Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7504

Search results for: emulsifying properties

7504 Synthesis and Properties of Sulfonate Gemini Surfactants with Amide Groups

Authors: Rui Wang, Shanfa Tang, Yuanwu Dong, Siyao Wang, Zhaowen Jiang, Di Han


A sulfonate Gemini surfactant sodium N,N`-bis(tetradecanoyl) propanediamine dipropyl sulfonate (GNS-14) was synthesized from 1,3-propanediamine, tetradecanoyl chloride, and1,3-propanesulfonic lactone. GNS-14 was characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR. The surface activity, interfacial activity, and emulsification properties of GNS-14 solution were systematically studied. The critical micelle concentration (CCMC) of GNS-14 surfactant was 0.056 mmol/L, and the surface tension (γCMC) was 18.2 mN/m; at 50℃, 0.5% GNS-14 solution can reduce the oil-water interfacial tension to 6.5×10−2 mN/m. GNS-14 has excellent surface activity, interfacial activity, and emulsifying properties.

Keywords: gemini surfactants, surface tension, low interfacial tension, emulsifying properties

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7503 Physicochemical Properties of Pea Protein Isolate (PPI)-Starch and Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)-Starch Nanocomplexes Treated by Ultrasound at Different pH Values

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Hao Feng


Soybean proteins are the most widely used and researched proteins in the food industry. Due to soy allergies among consumers, however, alternative legume proteins having similar functional properties have been studied in recent years. These alternative proteins are also expected to have a price advantage over soy proteins. One such protein that has shown good potential for food applications is pea protein. Besides the favorable functional properties of pea protein, it also contains fewer anti-nutritional substances than soy protein. However, a comparison of the physicochemical properties of pea protein isolate (PPI)-starch nanocomplexes and soy protein isolate (SPI)-starch nanocomplexes treated by ultrasound has not been well documented. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of ultrasound treatment on the physicochemical properties of PPI-starch and SPI-starch nanocomplexes. Pea protein isolate (85% pea protein) provided by Roquette (Geneva, IL, USA) and soy protein isolate (SPI, Pro-Fam® 955) obtained from the Archer Daniels Midland Company were adjusted to different pH levels (2-12) and treated with 5 minutes of ultrasonication (100% amplitude) to form complexes with starch. The soluble protein content was determined by the Bradford method using BSA as the standard. The turbidity of the samples was measured using a spectrophotometer (Lambda 1050 UV/VIS/NIR Spectrometer, PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA, USA). The volume-weighted mean diameters (D4, 3) of the soluble proteins were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The emulsifying properties of the proteins were evaluated by the emulsion stability index (ESI) and emulsion activity index (EAI). Both the soy and pea protein isolates showed a U-shaped solubility curve as a function of pH, with a high solubility above the isoelectric point and a low one below it. Increasing the pH from 2 to 12 resulted in increased solubility for both the SPI and PPI-starch complexes. The pea nanocomplexes showed greater solubility than the soy ones. The SPI-starch nanocomplexes showed better emulsifying properties determined by the emulsion stability index (ESI) and emulsion activity index (EAI) due to SPI’s high solubility and high protein content. The PPI had similar or better emulsifying properties at certain pH values than the SPI. The ultrasound treatment significantly decreased the particle sizes of both kinds of nanocomplex. For all pH levels with both proteins, the droplet sizes were found to be lower than 300 nm. The present study clearly demonstrated that applying ultrasonication under different pH conditions significantly improved the solubility and emulsify¬ing properties of the SPI and PPI. The PPI exhibited better solubility and emulsifying properties than the SPI at certain pH levels

Keywords: emulsifying properties, pea protein isolate, soy protein isolate, ultrasonication

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7502 Effects of Type and Concentration Stabilizers on the Characteristics of Nutmeg Oil Nanoemulsions Prepared by High-Pressure Homogenization

Authors: Yuliani Aisyah, Sri Haryani, Novi Safriani


Nutmeg oil is one of the essential oils that have the ability as an antibacterial so it potentially uses to inhibit the growth of undesirable microbes in food. However, the essential oil that has low solubility in water, high volatile content, and strong aroma properties is difficult to apply in to foodstuffs. Therefore, the oil-in-water nanoemulsion system was used in this research. Gelatin, lecithin and tween 80 with 10%, 20%, 30% concentrations have been examined for the preparation of nutmeg oil nanoemulsions. The physicochemical properties and stability of nutmeg oil nanoemulsion were analyzed on viscosity, creaming index, emulsifying activity, droplet size, and polydispersity index. The results showed that the type and concentration stabilizer had a significant effect on viscosity, creaming index, droplet size and polydispersity index (P ≤ 0,01). The nanoemulsions stabilized with tween 80 had the best stability because the creaming index value was 0%, the emulsifying activity value was 100%, the droplet size was small (79 nm) and the polydispersity index was low (0.10) compared to the nanoemulsions stabilized with gelatin and lecithin. In brief, Tween 80 is strongly recommended to be used for stabilizing nutmeg oil nanoemulsions.

