Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1955

Search results for: porous particles

1955 Experimental Technique to Study Colloid Deposition in Porous Media

Authors: Abdelkader Djehiche, Mostefa Gafsi, Henri Bertin, Aziz Omari

Abstract:

The flows of colloidal suspensions in porous media find many applications in fields such as Petroleum, Hydraulic engineering, deep-bed filtration. For each application, the scientific problems can be summarized the flow in porous medium of a colloidal suspension whose particles having characteristic dimension is considerable in comparison with the pores dimension. In certain cases, one can observe a deposit of particles on the surface of the pores which results in a significant modification in the physical properties of the porous medium. The objective of our study is to use a non-destructive experimental method, the attenuation of g-rays, to study the influence of the number of Peclet on the deposit of latex particles in a consolidated porous medium. The first results obtained show a good agreement between local and global measurements of the deposit of the particles in porous medium. The deposit takes place in a progressive way along the porous medium and leads to a monolayer deposit of which the average thickness is of about the size diameter of the colloidal particles.

Keywords: colloid, gamma ray, Peclet number, permeability, porous medium

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
1954 Experimental Study of Flow Effects of Solid Particles’ Size in Porous Media

Authors: S. Akridiss, E. El Tabach, K. Chetehouna, N. Gascoin, M. S. Kadiri

Abstract:

Transpiration cooling combined to regenerative cooling is a technique that could be used to cool the porous walls of the future ramjet combustion chambers; it consists of using fuel that will flow through the pores of the porous material consisting of the chamber walls, as coolant. However, at high temperature, the fuel is pyrolysed and generates solid coke particles inside the porous materials. This phenomenon can lead to a significant decrease of the material permeability and can affect the efficiency of the cooling system. In order to better understand this phenomenon, an experimental laboratory study was undertaken to determine the transport and deposition of particles in a sintered porous material subjected to steady state flow. The test bench composed of a high-pressure autoclave is used to study the transport of different particle size (35

Keywords: experimental study, permeability, porous material, suspended particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1953 Fabrication of Highly-Ordered Interconnected Porous Polymeric Particles and Structures

Authors: Mohammad Alroaithi

Abstract:

Porous polymeric materials have attracted a great attention due to their distinctive porous structure within a polymer matrix. They are characterised by the presence of external pores on the surface as well as inner interconnected windows. Conventional techniques to produce porous polymeric materials encounters major challenge in controlling the properties of the resultant structures including morphology, pores, cavities size, and porosity. Herein, we present a facile and versatile microfluidics technique for the fabrication of uniform porous polymeric structures with highly ordered and well-defined interconnected windows. The shapes of the porous structures can either be a microparticles or foam. Both shapes used microfluidics platform to first produce monodisperse emulsion. The uniform emulsions, were then consolidated into porous structures through UV photopolymerisation. The morphology, pores, cavities size, and porosity of the structures can be precisely manipulated by the flowrate. The proposed strategy might provide a key advantage for fabrication of uniform porous materials over many existing technologies.

Keywords: polymer, porous particles, microfluidics, porous structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
1952 Influence of Ball Milling Time on Mechanical Properties of Porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag Alloy

Authors: M. J. Shivaram, Shashi Bhushan Arya, Jagannath Nayak, Bharat Bhooshan Panigrahi

Abstract:

Titanium and its alloys have become more significant implant materials due to their mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and high corrosion resistance. Biomaterials can be produce by using the powder metallurgy (PM) methods and required properties can tailored by varying the processing parameters, such as ball milling time, space holder particles, and sintering temperature. The desired properties such as, structural and mechanical properties can be obtained by powder metallurgy method.  In the present study, deals with fabrication of solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy using high energy ball milling for different times (5 and 20 h). The resultant powder particles were used to fabricate solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy by adding space holder particles (NH4HCO3). The resultant powder particles, fabricated solid and porous samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compressive strength, elastic modulus and microhardness properties were investigated. Solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy samples showed good mechanical properties for 20 h ball milling time as compare to 5 h ball milling.

