry calculations were carried out to study the molecular geometry and electronic structure of obtained derivatives. The energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital has been calculated using the theoretical computations to reflect the chemical reactivity and kinetic stability of compounds.

Keywords: corrosion, surfactants, steel surface, quantum

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477 Effect of Select Surfactants on Activities of Soil Enzymes Involved in Nutrient Cycling

Authors: Frieda Eivazi, Nikita L. Mullings


Soils are recipient for surfactants in herbicide formulations. Surfactants entering the soil environment can possibly disrupt different chemical, physical and biological interactions. Therefore, it is critical that we understand the fate, behavior and transport of surfactants upon entering the soil. A comprehensive study was conducted to examine effect of surfactants on nutrient uptake, microbial community, and enzyme activity. The research was conducted in the greenhouse growing corn (Zea mays) as a test plant in a factorial experiment (three surfactants at two different rates with control, and three herbicides) organized as randomized blocked design. Surfactants evaluated were Activator 90, Agri-Dex, and Thrust; herbicides were glyphosate, atrazine, and bentazon. Treatments examined were surfactant only, herbicide only, and surfactant + herbicide combinations. Corn was planted in fertilized soils (silt loam and silty clay) with moisture content maintained at the field capacity for optimum growth. This paper will report results of above mentioned treatments on acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, beta-glucosaminidase, and dehydrogenase activities. In general, there were variations in the enzyme activities with some inhibition and some being enhanced by the treatments. Activator 90 appeared to have the highest inhibitory effect on enzymatic activities. Atrazine application significantly decreased the activities of acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, and dehydrogenase in both soils; however, combination of Atrazine + Agridex increased the acid phosphatase activity while significantly inhibiting the other enzyme activities in soils. It was concluded that long-term field studies are needed to validate changes in nutrient uptake, microbial community and enzyme activities due to surfactant-herbicide combination effects.

Keywords: herbicides, nutrient cycling, soil enzymes, surfactant

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476 Spectrofluorometric Studies on the Interactions of Bovine Serum Albumin with Dimeric Cationic Surfactants

Authors: Srishti Sinha, Deepti Tikariha, Kallol K. Ghosh


Over the past few decades protein-surfactant interactions have been a subject of extensive studies as they are of great importance in wide variety of industries, biological, pharmaceutical and cosmetic systems. Protein-surfactant interactions have been explored the effect of surfactants on structure of protein in the form of solubilization and denaturing or renaturing of protein. Globular proteins are frequently used as functional ingredients in healthcare and pharmaceutical products, due to their ability to catalyze biochemical reactions, to be adsorbed on the surface of some substance and to bind other moieties and form molecular aggregates. One of the most widely used globular protein is bovine serum albumin (BSA), since it has a well-known primary structure and been associated with the binding of many different categories of molecules, such as dyes, drugs and toxic chemicals. Protein−surfactant interactions are usually dependent on the surfactant features. Most of the research has been focused on single-chain surfactants. More recently, the binding between proteins and dimeric surfactants has been discussed. In present study interactions of one dimeric surfactant Butanediyl-1,4-bis (dimethylhexadecylammonium bromide) (16-4-16, 2Br-) and the corresponding single-chain surfactant cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been investigated by surface tension and spectrofluoremetric methods. It has been found that the bindings of all gemini surfactant to BSA were cooperatively driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The gemini surfactant carrying more charges and hydrophobic tails, showed stronger interactions with BSA than the single-chain surfactant.