Keywords: nanoemulsion, nutmeg oil, stabilizer, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
7501 Physicochemical Properties of Soy Protein Isolate (SPI): Starch Conjugates Treated by Sonication

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Hao Feng


In recent years there is growing interested in using soy protein because of several advantages compared to other protein sources, such as high nutritional value, steady supply, and low cost. Soy protein isolate (SPI) is the most refined soy protein product. It contains 90% protein in a moisture-free form and has some desirable functionalities. Creating a protein-polysaccharide conjugate to be the emulsifying agent rather than the protein alone can markedly enhance its stability. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of ultrasound treatments on the physicochemical properties of SPI-starch conjugates. The soy protein isolate (SPI, Pro-Fam® 955) samples were obtained from the Archer Daniels Midland Company. Protein concentrations were analyzed by the Bardford method using BSA as the standard. The volume-weighted mean diameters D [4,3] of protein–polysaccharide conjugates were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Surface hydrophobicity of the conjugates was measured by using 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). Increasing the pH from 2 to 12 resulted in increased protein solubility. The highest solubility was 69.2% for the sample treated with ultrasonication at pH 12, while the lowest (9.13%) was observed in the Control. For the other pH conditions, the protein solubility values ranged from 40.53 to 49.65%. The ultrasound treatment significantly decreased the particle sizes of the SPI-modified starch conjugates. While the D [4,3] for the Control was 731.6 nm, it was 293.7 nm for the samples treated by sonication at pH 12. The surface hydrophobicity (H0) of SPI-starch at all pH conditions were significantly higher than those in the Control. Ultrasonication was proven to be effective in improving the solubility and emulsifying properties of soy protein isolate-starch conjugates.

Keywords: particle size, solubility, soy protein isolate, ultrasonication

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7500 Production of Gluten-Free Bread Using Emulsifying Salts and Rennet Casein

Authors: A. Morina, S. Ö. Muti, M. Öztürk


Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease observed in individuals with gluten intolerance. In this study, our aim was to create a protein matrix to mimic the functional properties of gluten. For this purpose, rennet casein and four emulsifying salts (disodium phosphate (DSP), tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP), sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP)) were investigated in gluten-free bread manufacture. Compositional, textural, and visual properties of the gluten-free bread dough and gluten-free breads were investigated by a two–level factorial experimental design with two-star points (α = 1.414) and two replicates of the center point. Manufacturing gluten-free bread with rennet casein and SHMP significantly increased the bread volume (P < 0.0001, R² = 97.8). In general, utilization of rennet casein with DSP and SAPP increased bread hardness while no difference was observed in samples manufactured with TSPP and SHMP. Except for TSPP, bread color was improved by the utilization of rennet casein and DSP, SAPP, and SHMP combinations. In conclusion, it is possible to manufacture gluten-free bread with acceptable texture and color by rennet casein and SHMP.

Keywords: celiac disease, gluten-free bread, emulsified salts, rennet casein, rice flour

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7499 Development and Characterization Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems of Poorly Soluble Drug Dutasteride

Authors: Rajinikanth Siddalingam, Poonguzhali Subramanian


The present study aims to prepare and evaluate the self-nano emulsifying drug delivery (SNEDDS) system to enhance the dissolution rate of a poorly soluble drug dutasteride. The formulation was prepared using capryol PGMC, Cremophor EL, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams with presence and absence of drug were plotted to find out the nano emulsification range and also to evaluate the effect of dutasteride on the emulsification behavior of the phases. Prepared SNEDDS formulations were evaluated for its particle size distribution, nano emulsifying properties, robustness to dilution, self-emulsification time, turbidity measurement, drug content and in-vitro dissolution. The optimized formulations are further evaluated for heating cooling cycle, centrifugation studies, freeze-thaw cycling, particle size distribution and zeta potential were carried out to confirm the stability of the formed SNEDDS formulations. The particle size, zeta potential and polydispersity index of the optimized formulation found to be 35.45 nm, -15.45 and 0.19, respectively. The in vitro results are revealed that the prepared formulation enhanced the dissolution rate of dutasteride significantly as compared with pure drug. The in vivo studies in was conducted using rats and the results are revealed that SNEDDS formulation has enhanced the bioavailability of dutasteride drug significantly as compared with raw drug. Based the results, it was concluded that the dutasteride-loaded SNEDDS shows potential to enhance the dissolution of dutasteride, thus improving the bioavailability and therapeutic effects.

Keywords: self-emulsifying drug delivery system, dutasteride, enhancement of bioavailability, dissolution enhancement

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7498 Microstracture of Iranian Processed Cheese

Authors: R. Ezzati, M. Dezyani, H. Mirzaei


The effects of the concentration of trisodium citrate (TSC) emulsifying salt (0.25 to 2.75%) and holding time (0 to 20 min) on the textural, rheological, and microstructural properties of Iranian Processed Cheese Cheddar cheese were studied using a central composite rotatable design. The loss tangent parameter (from small amplitude oscillatory rheology), extent of flow, and melt area (from the Schreiber test) all indicated that the meltability of process cheese decreased with increased concentration of TSC and that holding time led to a slight reduction in meltability. Hardness increased as the concentration of TSC increased. Fluorescence micrographs indicated that the size of fat droplets decreased with an increase in the concentration of TSC and with longer holding times. Acid-base titration curves indicated that the buffering peak at pH 4.8, which is due to residual colloidal calcium phosphate, decreased as the concentration of TSC increased. The soluble phosphate content increased as concentration of TSC increased. However, the insoluble Ca decreased with increasing concentration of TSC. The results of this study suggest that TSC chelated Ca from colloidal calcium phosphate and dispersed casein; the citrate-Ca complex remained trapped within the process cheese matrix. Increasing the concentration of TSC helped to improve fat emulsification and casein dispersion during cooking, both of which probably helped to reinforce the structure of process cheese.