Keywords: ball milling, compressive strengths, microstructure, porous titanium alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
1951 Assessment and Control for Oil Aerosol

Authors: Chane-Yu Lai, Xiang-Yu Huang

Abstract:

This study conducted an assessment of sampling result by using the new development rotation filtration device (RFD) filled with porous media filters integrating the method of cyclone centrifugal spins. The testing system established for the experiment used corn oil and potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate (PST) as challenge aerosols and were produced by using an Ultrasonic Atomizing Nozzle, a Syringe Pump, and a Collison nebulizer. The collection efficiency of RFD for oil aerosol was assessed by using an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and a Fidas® Frog. The results of RFD for the liquid particles condition indicated the cutoff size was 1.65 µm and 1.02 µm for rotation of 0 rpm and 9000 rpm, respectively, under an 80 PPI (pores per inch)foam with a thickness of 80 mm, and sampling velocity of 13.5 cm/s. As the experiment increased the foam thickness of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.62 µm to 1.02 µm. However, when increased the foam porosity of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.26 µm to 0.96 µm. Moreover, as increased the sampling velocity of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.02 µm to 0.76 µm. These discrepancies of above cutoff sizes of RFD all had statistical significance (P < 0.05). The cutoff size of RFD for three experimental conditions of generated liquid oil particles, solid PST particles or both liquid oil and solid PST particles was 1.03 µm, 1.02 µm, or 0.99 µm, respectively, under a 80 PPI foam with thickness of 80 mm, rotation of 9000 rpm, and sampling velocity of 13.5 cm/s. In addition, under the best condition of the experiment, two hours of sampling loading, the RFD had better collection efficiency for particle diameter greater than 0.45 µm, under a 94 PPI nickel mesh with a thickness of 68 mm, rotation of 9000 rpm, and sampling velocity of 108.3 cm/s. The experiment concluded that increased the thickness of porous media, face velocity, and porosity of porous media of RFD could increase the collection efficiency of porous media for sampling oil particles. Moreover, increased the rotation speed of RFD also increased the collection efficiency for sampling oil particles. Further investigation is required for those above operation parameters for RFD in this study in the future.

Keywords: oil aerosol, porous media filter, rotation, filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
1950 CO2 Capture in Porous Silica Assisted by Lithium

Authors: Lucero Gonzalez, Salvador Alfaro

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are considered as the compounds with higher abundance among the greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx, SOx, CxHx, etc.), due to its higher concentration, this two gases have a greater impact in the environment pollution and provokes global warming. So, recovery, disposal and subsequent reuse, are of great interest, especially from the ecological and health perspective. By one hand, porous inorganic materials are good candidates to capture gases, because these type of materials are higher stability from the point view of thermal, chemical and mechanical under adsorption gas processes. By another hand, during the design and the synthetic preparation of the porous materials is possible add other intrinsic properties (physicochemical and structural) by adding chemical compounds as dopants or using structured directed agents or surfactants to improve the porous structure, the above features allow to have alternative materials for separation, capture and storage of greenhouse gases. In this work, ordered mesoporous materials base silica were prepared using Surfynol as surfactant. The surfactant micelles are commonly used as self-assembly templates for the development of new structure porous silica’s, adding a variety of textures and structures. By another hand, the Surfynol is a commercial surfactant, is non-ionic, for that is necessary determine its critical micelles concentration (cmc) by the pyrene I1/I3 ratio method, before to prepare silica particles. One time known the CMC, a precursor gel was prepared via sol-gel process at room temperature using TEOS as silica precursor, NH4OH as catalyst, Surfynol as template and H2O as solvent. Then, the gel precursor was treatment hydrothermally in a Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave with a volume of 100 mL and kept at 100 ºC for 24 h under static conditions in a convection oven. After that, the porous silica particles obtained were impregnated with lithium to improve the CO2 adsorption capacity. Then the silica particles were characterized physicochemical, morphology and structurally, by XRD, FTIR, BET and SEM techniques. The thermal stability and the CO2 adsorption capacity was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According the results, we found that the Surfynol is a good candidate to prepare silica particles with an ordered structure. Also the TGA analysis shown that the particles has a good thermal stability in the range of 250 °C and 800 °C. The best materials had, the capacity to adsorbing 70 and 90 mg per gram of silica particles and its CO2 adsorption capacity depends on the way to thermal pretreatment of the porous silica before of the adsorption experiments and of the concentration of surfactant used during the synthesis of silica particles. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by SIP-IPN through project SIP-20161862.