Keywords: bovine serum albumin, gemini surfactants, hydrophobic interactions, protein surfactant interaction

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475 Surfactant-Assisted Aqueous Extraction of Residual Oil from Palm-Pressed Mesocarp Fibre

Authors: Rabitah Zakaria, Chan M. Luan, Nor Hakimah Ramly


The extraction of vegetable oil using aqueous extraction process assisted by ionic extended surfactant has been investigated as an alternative to hexane extraction. However, the ionic extended surfactant has not been commercialised and its safety with respect to food processing is uncertain. Hence, food-grade non-ionic surfactants (Tween 20, Span 20, and Span 80) were proposed for the extraction of residual oil from palm-pressed mesocarp fibre. Palm-pressed mesocarp fibre contains a significant amount of residual oil ( 5-10 wt %) and its recovery is beneficial as the oil contains much higher content of vitamin E, carotenoids, and sterols compared to crude palm oil. In this study, the formulation of food-grade surfactants using a combination of high hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) surfactants and low HLB surfactants to produce micro-emulsion with very low interfacial tension (IFT) was investigated. The suitable surfactant formulation was used in the oil extraction process and the efficiency of the extraction was correlated with the IFT, droplet size and viscosity. It was found that a ternary surfactant mixture with a HLB value of 15 (82% Tween 20, 12% Span 20 and 6% Span 80) was able to produce micro-emulsion with very low IFT compared to other HLB combinations. Results suggested that the IFT and droplet size highly affect the oil recovery efficiency. Finally, optimization of the operating parameters shows that the highest extraction efficiency of 78% was achieved at 1:31 solid to liquid ratio, 2 wt % surfactant solution, temperature of 50˚C, and 50 minutes contact time.

Keywords: food-grade surfactants, aqueous extraction of residual oil, palm-pressed mesocarp fibre, interfacial tension

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474 Studies of Heavy Metal Ions Removal Efficiency in the Presence of Anionic Surfactant Using Ion Exchangers

Authors: Anna Wolowicz, Katarzyna Staszak, Zbigniew Hubicki


Nowadays heavy metal ions as well as surfactants are widely used throughout the world due to their useful properties. The consequence of such widespread use is their significant production. On the other hand, the increasing demand for surfactants and heavy metal ions results in production of large amounts of wastewaters which are discharged to the environment from mining, metal plating, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, fertilizer, paper, pesticide and electronic industries, pigments producing, petroleum refining and from autocatalyst, fibers, food, polymer industries etc. Heavy metal ions are non-biodegradable in the environment, cable of accumulation in living organisms and organs, toxic and carcinogenic. On the other hand, not only heavy metal ions but also surfactants affect the purity of water and soils. Some of surfactants are also toxic, harmful and dangerous because they are able to penetrate into surface waters causing foaming, blocked diffusion of oxygen from the atmosphere and act as emulsifiers of hydrophobic substances and increase solubility of many the dangerous pollutants. Among surfactants the anionic ones dominate and their share in the global production of surfactants is around 50 ÷ 60%. Due to the negative impact of heavy metals and surfactants on aquatic ecosystems and living organisms, removal and monitoring of their concentration in the environment is extremely important. Surfactants and heavy metal ions removal can be achieved by different biological and physicochemical methods. The adsorption as well as the ion-exchange methods play here a significant role. The aim of this study was heavy metal ions removal from aqueous solutions using different types of ion exchangers in the presence of anionic surfactants. Preliminary studies of copper(II), nickel(II), zinc(II) and cobalt(II) removal from acidic solutions using ion exchangers (Lewatit MonoPlus TP 220, Lewatit MonoPlus SR 7, Purolite A 400 TL, Purolite A 830, Purolite S 984, Dowex PSR 2, Dowex PSR3, Lewatit AF-5) allowed to select the most effective ones for the above mentioned sorbates and then to checking their removal efficiency in the presence of anionic surfactants. As it was found out Lewatit MonoPlus TP 220 of the chelating type, show the highest sorption capacities for copper(II) ions in comparison with the other ion exchangers under discussion, e.g. 9.98 mg/g (0.1 M HCl); 9.12 mg/g (6 M HCl). Moreover, cobalt(II) removal efficiency was the highest in 0.1 M HCl using also Lewatit MonoPlus TP 220 (6.9 mg/g) similar to zinc(II) (9.1 mg/g) and nickiel(II) (6.2 mg/g). As the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used and surfactant parameters such as viscosity (η), density (ρ) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) were obtained: η = 1.13 ± 0,01 mPa·s; ρ = 999.76 mg/cm3; CMC = 2.26 g/cm3. The studies of copper(II) removal from acidic solutions in the presence of SDS of different concentration show negligible effects on copper(II) removal efficiency. The sorption capacity of Cu(II) from 0.1 M acidic solution of 500 mg/L initial concentration was equal to 46.8 mg/g whereas in the presence of SDS 45.3 mg/g (0.1 mg SDS/L), 47.1 mg/g (0.5 mg SDS/L), 46.6 mg/g (1 mg SDS/L).