Keywords: Iranian processed cheese, cheddar cheese, emulsifying salt, rheology

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7497 Iranian Processed Cheese under Effect of Emulsifier Salts and Cooking Time in Process

Authors: M. Dezyani, R. Ezzati bbelvirdi, M. Shakerian, H. Mirzaei


Sodium Hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is commonly used as an Emulsifying Salt (ES) in process cheese, although rarely as the sole ES. It appears that no published studies exist on the effect of SHMP concentration on the properties of process cheese when pH is kept constant; pH is well known to affect process cheese functionality. The detailed interactions between the added phosphate, Casein (CN), and indigenous Ca phosphate are poorly understood. We studied the effect of the concentration of SHMP (0.25-2.75%) and holding time (0-20 min) on the textural and Rheological properties of pasteurized process Cheddar cheese using a central composite rotatable design. All cheeses were adjusted to pH 5.6. The meltability of process cheese (as indicated by the decrease in loss tangent parameter from small amplitude oscillatory rheology, degree of flow, and melt area from the Schreiber test) decreased with an increase in the concentration of SHMP. Holding time also led to a slight reduction in meltability. Hardness of process cheese increased as the concentration of SHMP increased. Acid-base titration curves indicated that the buffering peak at pH 4.8, which is attributable to residual colloidal Ca phosphate, was shifted to lower pH values with increasing concentration of SHMP. The insoluble Ca and total and insoluble P contents increased as concentration of SHMP increased. The proportion of insoluble P as a percentage of total (indigenous and added) P decreased with an increase in ES concentration because of some of the (added) SHMP formed soluble salts. The results of this study suggest that SHMP chelated the residual colloidal Ca phosphate content and dispersed CN; the newly formed Ca-phosphate complex remained trapped within the process cheese matrix, probably by cross-linking CN. Increasing the concentration of SHMP helped to improve fat emulsification and CN dispersion during cooking, both of which probably helped to reinforce the structure of process cheese.

Keywords: Iranian processed cheese, emulsifying salt, rheology, texture

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7496 Sea Cucumber (Stichopus chloronotus) to Expedite Healing of Minor Wounds

Authors: Isa Naina Mohamed, Mazliadiyana Mazlan, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid


Stichopus chloronotus (Black Knobby or green fish) is a sea cucumber species commonly found along Malaysia’s coastline. In Malaysia, it is believed that sea cucumber can expedite healing of wounds, provide extra energy and used as an ointment to relieve pain. The aim of this study is to determine the best concentration of Stichopus chlronotus extract to promote wound healing. 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats with wounds created using 6mm disposable punch biopsy were divided into 6 treatment groups. The normal control group (untreated), positive control group (flavin treated only), negative control group (emulsifying ointment only), and group 0.1, group 0.5, group 1 were each treated with 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% of Stichopus chlronotus water extract mixed in emulsifying ointment, respectively. Treatments were administered topically for 10 days. Changes in wound area were measured using caliper and photographs were taken on day 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 after index wound. Results showed that wound reduction of group 0.5 on day 4, 6, and 8 was significantly higher compared to normal control group and positive control group. Group 0.5 also had higher wound reduction from day 6 until day 10 compared to all other groups. In conclusion, Sea Cucumber (Stichopus chloronotus) extract demonstrated the best minor wound healing properties at concentration 0.5%. The potential of Stichopus chlronotus extract ointment for wound healing shall be investigated further.

Keywords: minor wound healing, expedite wound healing, sea cucumber, Stichopus chloronotus

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7495 Development of Composition and Technology of Vincristine Nanoparticles Using High-Molecular Carbohydrates of Plant Origin

Authors: L. Ebralidze, A. Tsertsvadze, D. Berashvili, A. Bakuridze


Current cancer therapy strategies are based on surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The problems associated with chemotherapy are one of the biggest challenges for clinical medicine. These include: low specificity, broad spectrum of side effects, toxicity and development of cellular resistance. Therefore, anti-cance drugs need to be develop urgently. Particularly, in order to increase efficiency of anti-cancer drugs and reduce their side effects, scientists work on formulation of nano-drugs. The objective of this study was to develop composition and technology of vincristine nanoparticles using high-molecular carbohydrates of plant origin. Plant polysacharides, particularly, soy bean seed polysaccharides, flaxseed polysaccharides, citrus pectin, gum arabic, sodium alginate were used as objects. Based on biopharmaceutical research, vincristine containing nanoparticle formulations were prepared. High-energy emulsification and solvent evaporation methods were used for preparation of nanosystems. Polysorbat 80, polysorbat 60, sodium dodecyl sulfate, glycerol, polyvinyl alcohol were used in formulation as emulsifying agent and stabilizer of the system. The ratio of API and polysacharides, also the type of the stabilizing and emulsifying agents are very effective on the particle size of the final product. The influence of preparation technology, type and concentration of stabilizing agents on the properties of nanoparticles were evaluated. For the next stage of research, nanosystems were characterized. Physiochemical characterization of nanoparticles: their size, shape, distribution was performed using Atomic force microscope and Scanning electron microscope. The present study explored the possibility of production of NPs using plant polysaccharides. Optimal ratio of active pharmaceutical ingredient and plant polysacharids, the best stabilizer and emulsifying agent was determined. The average range of nanoparticles size and shape was visualized by SEM.