Keywords: CO2 adsorption, lithium as dopant, porous silica, surfynol as surfactant, thermogravimetric analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
1949 Polymer-Layered Gold Nanoparticles: Preparation, Properties and Uses of a New Class of Materials

Authors: S. M. Chabane sari S. Zargou, A.R. Senoudi, F. Benmouna

Abstract:

Immobilization of nano particles (NPs) is the subject of numerous studies pertaining to the design of polymer nano composites, supported catalysts, bioactive colloidal crystals, inverse opals for novel optical materials, latex templated-hollow inorganic capsules, immunodiagnostic assays; “Pickering” emulsion polymerization for making latex particles and film-forming composites or Janus particles; chemo- and biosensors, tunable plasmonic nano structures, hybrid porous monoliths for separation science and technology, biocidal polymer/metal nano particle composite coatings, and so on. Particularly, in the recent years, the literature has witnessed an impressive progress of investigations on polymer coatings, grafts and particles as supports for anchoring nano particles. This is actually due to several factors: polymer chains are flexible and may contain a variety of functional groups that are able to efficiently immobilize nano particles and their precursors by dispersive or van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen or covalent bonds. We review methods to prepare polymer-immobilized nano particles through a plethora of strategies in view of developing systems for separation, sensing, extraction and catalysis. The emphasis is on methods to provide (i) polymer brushes and grafts; (ii) monoliths and porous polymer systems; (iii) natural polymers and (iv) conjugated polymers as platforms for anchoring nano particles. The latter range from soft bio macromolecular species (proteins, DNA) to metallic, C60, semiconductor and oxide nano particles; they can be attached through electrostatic interactions or covalent bonding. It is very clear that physicochemical properties of polymers (e.g. sensing and separation) are enhanced by anchored nano particles, while polymers provide excellent platforms for dispersing nano particles for e.g. high catalytic performances. We thus anticipate that the synergetic role of polymeric supports and anchored particles will increasingly be exploited in view of designing unique hybrid systems with unprecedented properties.

Keywords: gold, layer, polymer, macromolecular

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
1948 Numerical Simulation of Two-Dimensional Porous Cylinder Flow in In-Line Arrangement

Authors: Hamad Alhajeri, Abdulrahman Almutairi, A. H. Alenezi, M. H. Alhajeri, Ayedh Alajmi

Abstract:

The flow around three porous cylinders in inline arrangement is investigated in this paper computationally using the commercial code FLUENT. The arrangement generally operates with the dirty gases passing through the porous cylinders, the particulate material being deposited on the outside of the cylinders. However, in a combined cycle power plant, filtration is required to allow the hot exhaust gases to be fed to a turbine without causing any physical damage to the turbine blades. Three cylinder elements are placed in a two-dimensional rectangle duct with fixed face velocity and varying the velocity ratio between the approach and face velocity. Particle trajectories are obtained for a number of particle diameters and different inlet (approach) velocity to face filtration velocity ratios to investigate the behavior of particles around the cylinder.

Keywords: porous cylinders, CFD, fluid flow, filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
1947 The Effect of Particle Porosity in Mixed Matrix Membrane Permeation Models

Authors: Z. Sadeghi, M. R. Omidkhah, M. E. Masoomi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine gas transport behavior of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) combined with porous particles. Main existing models are categorized in two main groups; two-phase (ideal contact) and three-phase (non-ideal contact). A new coefficient, J, was obtained to express equations for estimating effect of the particle porosity in two-phase and three-phase models. Modified models evaluates with existing models and experimental data using Matlab software. Comparison of gas permeability of proposed modified models with existing models in different MMMs shows a better prediction of gas permeability in MMMs.