Keywords: anionic surfactant, heavy metal ions, ion exchanger, removal

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473 The Role of Long-Chain Ionic Surfactants on Extending Drug Delivery from Contact Lenses

Authors: Cesar Torres, Robert Briber, Nam Sun Wang


Eye drops are the most commonly used treatment for short-term and long-term ophthalmic diseases. However, eye drops could deliver only about 5% of the functional ingredients contained in a burst dosage. To address the limitations of eye drops, the use of therapeutic contact lenses has been introduced. Drug-loaded contact lenses provide drugs a longer residence time in the tear film and hence, decrease the potential risk of side effects. Nevertheless, a major limitation of contact lenses as drug delivery devices is that most of the drug absorbed is released within the first few hours. This fact limits their use for extended release. The present study demonstrates the application of long-alkyl chain ionic surfactants on extending drug release kinetics from commercially available silicone hydrogel contact lenses. In vitro release experiments were carried by immersing drug-containing contact lenses in phosphate buffer saline at physiological pH. The drug concentration as a function of time was monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results of the study demonstrate that release kinetics is dependent on the ionic surfactant weight percent in the contact lenses, and on the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain of the ionic surfactants. The use of ionic surfactants in contact lenses can extend the delivery of drugs from a few hours to a few weeks, depending on the physicochemical properties of the drugs. Contact lenses embedded with ionic surfactants could be potential biomaterials to be used for extended drug delivery and in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. However, ocular irritation and toxicity studies would be needed to evaluate the safety of the approach.

Keywords: contact lenses, drug delivery, controlled release, ionic surfactant

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472 Loss in Efficacy of Viscoelastic Ionic Liquid Surfactants under High Salinity during Surfactant Flooding

Authors: Shilpa K. Nandwani, Mousumi Chakraborty, Smita Gupta


When selecting surfactants for surfactant flooding during enhanced oil recovery, the most important criteria is that the surfactant system should reduce the interfacial tension between water and oil to ultralow values. In the present study, a mixture of ionic liquid surfactant and commercially available binding agent sodium tosylate has been used as a surfactant mixture. Presence of wormlike micelles indicates the possibility of achieving ultralow interfacial tension. Surface tension measurements of the mixed surfactant system have been studied. The emulsion size distribution of the mixed surfactant system at varying salinities has been studied. It has been found that at high salinities the viscoelastic surfactant system loses their efficacy and degenerate. Hence the given system may find application in low salinity reservoirs, providing good mobility to the flood during tertiary oil recovery process.

Keywords: ionic liquis, interfacial tension, Na-tosylate, viscoelastic surfactants

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471 NR/PEO Block Copolymer: A Chelating Exchanger for Metal Ions