Keywords: nanoparticles, target delivery, natural high molecule carbohydrates, surfactants

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7494 Systematic Formulation Development and Evaluation of Self-Nanoemulsifying Systems of Rosuvastatin Employing QbD Approach and Chemometric Techniques

Authors: Sarwar Beg, Gajanand Sharma, O. P. Katare, Bhupinder Singh


The current studies entail development of self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of rosuvastatin, employing rational QbD-based approach for enhancing its oral bioavailability. SNEDDS were prepared using the blend of lipidic and emulsifying excipients, i.e., Peceol, Tween 80, and Transcutol HP. The prepared formulations evaluated for in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, in situ perfusion studies and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats, which demonstrated 3-4 fold improvement in biopharmaceutical performance of the developed formulations. Cytotoxicity studies using MTT assay and histopathological studies in intestinal cells revealed the lack of cytotoxicity and thereby safety and efficacy of the developed formulations.

Keywords: SNEDDS, bioavailability, solubility, Quality by Design (QbD)

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7493 Deciphering Suitability of Rhamnolipids as Emulsifying Agent for Hydrophobic Pollutants

Authors: Asif Jamal, Samia Sakindar, Ramla Rehman


Biosurfactants are amphiphilic surface active compounds obtained from natural resources such as plants and microorganisms. Because of their diverse physicochemical characteristics biosurfactant are replacing synthetic compounds in various commercial applications. In present study, a strain of P. aeruginosa was isolated from crude oil contaminated soil as efficient biosurfactant producers. The biosurfactant production was analyzed as a function of surface tension reduction, oil spreading capacity, emulsification index and hemolysis assay. This bacterial strain showed excellent emulsion activity of EI24 85%, surface tension reduction up to 28.6 mNm-1 and 7.0 mm oil displacement zone. Physicochemical and biological properties of extracted rhamnolipid were also investigated in current study. The chemical composition of product from strain PSS was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results revealed that extracted biosurfactant was rhamnolipid type in nature having RL-1 and RL-2 homologues. The surface behavior of rhamnolipid in aqueous phase was investigated varying extreme pH, temperature, salt conditions and with various hydrocarbons. The results indicated that biosurfactant produced by strain PSS Which showed stability during high temperature up to 121 C, salt concentrations up to 20% and pH range between (4—14). The emulsification activity with different hydrocarbons was also remarkable. It was concluded that rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by strain PSS has excellent potential as emulsifying/remediation agent for broad range of hydrophobic pollutants.

Keywords: P. aeruginosa, bioremediation, rhamnolipid, surfactants

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7492 Development of Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) of Anticancer Agents Used in AYUSH System of Medicine for Improved Oral Bioavailability Followed by Their Pharmacological Evaluation Using Biotechnological Techniques

Authors: Meenu Mehta, Munish Garg


The use of oral anticancer drugs from AYUSH system of medicine is widely increased among the society due to their low cost, enhanced efficacy, increased patient preference, lack of inconveniences related to infusion and they provide an opportunity to develop chronic treatment regimens. However, oral delivery of these drugs usually laid down by the limited bioavailability of the drug, which is associated with a wide variation. As most of the cytotoxic agents have a narrow therapeutic window and are dosed at or near the maximum tolerated dose, a wide variability in the bioavailability can negatively affect treatment result. It is estimated that 40% of active substances are poorly soluble in water. The improvement of bio-availability of drugs with such properties presents one of the greatest challenges in drug formulations. There are several techniques reported in literature. Among all these Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) has gained more attention due to enhanced oral bio-availability enabling a reduction in dose. Thus, SEDDS anticancer drugs will have the increased bioavailability and efficacy. These dosage form will provide societal benefit in a cost-effective manner as compared to other oral dosage forms. Present study reflects on the formulation strategies as SEDDS for oral anticancer agents of AYUSH system for enhanced bioavailability with proven efficacy by cancer cell lines.

Keywords: anticancer agents, AYUSH system, bioavailability, SEDDS

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7491 Physicochemical and Antioxidative Characteristics of Black Bean Protein Hydrolysates Obtained from Different Enzymes

Authors: Zhaojun Zheng, Yuanfa Liu, Jiaxin Li, Jinwei Li, Yong-jiang Xu, Chen Cao


Black bean is an excellent protein source for preparing hydrolysates, which attract much attention due to their biological activity. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black bean protein, hydrolyzed by ficin, bromelain or alcalase until 300 min of hydrolysis. Results showed that bromelain and alcalase hydrolysates possessed a higher degree of hydrolysis (DH) than that of ficin, thereby presenting different ultraviolet absorption, fluorescence intensity, and circular dichroism. Moreover, all hydrolysates possessed the capacity to scavenge DPPH radical with the lowest IC₅₀ of 21.11 µg/mL, as well as to chelate ferrous ion (Fe²⁺) with the IC₅₀ values ranging from 6.82 to 30.68 µg/mL. Intriguingly, the oxidation of linoleic acid, sunflower oil, and sunflower oil-in-water emulsion was remarkedly retarded by the three selected protein hydrolysates, especially by bromelain-treated protein hydrolysate, which might attribute to their high hydrophobicity and emulsifying properties. These findings can provide strong support for black bean protein hydrolysates to be employed in food products acting as natural antioxidant alternatives.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, black bean protein hydrolysate, emulsion physicochemical properties, sunflower oil