Keywords: mixed matrix membrane, permeation models, porous particles, porosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
1946 Preparation of Porous Metal Membrane by Thermal Annealing for Thin Film Encapsulation

Authors: Jaibir Sharma, Lee JaeWung, Merugu Srinivas, Navab Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents thermal annealing dewetting technique for the preparation of porous metal membrane for thin film encapsulation application. Thermal annealing dewetting experimental results reveal that pore size in porous metal membrane depend upon i.e. 1. The substrate on which metal is deposited for formation of porous metal cap membrane, 2. Melting point of metal used for porous metal cap layer membrane formation, 3. Thickness of metal used for cap layer, 4. Temperature used for porous metal membrane formation. Silver (Ag) was used as a metal for preparation of porous metal membrane by annealing the film at different temperature. Pores in porous silver film were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In order to check the usefulness of porous metal film for thin film encapsulation application, the porous silver film prepared on amorphous silicon (a-Si) was release using XeF2. Finally, guide line and structures are suggested to use this porous membrane for thin film encapsulation (TFE) application.

Keywords: dewetting, themal annealing, metal, melting point, porous

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
1945 Microwave-Assisted 3D Porous Graphene for Its Multi-Functionalities

Authors: Jung-Hwan Oh, Rajesh Kumar, Il-Kwon Oh

Abstract:

Porous graphene has extensive potential applications in variety of fields such as hydrogen storage, CO oxidation, gas separation, supercapacitors, fuel cells, nanoelectronics, oil adsorption, and so on. However, the generation of some carbon atoms vacancies for precise small holes have been not extensively studied to prevent the agglomerates of graphene sheets and to obtain porous graphene with high surface area. Recently, many research efforts have been presented to develop physical and chemical synthetic approaches for porous graphene. But physical method has very high cost of manufacture and chemical method consumes so many hours for porous graphene. Herein, we propose a porous graphene contained holes with atomic scale precision by embedding metal nano-particles through microwave irradiation for hydrogen storage and CO oxidation multi- functionalities. This proposed synthetic method is appropriate for fast and convenient production of three dimensional nanostructures, which have nanoholes on the graphene surface in consequence of microwave irradiation. The metal nanoparticles are dispersed quickly on the graphene surface and generated uniform nanoholes on the graphene nanosheets. The morphological and structural characterization of the porous graphene were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission scanning electron microscopy (TEM) and RAMAN spectroscopy, respectively. The metal nanoparticle-embedded porous graphene exhibits a microporous volume of 2.586cm3g-1 with an average pore radius of 0.75 nm. HR-TEM analysis was carried out to further characterize the microstructures. By investigating the RAMAN spectra, we can understand the structural changes of graphene. The results of this work demonstrate a possibility to produce a new class of porous graphene. Furthermore, the newly acquired knowledge for the diffusion into graphene can provide useful guidance for the development of the growth of nanostructure.

Keywords: CO oxidation, hydrogen storage, nanocomposites, porous graphene

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
1944 Si3N4-SiC Composites Produced by Using C Black and Sic Powder

Authors: Nilgun Kuskonmaz, Zeynep Taslıcukur Ozturk, Cem Sahin

Abstract:

In this study, Si3N4-SiC composites were synthesized by using different raw materials. In the first method, Si3N4 and C black powder mixtures were used to fabricate Si3N4-SiC composites by in-situ carbothermal reduction process. The percentage of C black was only changed. The effects of carbon black percentage in the mixtures were analysed by characterization of SiC particles which were obtained in the Si3N4 matrix. In the second method, SiC particles were added to the matrix in different weight ratios. The composites were pressed by cold isostatic method under 150 MPa pressure and pressureless sintered at 1700-1850 °C during 1 hour in the argon atmosphere. AlN and Y2O3 were used as sintering additives. Sintering temperature, time and all the effects on in-situ reaction were studied. The densification and microstructure properties of the produced ceramics were analysed. Density was one of the main subjects in these reactions. It is very important during porous SiC sintering. Green density and relative density were measured higher for CIP samples. Samples which were added carbon black were more porous than SiC added samples. The increase in the carbon black, makes increase in porosity. The outcome of the experiments was SiC powders which were obtained at the grain boundries of β-Si3N4 particles.