Authors: M. S. Mrudula, M. R. Gopinathan Nair


In order to utilize the natural rubber for developing new green polymeric materials for specialty applications, we have prepared natural rubber and polyethylene oxide based polymeric networks by two shot method. The polymeric networks thus formed have been used as chelating exchanger for metal ion binding. Chelating exchangers are, in general, coordinating copolymers containing one or more electron donor atoms such as N, S, O, and P that can form coordinate bonds with metals. Hydrogels are water- swollen network of hydrophilic homopolymer or copolymers. They acquire a great interest due to the facility of the incorporation of different chelating groups into the polymeric networks. Such polymeric hydrogels are promising materials in the field of hydrometallurgical applications and water purification due to their chemical stability. The current study discusses the swelling response of the polymeric networks as a function of time, temperature, pH and [NaCl] and sorption studies. Equilibrium swelling has been observed to depend on both structural aspects of the polymers and environmental factors. Metal ion sorption shows that these polymeric networks can be used for removal, separation, and enrichment of metal ions from aqueous solutions and can play an important role for environmental remediation of municipal and industrial wastewater.

Keywords: block copolymer, adsorption, chelating exchanger, swelling study, polymer, metal complexes

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470 Highly Selective Polymeric Fluorescence Sensor for Cd(II) Ions

Authors: Soner Cubuk, Ozge Yilmaz, Ece Kok Yetimoglu, M. Vezir Kahraman


In this work, a polymer based highly selective fluorescence sensor membrane was prepared by the photopolymerization technique for the determination Cd(II) ion. Sensor characteristics such as effects of pH, response time and foreign ions on the fluorescence intensity of the sensor were also studied. Under optimized conditions, the polymeric sensor shows a rapid, stable and linear response for 4.45x10-⁹ mol L-¹ - 4.45x10-⁸ mol L-¹ Cd(II) ion with the detection limit of 6.23x10-¹⁰ mol L-¹. In addition, sensor membrane was selective which is not affected by common foreign metal ions. The concentrations of the foreign ions such as Pb²+, Co²+, Ag+, Zn²+, Cu²+, Cr³+ are 1000-fold higher than Cd(II) ions. Moreover, the developed polymeric sensor was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium ions in food and water samples. This work was supported by Marmara University, Commission of Scientific Research Project.

Keywords: cadmium(II), fluorescence, photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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469 Biosurfactant-Mediated Nanoparticle Synthesis by Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Satya Eswari Jujjavarapu, Swasti Dhagat, Lata Upadhyay, Reecha Sahu


Silver nanoparticles have a broad range of antimicrobial and antifungal properties ranging from soaps, pastes to sterilization and drug delivery systems. These can be synthesized by physical, chemical and biological methods; biological methods being the most popular owing to their non-toxic nature and reduced energy requirements. Microbial surfactants, produced on the microbial cell surface or excreted extracellularly are an alternative to synthetic surfactants for the production of silver nanoparticles. Hence, they are also called as green molecules. Microbial lipopeptide surfactants (biosurfactant) exhibit anti-tumor and anti-microbial properties and can be used as drug delivery agents. In this study, biosurfactant was synthesized by using a strain of acillus subtilis. The biosurfactant thus produced was analysed by emulsification assay, oil spilling test, and haemolytic test. Biosurfactant-mediated silver nanoparticles were synthesised by microwave irradiation of the culture supernatant and further characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy for a range of 400-600 nm. The UV–vis spectra showed a surface plasmon resonance vibration band at 410 nm corresponding to the peak of silver nanoparticles.

Keywords: biosurfactant, Bacillus subtilis, silver nano particle, lipopeptide

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468 Synthesis and Properties of Sulfonate Gemini Surfactants with Amide Groups

Authors: Rui Wang, Shanfa Tang, Yuanwu Dong, Siyao Wang, Zhaowen Jiang, Di Han


A sulfonate Gemini surfactant sodium N,N`-bis(tetradecanoyl) propanediamine dipropyl sulfonate (GNS-14) was synthesized from 1,3-propanediamine, tetradecanoyl chloride, and1,3-propanesulfonic lactone. GNS-14 was characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR. The surface activity, interfacial activity, and emulsification properties of GNS-14 solution were systematically studied. The critical micelle concentration (CCMC) of GNS-14 surfactant was 0.056 mmol/L, and the surface tension (γCMC) was 18.2 mN/m; at 50℃, 0.5% GNS-14 solution can reduce the oil-water interfacial tension to 6.5×10−2 mN/m. GNS-14 has excellent surface activity, interfacial activity, and emulsifying properties.