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7490 Effect of Resveratrol and Ascorbic Acid on the Stability of Alfa-Tocopherol in Whey Protein Isolate Stabilized O/W Emulsions

Authors: Lei Wang, Yingzhou Ni, Amr M. Bakry, Hao Cheng, Li Liang


Food proteins have been widely used as carrier materials because of their multiple functional properties. In this study, alfa-tocopherol was encapsulated in the oil phase of an oil-in-water emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI). The influence of WPI concentration and resveratrol or ascorbic acid on the decomposition of alfa-tocopherol in the emulsion during storage is discussed. Decomposition decreased as WPI concentrations increased. Decomposition was delayed at ascorbic acid/WPI molar ratios lower than 5 but was promoted at higher ratios. Resveratrol partitioned into the oil-water interface by binding to WPI and its cis-isomer is believed to have contributed most of the protective effect of this polyphenol. These results suggest the possibility of using the emulsifying and ligand-binging properties of WPI to produce carriers for simultaneous encapsulation of alfa-tocopherol and resveratrol in a single emulsion system.

Keywords: stability, alfa-tocopherol, resveratrol, whey protein isolate

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7489 Effect of Fermentation Time on Some Functional Properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Seed Flour

Authors: Ocheme B. Ocheme, Omobolanle O. Oloyede, S. James, Eleojo V. Akpa


The effect of fermentation time on some functional properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed flour was examined. Fermentation, an effective processing method used to improve nutritional quality of plant foods, tends to affect the characteristics of food components and their behaviour in food systems just like other processing methods. Hence the need for this study. Moringa seeds were fermented naturally by soaking in potable water and allowing it to stand for 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. At the end of fermentation, the seeds were oven dried at 600C for 12 hours and then milled into flour. Flour obtained from unfermented seeds served as control: hence a total of five flour samples. The functional properties were analyzed using standard methods. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) increased the water holding capacity of Moringa seed flour from 0.86g/g - 2.31g/g. The highest value was observed after 48 hours of fermentation The same trend was observed for oil absorption capacity with values between 0.87 and 1.91g/g. Flour from unfermented Moringa seeds had a bulk density of 0.60g/cm3 which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the bulk densities of flours from seeds fermented for 12, 24 and 48. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) decreased the dispersibility of Moringa seed flours from 36% to 21, 24, 29 and 20% after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of fermentation respectively. The flours’ emulsifying capacities increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing fermentation time with values between 50 – 68%. The flour obtained from seeds fermented for 12 hours had a significantly (p<0.05) higher foaming capacity of 16% while the flour obtained from seeds fermented for 0, 24 and 72 hours had the least foaming capacities of 9%. Flours from seeds fermented for 12 and 48 hours had better functional properties than flours from seeds fermented for 24 and 72 hours.

Keywords: fermentation, flour, functional properties, Moringa

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7488 Applications of High Intensity Ultrasound to Modify Millet Protein Concentrate Functionality

Authors: B. Nazari, M. A. Mohammadifar, S. Shojaee-Aliabadi, L. Mirmoghtadaie


Millets as a new source of plant protein were not used in food applications due to its poor functional properties. In this study, the effect of high intensity ultrasound (frequency: 20 kHz, with contentious flow) (US) in 100% amplitude for varying times (5, 12.5, and 20 min) on solubility, emulsifying activity index (EAI), emulsion stability (ES), foaming capacity (FC), and foaming stability (FS) of millet protein concentrate (MPC) were evaluated. In addition, the structural properties of best treatments such as molecular weight and surface charge were compared with the control sample to prove the US effect. The US treatments significantly (P<0.05) increased the solubility of the native MPC (65.8±0.6%) at all sonicated times with the maximum solubility that is recorded at 12.5 min treatment (96.9±0.82 %). The FC of MPC was also significantly affected by the US treatment. Increase in sonicated time up to 12.5 min significantly increased the FC of native MPC (271.03±4.51 ml), but higher increase reduced it significantly. Minimal improvements were observed in the FS of all sonicated MPC compared to the native MPC. Sonicated time for 12.5 min affected the EAI and ES of the native MPC more markedly than 5 and 20 min that may be attributed to higher increase in proteins tendency to adsorption at the oil and water interfaces after the US treatment at this time. SDS-PAGE analysis showed changes in the molecular weight of MPC that attributed to shearing forces created by cavitation phenomenon. Also, this phenomenon caused an increase in the exposure of more amino acids with negative charge in the surface of US treated MPC, that was demonstrated by Zetasizer data. High intensity ultrasound, as a green technology, can significantly increase the functional properties of MPC and can make this usable for food applications.