Keywords: silicon nitride, silicon carbide, carbon black, cold isostatic press, sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
1943 Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Spongy-Porous Media

Authors: Zeinab Sayed Abdel Rehim, M. A. Ziada, H. Salwa El-Deeb

Abstract:

Numerical study of fluid flow, heat transfer and thermal energy storing or released in/from spongy-porous media to predict the thermal performance and characteristics of the porous media as packed bed system is presented in this work. This system is cylindrical channel filled with porous media (carbon foam). The system consists of working fluid (air) and spongy-porous medium; they act as the heat exchanger (heating or cooling modes) where thermal interaction occurs between the working fluid and the porous medium. The spongy-porous media are defined by the different type of porous medium employed in the storing or cooling modes. Two different porous media are considered in this study: Carbon foam, and Silicon rubber. The flow of the working fluid (air) is one dimensional in the axial direction from the top to downward and steady state conditions. The numerical results of transient temperature distribution for both working fluid and the spongy-porous medium phases and the amount of stored/realized heat inside/from the porous medium for each case with respect to the operating parameters and the spongy-porous media characteristics are illustrated.

Keywords: fluid flow, heat transfer, numerical analysis, spongy-porous media, thermal performance, transient conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
1942 Humidity Sensing Behavior of Graphene Oxide on Porous Silicon Substrate

Authors: Amirhossein Hasani, Shamin Houshmand Sharifi

Abstract:

In this work, we investigate humidity sensing behavior of the graphene oxide with porous silicon substrate. By evaporation method, aluminum interdigital electrodes have been deposited onto porous silicon substrate. Then, by drop-casting method graphene oxide solution was deposited onto electrodes. The porous silicon was formed by electrochemical etching. The experimental results showed that using porous silicon substrate, we obtained two times larger sensitivity and response time compared with the results obtained with silicon substrate without porosity.

Keywords: graphene oxide, porous silicon, humidity sensor, electrochemical

Procedia PDF Downloads 512
1941 Characterization of High Carbon Ash from Pulp and Paper mill for Potential Utilization

Authors: Ruma Rano, Firoza Sultana, Bishal Bhuyan, Nurul Alam Mazumder

Abstract:

Fly ash collected from Cachar Paper Mill, Assam, India has been thoroughly characterized in respect of its physico-chemical, morphological and mineralogical features were concerned by using density, LOI, FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDS etc. The results reveal that there is a striking difference in the features and properties of the coarser and finer fractions .The high carbon ash consists of large unburnt carbon (chars), irregular carbonaceous particles in the coarser fraction, which appear to be porous and may be used as domestic fuel. The percentage of char albeit the carbon content decreases with decrease in size of particles. The various fractions essentially contain quartz and mullite as the main mineral phases. For suggesting the potential utilization channels, number of experiments were performed correlating the total characteristic features. Water holding capacities of different size classified fractions were determined, the coarser fractions have unexpectedly higher water holding capacities than the finer ones. An attempt has been made to correlate the results obtained with potential use in agriculture. Another potential application of coarser particles is used as adsorbent for effluents containing waste organic materials. Thus thorough characterization leads to not only a definite direction about the uses of the value added components but also gives useful information regarding the prevailing combustion process.

Keywords: chars, porous, water holding capacity, combustion process

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
1940 Memristive Properties of Nanostructured Porous Silicon

Authors: Madina Alimova, Margulan Ibraimov, Ayan Tileu

Abstract:

The paper describes methods for obtaining porous structures with the properties of a silicon-based memristor and explains the electrical properties of porous silicon films. Based on the results, there is a positive shift in the current-voltage characteristics (CVC) after each measurement, i.e., electrical properties depend not only on the applied voltage but also on the previous state. After 3 minutes of rest, the film returns to its original state (reset). The method for obtaining a porous silicon nanofilm with the properties of a memristor is simple and does not require additional effort. Based on the measurement results, the typical memristive behavior of the porous silicon nanofilm is analyzed.