Keywords: gemini surfactants, surface tension, low interfacial tension, emulsifying properties

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467 Increase of Sensitivity in 3D Suspended Polymeric Microfluidic Platform through Lateral Misalignment

Authors: Ehsan Yazdanpanah Moghadam, Muthukumaran Packirisamy


In the present study, a design of the suspended polymeric microfluidic platform is introduced that is fabricated with three polymeric layers. Changing the microchannel plane to be perpendicular to microcantilever plane, drastically decreases moment of inertia in that direction. In addition, the platform is made of polymer (around five orders of magnitude less compared to silicon). It causes significant increase in the sensitivity of the cantilever deflection. Next, although the dimensions of this platform are constant, by misaligning the embedded microchannels laterally in the suspended microfluidic platform, the sensitivity can be highly increased. The investigation is studied on four fluids including water, seawater, milk, and blood for flow ranges from low rate of 5 to 70 µl/min to obtain the best design with the highest sensitivity. The best design in this study shows the sensitivity increases around 50% for water, seawater, milk, and blood at the flow rate of 70 µl/min by just misaligning the embedded microchannels in the suspended polymeric microfluidic platform.

Keywords: microfluidic, MEMS, biosensor, microresonator

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466 On Cold Roll Bonding of Polymeric Films

Authors: Nikhil Padhye


Recently a new phenomenon for bonding of polymeric films in solid-state, at ambient temperatures well below the glass transition temperature of the polymer, has been reported. This is achieved by bulk plastic compression of polymeric films held in contact. Here we analyze the process of cold-rolling of polymeric films via finite element simulations and illustrate a flexible and modular experimental rolling-apparatus that can achieve bonding of polymeric films through cold-rolling. Firstly, the classical theory of rolling a rigid-plastic thin-strip is utilized to estimate various deformation fields such as strain-rates, velocities, loads etc. in rolling the polymeric films at the specified feed-rates and desired levels of thickness-reduction(s). Predicted magnitudes of slow strain-rates, particularly at ambient temperatures during rolling, and moderate levels of plastic deformation (at which Bauschinger effect can be neglected for the particular class of polymeric materials studied here), greatly simplifies the task of material modeling and allows us to deploy a computationally efficient, yet accurate, finite deformation rate-independent elastic-plastic material behavior model (with inclusion of isotropic-hardening) for analyzing the rolling of these polymeric films. The interfacial behavior between the roller and polymer surfaces is modeled using Coulombic friction; consistent with the rate-independent behavior. The finite deformation elastic-plastic material behavior based on (i) the additive decomposition of stretching tensor (D = De + Dp, i.e. a hypoelastic formulation) with incrementally objective time integration and, (ii) multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient (F = FeFp) into elastic and plastic parts, are programmed and carried out for cold-rolling within ABAQUS Explicit. Predictions from both the formulations, i.e., hypoelastic and multiplicative decomposition, exhibit a close match. We find that no specialized hyperlastic/visco-plastic model is required to describe the behavior of the blend of polymeric films, under the conditions described here, thereby speeding up the computation process .

Keywords: Polymer Plasticity, Bonding, Deformation Induced Mobility, Rolling

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465 Development and Evaluation of Simvastatin Based Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) for Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Hardeep


The aim of this research work to improve the solubility and bioavailability of Simvastatin using a self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). Self emulsifying property of various oils including essential oils was evaluated with suitable surfactants and co-surfactants. Validation of a method for accuracy, repeatability, Interday and intraday precision, ruggedness, and robustness were within acceptable limits. The liquid SNEDDS was prepared and optimized using a ternary phase diagram, thermodynamic, centrifugation and cloud point studies. The globule size of optimized formulations was less than 200 nm which could be an acceptable nanoemulsion size range. The mean droplet size, drug loading, PDI and zeta potential were found to be 141.0 nm, 92.22%, 0.23 and -10.13 mV and 153.5nm, 93.89 % ,0.41 and -11.7 mV and 164.26 nm, 95.26% , 0.41 and -10.66mV respectively.