Keywords: functional properties, high intensity ultrasound, millet protein concentrate, structural properties

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7487 Effect of Cooking Time, Seed-To-Water Ratio and Soaking Time on the Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Nigerian Walnut) Seeds

Authors: J. O. Idoko, C. N. Michael, T. O. Fasuan


This study investigated the effects of cooking time, seed-to-water ratio and soaking time on proximate and functional properties of African walnut seed using Box-Behnken design and Response Surface Methodology (BBD-RSM) with a view to increase its utilization in the food industry. African walnut seeds were sorted washed, soaked, cooked, dehulled, sliced, dried and milled. Proximate analysis and functional properties of the samples were evaluated using standard procedures. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Quadratic models were obtained to predict the proximate and functional qualities as a function of cooking time, seed-to-water ratio and soaking time. The results showed that the crude protein ranged between 11.80% and 23.50%, moisture content ranged between 1.00% and 4.66%, ash content ranged between 3.35% and 5.25%, crude fibre ranged from 0.10% to 7.25% and carbohydrate ranged from 1.22% to 29.35%. The functional properties showed that soluble protein ranged from 16.26% to 42.96%, viscosity ranged from 23.43 mPas to 57 mPas, emulsifying capacity ranged from 17.14% to 39.43% and water absorption capacity ranged from 232% to 297%. An increase in the volume of water used during cooking resulted in loss of water soluble protein through leaching, the length of soaking time and the moisture content of the dried product are inversely related, ash content is inversely related to the cooking time and amount of water used, extraction of fat is enhanced by increase in soaking time while increase in cooking and soaking times result into decrease in fibre content. The results obtained indicated that African walnut could be used in several food formulations as protein supplement and binder.

Keywords: African walnut, functional properties, proximate analysis, response surface methodology

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7486 Functionality and Application of Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates in Oil in Water Emulsions: Their Stabilities to Environmental Stresses

Authors: R. Charoen, S. Tipkanon, W. Savedboworn, N. Phonsatta, A. Panya


Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) were prepared from defatted rice bran of two different Thai rice cultivars (Plai-Ngahm-Prachinburi; PNP and Khao Dok Mali 105; KDM105) using an enzymatic method. This research aimed to optimize enzyme-assisted protein extraction. In addition, the functional properties of RBPH and their stabilities to environmental stresses including pH (3 to 8), ionic strength (0 mM to 500 mM) and the thermal treatment (30 °C to 90 °C) were investigated. Results showed that enzymatic process for protein extraction of defatted rice bran was as follows: enzyme concentration 0.075 g/ 5 g of protein, extraction temperature 50 °C and extraction time 4 h. The obtained protein hydrolysate powders had a degree of hydrolysis (%) of 21.05% in PNP and 19.92% in KDM105. The solubility of protein hydrolysates at pH 4-6 was ranged from 27.28-38.57% and 27.60-43.00% in PNP and KDM105, respectively. In general, antioxidant activities indicated by total phenolic content, FRAP, ferrous ion-chelating (FIC), and 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) of KDM105 had higher than PNP. In terms of functional properties, the emulsifying activity index (EAI) was was 8.78 m²/g protein in KDM105, whereas PNP was 5.05 m²/g protein. The foaming capacity at 5 minutes (%) was 47.33 and 52.98 in PNP and KDM105, respectively. Glutamine, Alanine, Valine, and Leucine are the major amino acid in protein hydrolysates where the total amino acid of KDM105 gave higher than PNP. Furthermore, we investigated environmental stresses on the stability of 5% oil in water emulsion (5% oil, 10 mM citrate buffer) stabilized by RBPH (3.5%). The droplet diameter of emulsion stabilized by KDM105 was smaller (d < 250 nm) than produced by PNP. For environmental stresses, RBPH stabilized emulsions were stable at pH around 3 and 5-6, at high salt (< 400 mM, pH 7) and at temperatures range between 30-50°C.

Keywords: functional properties, oil in water emulsion, protein hydrolysates, rice bran protein

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7485 Structural and Thermodynamic Properties of MnNi

Authors: N. Benkhettoua, Y. Barkata


We present first-principles studies of structural and thermodynamic properties of MnNi According to the calculated total energies, by using an all-electron full-potential linear muffin–tin orbital method (FP-LMTO) within LDA and the quasi-harmonic Debye model implemented in the Gibbs program is used for the temperature effect on structural and calorific properties.

Keywords: magnetic materials, structural properties, thermodynamic properties, metallurgical and materials engineering

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7484 Amino Acid Profile, Protein Digestibility, Antioxidant and Functional Properties of Protein Concentrate of Local Varieties (Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila) of Rice Brands from Nigeria

Authors: C. E. Chinma, S. O. Azeez, J. C. Anuonye, O. B. Ocheme, C. M. Yakubu, S. James, E. U. Ohuoba, I. A. Baba


There is growing interest in the use of rice bran protein in food formulation due to its hypoallergenic protein, high nutritional value and health promoting potentials. For the first time, the amino acid profile, protein digestibility, antioxidant, and functional properties of protein concentrate from some local varieties of rice bran from Nigeria were studied for possible food applications. Protein concentrates were prepared from rice bran and analysed using standard methods. Results showed that protein content of Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 69.24%, 69.97%, 68.73%, and 71.62%, respectively while total essential amino acid were 52.71, 53.03, 51.86, and 55.75g/100g protein, respectively. In vitro protein digestibility of protein concentrate from Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep and Jamila were 90.70%, 91.39%, 90.57% and 91.63% respectively. DPPH radical inhibition of protein from Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 48.15%, 48.90%, 47.56%, and 53.29%, respectively while ferric reducing ability power were 0.52, 0.55, 0.47 and 0.67mmol TE per gram, respectively. Protein concentrate from Jamila had higher onset (92.57oC) and denaturation temperature (102.13oC), and enthalpy (0.72J/g) than Jeep (91.46oC, 101.76oC, and 0.68J/g, respectively), Kwandala (90.32oC, 100.54oC and 0.57J/g, respectively), and Yardass (88.94oC, 99.45oC, and 0.51J/g, respectively). In vitro digestibility of protein from Kwandala, Yardas, Jeep, and Jamila were 90.70%, 91.39%, 90.57% and 91.63% respectively. Oil absorption capacity of Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 3.61, 3.73, 3.40, and 4.23g oil/g sample respectively, while water absorption capacity were 4.19, 4.32, 3.55 and 4.48g water/g sample, respectively. Protein concentrates had low bulk density (0.37-0.43g/ml). Protein concentrate from Jamila rice bran had the highest foam capacity (37.25%), followed by Yardass (34.20%), Kwandala (30.14%) and Jeep (28.90%). Protein concentrates showed low emulsifying and gelling capacities. In conclusion, protein concentrate prepared from these local rice bran varieties could serve as functional ingredients in food formulations and for enriching low protein foods.