Keywords: porous silicon, current-voltage characteristics, memristor, nanofilms

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
1939 Effect of Coriolis Force on Magnetoconvection in an Anisotropic Porous Medium

Authors: N. F. M. Mokhtar, N. Z. A. Hamid

Abstract:

This paper reports an analytical investigation of the stability and thermal convection in a horizontal anisotropic porous medium in the presence of Coriolis force and magnetic field. The Darcy model is used in the momentum equation and Boussinesq approximation is considered for the density variation of the porous medium. The upper and lower boundaries of the porous medium are assumed to be conducting to temperature perturbation and we used first order Chebyshev polynomial Tau method to solve the resulting eigenvalue problem. Analytical solution is obtained for the case of stationary convection. It is found that the porous layer system becomes unstable when the mechanical anisotropy parameter elevated and increasing the Coriolis force and magnetic field help to stabilize the anisotropy porous medium.

Keywords: anisotropic, Chebyshev tau method, Coriolis force, Magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
1938 Carbon Nanotubes Based Porous Framework for Filtration Applications Using Industrial Grinding Waste

Authors: V. J. Pillewan, D. N. Raut, K. N. Patil, D. K. Shinde

Abstract:

Forging, milling, turning, grinding and shaping etc. are the various industrial manufacturing processes which generate the metal waste. Grinding is extensively used in the finishing operation. The waste generated contains significant impurities apart from the metal particles. Due to these significant impurities, it becomes difficult to process and gets usually dumped in the landfills which create environmental problems. Therefore, it becomes essential to reuse metal waste to create value added products. Powder injection molding process is used for producing the porous metal matrix framework. This paper discusses the presented design of the porous framework to be used for the liquid filter application. Different parameters are optimized to obtain the better strength framework with variable porosity. Carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcing materials to enhance the strength of the metal matrix framework.

Keywords: grinding waste, powder injection molding (PIM), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), matrix composites (MMCs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
1937 Formation and Characterization of the Epoxy Resin-Porous Glass Interphases

Authors: Aleksander Ostrowski, Hugh J. Byrne, Roland Sanctuary

Abstract:

Investigation of the polymer interphases is an emerging field nowadays. In many cases interphases determine the functionality of a system. There is a great demand for exploration of fundamental understanding of the interphases and elucidation of their formation, dimensions dependent on various influencing factors, change of functional properties, etc. The epoxy applied on porous glass penetrates its pores with an extent dependent on the pore size, temperature and epoxy components mixing ratio. Developed over the recent time challenging sample preparation procedure allowed to produce very smooth epoxy-porous glass cross-sections. In this study, Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the epoxy-porous glass interphases. It allowed for chemical differentiation between different regions at the cross-section and determination of the degree of cure of epoxy system in the porous glass.

Keywords: interphases, Raman spectroscopy, epoxy, porous glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
1936 Microscopic Visualization of the Ice Slurry Ice Particles

Authors: Juan José Milón Guzmán, Herbert Jesús Del Carpio Beltrán, Sergio Leal Braga

Abstract:

Visualizations of ice particles of ice slurry are performed. The form and size of ice particles is investigated by optical microscopy. It permits to evaluate statistically the geometrical shapes of the ice crystals. The observed particle size corresponds with the different solutes (sugar, salt, propylene glycol).

Keywords: ice slurry, visualization, ice particles, solutes

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
1935 Causality, Special Relativity and Non-existence of Material Particles of Zero Rest Mass

Authors: Mohammad Saleem, Mujahid Kamran

Abstract:

It is shown that causality, the principle that cause must precede effect, leads inter alia, to highly significant result that the velocity of a material particle cannot be even equal to that of light. Consequently, combined with special relativity, it leads to the conclusion that material particles of zero rest mass cannot exist in nature. Thus, causality, a principle without which nature would be incomprehensible, combined with special relativity, forbids the existence of material particles of zero rest mass. For instance, the neutrinos, as is now known, are material particles of non-zero rest mass. The situation changes when we consider the gauge particles. In fact, when the principle of causality was proposed, the concept of gauge particles had not yet been introduced. Now we know that photon, a gauge particle with zero rest mass does exist in nature. Therefore, principle of causality, as generally stated, is valid only for material particles. For gauge particles, in order to make the statement of causality consistent with experiment, it has to be modified: The cause should either precede or be simultaneous with the effect. Combined with special relativity, it allows gauge particles of zero rest mass.