Keywords: simvastatin, self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system, solubility, bioavailability

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464 Fabrication of Highly-Ordered Interconnected Porous Polymeric Particles and Structures

Authors: Mohammad Alroaithi


Porous polymeric materials have attracted a great attention due to their distinctive porous structure within a polymer matrix. They are characterised by the presence of external pores on the surface as well as inner interconnected windows. Conventional techniques to produce porous polymeric materials encounters major challenge in controlling the properties of the resultant structures including morphology, pores, cavities size, and porosity. Herein, we present a facile and versatile microfluidics technique for the fabrication of uniform porous polymeric structures with highly ordered and well-defined interconnected windows. The shapes of the porous structures can either be a microparticles or foam. Both shapes used microfluidics platform to first produce monodisperse emulsion. The uniform emulsions, were then consolidated into porous structures through UV photopolymerisation. The morphology, pores, cavities size, and porosity of the structures can be precisely manipulated by the flowrate. The proposed strategy might provide a key advantage for fabrication of uniform porous materials over many existing technologies.

Keywords: polymer, porous particles, microfluidics, porous structures

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463 Formulation and Technology of the Composition of Essential Oils as a Feed Additive in Poultry with Antibacterial Action

Authors: S. Barbaqadze, M. Goderdzishvili, E. Mosidze, L. Lomtadze, V. Mshvildadze, L. Bakuridze, D. Berashvili, A. Bakuridze


This paper focuses on the formulation of phytobiotic designated for further implantation in poultry farming. Composition was meant to be water-soluble powder containing antibacterial essential oils. The development process involved Thyme, Monarda and Clary sage essential oils. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils composite was meant to be tested against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial strains. The results are processed using the statistical program Sigma STAT. To make essential oils composition water soluble surfactants were added to them. At the first stage of the study, nine options for the optimal composition of essential oils and surfactants were developed. The effect of the amount of surfactants on the essential oils composition solubility in water has been investigated. On the basis of biopharmaceutical studies, the formulation of phytobiotic has been determined: Thyme, monarda and clary sage essential oils 2:1:1 - 100 parts; Licorice extract 5.25 parts and inhalation lactose 300 parts. A technology for the preparation of phytobiotic has been developed and a technological scheme for the preparation of phytobiotic has been made up. The research was performed within the framework of the grant project CARYS-19-363 funded be the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia.

Keywords: clary, essential oils, monarda, phytobiotics, poultry, thyme

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462 Nonlinear Pollution Modelling for Polymeric Outdoor Insulator

Authors: Rahisham Abd Rahman


In this paper, a nonlinear pollution model has been proposed to compute electric field distribution over the polymeric insulator surface under wet contaminated conditions. A 2D axial-symmetric insulator geometry, energized with 11kV was developed and analysed using Finite Element Method (FEM). A field-dependent conductivity with simplified assumptions was established to characterize the electrical properties of the pollution layer. Comparative field studies showed that simulation of dynamic pollution model results in a more realistic field profile, offering better understanding on how the electric field behaves under wet polluted conditions.