Keywords: rice bran protein, amino acid profile, protein digestibility, antioxidant and functional properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
7483 Biochemical Characteristics and Microstructure of Ice Cream Prepared from Fresh Cream

Authors: S. Baississe, S. Godbane, A. Lekbir


The objective of our work is to develop an ice cream from a fermented cream, skim milk and other ingredients and follow the evolution of its physicochemical properties, biochemical and microstructure of the products obtained. Our cream is aerated with the manufacturing steps start with a homogenizing follow different ingredients by heating to 40°C emulsion, the preparation is then subjected to a heat treatment at 65°C for 30 min, before being stored in the cold at 4°C for a few hours. This conservation promotes crystallization of the material during the globular stage of maturation of the cream. The emulsifying agent moves gradually absorbed on the surface of fat globules homogeneous, which results in reduced protein stability. During the expansion, the collusion of destabilizing fat globules in the aqueous phase favours their coalescence. During the expansion, the collusion of destabilized fat globules in the aqueous phase favours their coalescence. The stabilizing agent increases the viscosity of the aqueous phase and the drainage limit interaction with the proteins of the aqueous phase and the protein absorbed on fat globules. The cutting improved organoleptic property of our cream is made by the use of three dyes and aromas. The products obtained undergo physicochemical analyses (pH, conductivity and acidity), biochemical (moisture, % dry matter and fat in %), and finally in the microscopic observation of the microstructure and the results obtained by analysis of the image processing software. The results show a remarkable evolution of physicochemical properties (pH, conductivity and acidity), biochemical (moisture, fat and non-fat) and microstructure of the products developed in relation to the raw material (skim milk) and the intermediate product (fermented cream).

Keywords: ice cream, sour cream, physicochemical, biochemical, microstructure

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7482 Extraction, Characterization, and Applicability of Rich β-Glucan Fractions from Fungal Biomass

Authors: Zaida Perez-Bassart, Berta Polanco-Estibalez, Maria Jose Fabra, Amparo Lopez-Rubio, Antonio Martinez-Abad


Mushroom production has enormously increased in recent years, not only as food products but also for applications in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics. Consequently, interest in its chemical composition, nutritional value, and therapeutic properties has also increased. Fungi are rich in bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, polyphenols, glycopeptides, and ergosterol, of great medicinal value, but within polysaccharides, β-glucans are the most prominent molecules. They are formed by D-glucose monomers, linked by β-glucosidic bonds β-(1,3) with side chains linked by β-(1,6) bonds. The number and position of the β-(1,6) branches strongly influence the arrangement of the tertiary structure, which, together with the molecular weight, determine the different attributed bioactivities (immunostimulating, anticancer, antimicrobial, prebiotic, etc.) and physico-chemical properties (solubility, bioaccessibility, viscosity or emulsifying). On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the study of fungi as an alternative source of chitin obtained from the by-products of the fungal industry. In this work, a cascade extraction process using aqueous neutral and alkaline treatments was carried out for Grifola frondosa and Lentinula edodes, and the compositional analysis and functional properties of each fraction were characterized. Interestingly, the first fraction obtained by using aqueous treatment at room temperature was the richest in polysaccharides, proteins, and polyphenols, thus obtaining a greater antioxidant capacity than in the other fractions. In contrast, the fractions obtained by alkaline treatments showed a higher degree of β-glucans purification compared to aqueous extractions but a lower extraction yield. Results revealed the different structural recalcitrance of β-glucans, preferentially linked to proteins or chitin depending on the fungus type, which had a direct impact on the functionalities and bioactivities of each fraction.

Keywords: fungi, mushroom, β-glucans, chitin

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7481 Magnetic and Optical Properties of Quaternary GaFeMnN

Authors: B. Bouadjemi, S. Bentata, A. Abbad, W.Benstaali


The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) is used to calculate the magnetic and optical properties of quaternary GaFeMnN. The results show that the compound becomes magnetic and half metallic and there is an apparition of peaks at low frequencies for the optical properties.

Keywords: optical properties, DFT, Spintronic, wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
7480 Properties of Hot-Pressed Alumina-Graphene Composites

Authors: P. Rutkowski, G. Górny, L. Stobierski, D. Zientara, W. Piekarczyk, K. Tran


The polycrystalline dense alumina shows thermal conductivity about 30 W/mK and very high electrical resistivity. These last two properties can be modified by introducing commercial relatively cheap graphene nanoparticles which, as two-dimensional flakes show very high thermal and electrical properties. The aim of this work is to show that it is possible to manufacture the anisotropic alumina-graphene material with directed multilayer graphene particles. Such materials can show the anisotropic properties mentioned before.