Keywords: causality, gauge particles, material particles, special relativity

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
1934 Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector Based on Porous In0.08Ga0.92N

Authors: Saleh H. Abud, Z. Hassan, F. K. Yam

Abstract:

Characteristics of MSM photodetector based on a porous In0.08Ga0.92N thin film were reported. Nanoporous structures of n-type In0.08Ga0.92N/AlN/Si thin films were synthesized by photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching at a ratio of 1:4 of HF:C2H5OH solution for 15 min. The structural and optical properties of pre- and post-etched thin films were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope images showed that the pre-etched thin film has a sufficiently smooth surface over a large region and the roughness increased for porous film. Blue shift has been observed in photoluminescence emission peak at 300 K for porous sample. The photoluminescence intensity of the porous film indicated that the optical properties have been enhanced. A high work function metals (Pt and Ni) were deposited as a metal contact on the porous films. The rise and recovery times of the devices were investigated at 390 nm chopped light. Finally, the sensitivity and quantum efficiency were also studied.

Keywords: porous InGaN, photoluminescence, SMS photodetector, atomic force microscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
1933 Particle Size Distribution Estimation of a Mixture of Regular and Irregular Sized Particles Using Acoustic Emissions

Authors: Ejay Nsugbe, Andrew Starr, Ian Jennions, Cristobal Ruiz-Carcel

Abstract:

This works investigates the possibility of using Acoustic Emissions (AE) to estimate the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) of a mixture of particles that comprise of particles of different densities and geometry. The experiments carried out involved the mixture of a set of glass and polyethylene particles that ranged from 150-212 microns and 150-250 microns respectively and an experimental rig that allowed the free fall of a continuous stream of particles on a target plate which the AE sensor was placed. By using a time domain based multiple threshold method, it was observed that the PSD of the particles in the mixture could be estimated.

Keywords: acoustic emissions, particle sizing, process monitoring, signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
1932 Numerical Prediction of Entropy Generation in Heat Exchangers

Authors: Nadia Allouache

Abstract:

The concept of second law is assumed to be important to optimize the energy losses in heat exchangers. The present study is devoted to the numerical prediction of entropy generation due to heat transfer and friction in a double tube heat exchanger partly or fully filled with a porous medium. The goal of this work is to find the optimal conditions that allow minimizing entropy generation. For this purpose, numerical modeling based on the control volume method is used to describe the flow and heat transfer phenomena in the fluid and the porous medium. Effects of the porous layer thickness, its permeability, and the effective thermal conductivity have been investigated. Unexpectedly, the fully porous heat exchanger yields a lower entropy generation than the partly porous case or the fluid case even if the friction increases the entropy generation.

Keywords: heat exchangers, porous medium, second law approach, turbulent flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
1931 Compressible Flow Modeling in Pipes and Porous Media during Blowdown Experiment

Authors: Thomas Paris, Vincent Bruyere, Patrick Namy

Abstract:

A numerical model is developed to simulate gas blowdowns through a thin tube and a filter (porous media), separating a high pressure gas filled reservoir to low pressure ones. Based on a previous work, a one-dimensional approach is developed by using the finite element method to solve the transient compressible flow and to predict the pressure and temperature evolution in space and time. Mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations are solved in a fully coupled way in the reservoirs, the pipes and the porous media. Numerical results, such as pressure and temperature evolutions, are firstly compared with experimental data to validate the model for different configurations. Couplings between porous media and pipe flow are then validated by checking mass balance. The influence of the porous media and the nature of the gas is then studied for different initial high pressure values.