Keywords: electric field distributions, pollution layer, dynamic model, polymeric outdoor insulators, finite element method (FEM)

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461 Propolis as Antioxidant Formulated in Nanoemulsion

Authors: Rachmat Mauludin, Irda Fidrianny, Dita Sasri Primaviri, Okti Alifiana


Natural products such as propolis, green tea and corncob are containing several compounds called antioxidant. Antioxidant can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical, prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Previous study showed that the extract of propolis that has the highest antioxidant activity was ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP). It is important to make a dosage form that could keep the stability and could protect the effectiveness of antioxidant activity of the extracts. In this research, nanoemulsion (NE) was chosen to formulate those natural products. NE is a dispersion system between oil phase and water phase that formed by mechanical force with a lot amount of surfactants and has globule size below 100 nm. In pharmaceutical industries, NE was preferable for its stability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, its ease to be absorbed and eliminated, and for its use as carrier for lipophilic drugs. First, all of the natural products were extracted using reflux methods. Green tea and corncob were extracted using 96% ethanol while propolis using 70% ethanol. Then, the extracts were concentrated using rotavapor to obtain viscous extracts. The yield of EEP was 11.12%; green tea extract (GTE) was 23.37%; and corncob extract (CCE) was 17.23%. EEP contained steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid and saponin. GTE contained flavonoid, tannin, and quinone while CCE contained flavonoid, phenol and tannin. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were then measured using DPPH scavenging capacity methods. The values of DPPH scavenging capacity were 61.14% for EEP; 97.16% for GTE; and 78.28% for CCE. The value of IC50 for EEP was 0.41629 ppm. After the extracts were evaluated, NE was prepared. Several surfactants and co-surfactants were used in many combinations and ratios in order to form a NE. Tween 80 and Kolliphor RH40 were used as surfactants while glycerin and propylene glycol were used as co-surfactants. The best NE consists of 26.25% of Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% of glycerin; 5% of rice bran oil; 3% of extracts; and 57% of water. EEP NE had globule size around 23.72 nm; polydispersity index below 0.5; and did not cause any irritation on rabbits. EEP NE was proven to be stable after passing stability test within 63 days at room temperature and 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. Based on TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) test, EEP NE had spherical structure with most of its size below 50 nm. The antioxidant activity of EEP NE was monitored for 6 weeks and showed no significant difference. The value of DPPH scavenging capacity for EEP NE was around 58%; for GTE NE was 96.75%; and for CCE NE was 55.69%.

Keywords: propolis, green tea, corncob, antioxidant, nanoemulsion

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460 Wet Polymeric Precipitation Synthesis for Monophasic Tricalcium Phosphate

Authors: I. Grigoraviciute-Puroniene, K. Tsuru, E. Garskaite, Z. Stankeviciute, A. Beganskiene, K. Ishikawa, A. Kareiva


Tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, β-TCP) powders were synthesized using wet polymeric precipitation method for the first time to our best knowledge. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of almost single a Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) phase of a poor crystallinity already at room temperature. With continuously increasing the calcination temperature up to 800 °C, the crystalline β-TCP was obtained as the main phase. It was demonstrated that infrared spectroscopy is very effective method to characterize the formation of β-TCP. The SEM results showed that β-TCP solids were homogeneous having a small particle size distribution. The β-TCP powders consisted of spherical particles varying in size from 100 to 300 nm. Fabricated β-TCP specimens were placed to the bones of the rats and maintained for 1-2 months.

Keywords: Tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, bone regeneration, wet chemical processing, polymeric precipitation

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459 Liquid Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in Polymeric Solution with Gas Bubbles

Authors: S. Levitsky


Acoustic properties of polymeric liquids are high sensitive to free gas traces in the form of fine bubbles. Their presence is typical for such liquids because of chemical reactions, small wettability of solid boundaries, trapping of air in technological operations, etc. Liquid temperature influences essentially its rheological properties, which may have an impact on the bubble pulsations and sound propagation in the system. The target of the paper is modeling of the liquid temperature effect on single bubble dynamics and sound dispersion and attenuation in polymeric solution with spherical gas bubbles. The basic sources of attenuation (heat exchange between gas in microbubbles and surrounding liquid, rheological and acoustic losses) are taken into account. It is supposed that in the studied temperature range the interface mass transfer has a minor effect on bubble dynamics. The results of the study indicate that temperature raise yields enhancement of bubble pulsations and increase in sound attenuation in the near-resonance range and may have a strong impact on sound dispersion in the liquid-bubble mixture at frequencies close to the resonance frequency of bubbles.