Keywords: alumina, composite, hot-pressed, graphene, properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
7479 Theoretical Investigation of Structural and Electronic Properties of AlBi

Authors: S. Louhibi-Fasla, H. Achour, B. Amrani


The purpose of this work is to provide some additional information to the existing data on the physical properties of AlBi with state-of-the-art first-principles method of the full potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW). Additionally to the structural properties, the electronic properties have also been investigated. The dependence of the volume, the bulk modulus, the variation of the thermal expansion α, as well as the Debye temperature are successfully obtained in the whole range from 0 to 30 GPa and temperature range from 0 to 1200 K. The latter are the basis of solid-state science and industrial applications and their study is of importance to extend our knowledge on their specific behaviour when undergoing severe constraints of high pressure and high temperature environments.

Keywords: AlBi, FP-LAPW, structural properties, electronic properties

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7478 Long-Term Mechanical and Structural Properties of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymers

Authors: Lenka Matulova


Geopolymers are alumosilicate materials that have long been studied. Despite this fact, little is known about the long-term stability of geopolymer mechanical and structural properties, so crucial for their successful industrial application. To improve understanding, we investigated the effect of four different types of environments on the mechanical and structural properties of a metakaolin-based geopolymer (MK GP). The MK GP samples were stored in laboratory conditions (control samples), in water at 20 °C, in water at 80 °C, and outside exposed to the weather. Compressive and tensile strengths were measured after 28, 56, 90, and 360 days. In parallel, structural properties were analyzed using XRD, SEM, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Whereas the mechanical properties of the samples in laboratory conditions and in 20 °C water were stable, the mechanical properties of the outdoor samples and the samples 80 °C water decreased noticeably after 360 days. Structural analyses were focused on changes in sample microstructure (developing microcrack network, porosity) and identifying zeolites, the presence of which would indicate detrimental processes in the structure that can change it from amorphous to crystalline. No zeolites were found during the 360-day period in MK GP samples, but the reduction in mechanical properties coincided with a developing network of microcracks and changes in pore size distribution.

Keywords: geopolymer, long-term properties, mechanical properties, metakaolin, structural properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
7477 Characteristics of Nanosilica-Geopolymer Nanocomposites and Mixing Effect

Authors: H. Assaedi, F. U. A. Shaikh, I. M. Low


This paper presents the effects of mixing procedures on mechanical properties of flyash-based geopolymer matrices containing nanosilica (NS) at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by wt.. Comparison is made with conventional mechanical dry-mixing of NS with flyash and wet-mixing of NS in alkaline solutions. Physical and mechanical properties are investigated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Results show that generally the addition of NS particles enhanced the microstructure and improved flexural and compressive strengths of geopolymer nanocomposites. However, samples prepared using dry-mixing approach demonstrate better physical and mechanical properties than wet-mixing of NS.

Keywords: geopolymer, nano-silica, dry mixing, wet mixing, physical properties, mechanical properties

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7476 The Effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) Polymer Modifier on Properties of Bitumen

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Alireza Kiasat, Ferdows Karimi Alkouhi


In order to use bitumen in hot mix asphalt, it must have specific characteristics. There are some methods to reach these properties. Using polymer modifiers are one of the methods to modify the bitumen properties. In this paper, the effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber that is one of the bitumen polymer modifiers on rheology properties of bitumen is studied. In this regard, the rheological properties of base bitumen and the modified bitumen with 3, 4, and 5 percent of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) were analysed. The results show that bitumen modified with 5 percent of SBR has the best performance than the other samples.

Keywords: bitumen, polymer modifier, styrene-butadiene-rubber, rheological properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
7475 Surface Active Phthalic Acid Ester Produced by a Rhizobacterial Strain

Authors: M. L. Ibrahim, A. Abdulhamid


A surface active molecule synthesized by a rhizobacterial strain Bacillus lentus isolated from Cajanus cajan was investigated. The bioemulsifier was extracted, purified and partially characterized using standard methods. Surface properties of the bioemulsifier were determined by studying the emulsification index, solubility test and stability studies. Partial purification of the bioemulsifier was carried out using FT-IR analysis, Silica-gel column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. GC-MS analysis was carried out to detect the composition and mass of the lipids and esters. The isolate showed an emulsifying activity of 57% and surface activity of 36mm. The stability studies revealed that the bioemulsifier had better stability at temperature of 70oC, 8% pH and 8% NaCl concentration. FT-IR indicated the bioemulsifier to contain peptide and aliphatic chain, TLC revealed the compound to be ninhydrin positive and Column chromatography showed the presence of three amino acids namely; glutamine, valine and cysteine. GC-MS indicated the lipid moiety to contain aliphatic chain ranging from C9-C16 and two major peaks of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl octyl ester. Therefore, surface active agent from Bacillus lentus can be used effectively in a wide range of applications such as in MEOR and in the biosynthesis of plasticizers for industrial uses.

Keywords: Bacillus lentus, bioemulsifiers, phthalic acid ester, Rhizosphere

Procedia PDF Downloads 332