Keywords: compressible flow, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, porous media

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
1930 Self-Assembled Tin Particles Made by Plasma-Induced Dewetting

Authors: Han Joo Choe, Soon-Ho Kwon, Jung-Joong Lee

Abstract:

Tin particles of various size and distribution were self-assembled by plasma treating tin film deposited on silicon oxide substrates. Plasma treatment was conducted using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. A range of ICP power and topographic templated substrates were evaluated to observe changes in particle size and particle distribution. Scanning electron microscopy images of the particles were analyzed using computer software. The evolution of tin film dewetting into particles initiated from the hole nucleation in grain boundaries. Increasing ICP power during plasma treatment produced larger number of particles per area and smaller particle size and particle-size distribution. Topographic templates were also effective in positioning and controlling the size of the particles. By combining the effects of ICP power and topographic templates, particles of similar size and well-ordered distribution were obtained.

Keywords: dewetting, particles, plasma, tin

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
1929 Investigation of Utilization Possibility of Fluid Gas Desulfurization Waste for Industrial Waste Water Treatment

Authors: S. Kızıltas Demir, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGD) is a waste material arouse from coal power plants. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a biomaterial with porous structure. In this study, FGD gypsum which retrieved from coal power plant in Turkey was characterized and HAP particles which can be used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment application were synthesized from the FGD gypsum. The raw materials are characterized by using X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques and produced HAP are characterized by using XRD. As a result, HAP particles were synthesized at the molar ratio of 5:10, 5:15, 5:20, 5:24, at room temperature, in alkaline medium (pH=11) and in 1 hour-reaction time. Among these conditions, 5:20 had the best result.

Keywords: FGD wastes, HAP, phosphogypsum, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1928 A Review of Fractal Dimension Computing Methods Applied to Wear Particles

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Subrata Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

Various types of particles found in lubricant may be characterized by their fractal dimension. Some of the available methods are: yard-stick method or structured walk method, box-counting method. This paper presents a review of the developments and progress in fractal dimension computing methods as applied to characteristics the surface of wear particles. An overview of these methods, their implementation, their advantages and their limits is also present here. It has been accepted that wear particles contain major information about wear and friction of materials. Morphological analysis of wear particles from a lubricant is a very effective way for machine condition monitoring. Fractal dimension methods are used to characterize the morphology of the found particles. It is very useful in the analysis of complexity of irregular substance. The aim of this review is to bring together the fractal methods applicable for wear particles.

Keywords: fractal dimension, morphological analysis, wear, wear particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
1927 Heat and Mass Transfer of an Oscillating Flow in a Porous Channel with Chemical Reaction

Authors: Zahra Neffah, Henda Kahalerras

Abstract:

A numerical study is made in a parallel-plate porous channel subjected to an oscillating flow and an exothermic chemical reaction on its walls. The flow field in the porous region is modeled by the Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer model and the finite volume method is used to solve the governing equations. The effects of the modified Frank-Kamenetskii (FKm) and Damköhler (Dm) numbers, the amplitude of oscillation (A), and the Strouhal number (St) are examined. The main results show an increase of heat and mass transfer rates with A and St, and their decrease with FKm and Dm.

Keywords: chemical reaction, heat and mass transfer, oscillating flow, porous channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
1926 Linear Stability of Convection in an Inclined Channel with Nanofluid Saturated Porous Medium

Authors: D. Srinivasacharya, Nidhi Humnekar

Abstract:

The goal of this research is to numerically investigate the convection of nanofluid flow in an inclined porous channel. Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are accounted for by nanofluid. In addition, the flow in the porous region governs Brinkman’s equation. The perturbed state of the generalized eigenvalue problem is obtained using normal mode analysis, and Chebyshev spectral collocation was used to solve this problem. For various values of the governing parameters, the critical wavenumber and critical Rayleigh number are calculated, and preferred modes are identified.

Keywords: Brinkman model, inclined channel, nanofluid, linear stability, porous media

Procedia PDF Downloads 5