Keywords: sound propagation, gas bubbles, temperature effect, polymeric liquid

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458 Investigation of the Catalytic Role of Surfactants on Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Formation in Sediments

Authors: Ehsan Heidaryan


Gas hydrate sediments are ice like permafrost in deep see and oceans. Methane production in sequestration process and reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a main source of greenhouse gas, has been accentuated recently. One focus is capture, separation, and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide. As a hydrate former, carbon dioxide forms hydrates at moderate temperatures and pressures. This phenomenon could be utilized to capture and separate carbon dioxide from flue gases, and also has the potential to sequester carbon dioxide in the deep seabeds. This research investigated the effect of synthetic surfactants on carbon dioxide hydrate formation, catalysis and consequently, methane production from hydrate permafrosts in sediments. It investigated the sequestration potential of carbon dioxide hydrates in ocean sediments. Also, the catalytic effect of biosurfactants in these processes was investigated.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, hydrate, sequestration, surfactant

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457 Microstructural Investigations of Metal Oxides Encapsulated Thermochromic Materials

Authors: Yusuf Emirov, Abdullatif Hakami, Prasanta K Biswas, Elias K Stefanakos, Sesha S Srinivasan


This study is aimed to develop microencapsulated thermochromic materials and the analysis of core-shell formation using high resolution electron microscopy. The candidate metal oxides (e.g., titanium oxide and silicon oxide) used for the microencapsulation of thermochromic materials are based on the microemulsion route that involves the micelle formation using different surfactants. The effectiveness of the core-shell microstructure formationrevealed the influence of surfactants and the metal oxide precursor concentrations. Additionally, a detailed thermal and color chromic behavior of these core-shell microcapsules are evaluated with the pristine thermochromic dye particles.

Keywords: core-shell thermochromic materials, core-shell microstructure formation, thermal and color chromic behavior of core-shell microcapsules, development micro-capsulated thermochromic materials

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456 Optimizing Foaming Agents by Air Compression to Unload a Liquid Loaded Gas Well

Authors: Mhenga Agneta, Li Zhaomin, Zhang Chao


When velocity is high enough, gas can entrain fluid and carry to the surface, but as time passes by, velocity drops to a critical point where fluids will start to hold up in the tubing and cause liquid loading which prevents gas production and may lead to the death of the well. Foam injection is widely used as one of the methods to unload liquid. Since wells have different characteristics, it is not guaranteed that foam can be applied in all of them and bring successful results. This research presents a technology to optimize the efficiency of foam to unload liquid by air compression. Two methods are used to explain optimization; (i) mathematical formulas are used to solve and explain the myth of how density and critical velocity could be minimized when air is compressed into foaming agents, then the relationship between flow rates and pressure increase which would boost up the bottom hole pressure and increase the velocity to lift liquid to the surface. (ii) Experiments to test foam carryover capacity and stability as a function of time and surfactant concentration whereby three surfactants anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), nonionic Triton 100 and cationic hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTAB) were probed. The best foaming agents were injected to lift liquid loaded in a created vertical well model of 2.5 cm diameter and 390 cm high steel tubing covered by a transparent glass casing of 5 cm diameter and 450 cm high. The results show that, after injecting foaming agents, liquid unloading was successful by 75%; however, the efficiency of foaming agents to unload liquid increased by 10% with an addition of compressed air at a ratio of 1:1. Measured values and calculated values were compared and brought about ± 3% difference which is a good number. The successful application of the technology indicates that engineers and stakeholders could bring water flooded gas wells back to production with optimized results by firstly paying attention to the type of surfactants (foaming agents) used, concentration of surfactants, flow rates of the injected surfactants then compressing air to the foaming agents at a proper ratio.

Keywords: air compression, foaming agents, gas well, liquid loading

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