Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 530

Search results for: poetry translation

530 Augusto De Campos Translator: The Role of Translation in Brazilian Concrete Poetry Project

Authors: Juliana C. Salvadori, Jose Carlos Felix

Abstract:

This paper aims at discussing the role literary translation has played in Brazilian Concrete Poetry Movement – an aesthetic, critical and pedagogical project which conceived translation as poiesis, i.e., as both creative and critic work in which the potency (dynamic) of literary work is unfolded in the interpretive and critic act (energeia) the translating practice demands. We argue that translation, for concrete poets, is conceived within the framework provided by the reinterpretation –or deglutition– of Oswald de Andrade’s anthropophagy – a carefully selected feast from which the poets pick and model their Paideuma. As a case study, we propose to approach and analyze two of Augusto de Campos’s long-term translation projects: the translation of Emily Dickinson’s and E. E. Cummings’s works to Brazilian readers. Augusto de Campos is a renowned poet, translator, critic and one of the founding members of Brazilian Concrete Poetry movement. Since the 1950s he has produced a consistent body of translated poetry from English-speaking poets in which the translator has explored creative translation processes – transcreation, as concrete poets have named it. Campos’s translation project regarding E. E. Cummings’s poetry comprehends a span of forty years: it begins in 1956 with 10 poems and unfolds in 4 works – 20 poem(a)s, 40 poem(a)s, Poem(a)s, re-edited in 2011. His translations of Dickinson’s poetry are published in two works: O Anticrítico (1986), in which he translated 10 poems, and Emily Dickinson Não sou Ninguém (2008), in which the poet-translator added 35 more translated poems. Both projects feature bilingual editions: contrary to common sense, Campos translations aim at being read as such: the target readers, to fully enjoy the experience, must be proficient readers of English and, also, acquainted with the poets in translation – Campos expects us to perform translation criticism, as Antoine Berman has proposed, by assessing the choices he, as both translator and poet, has presented in order to privilege aesthetic information (verse lines, word games, etc.). To readers not proficient in English, his translations play a pedagogycal role of educating and preparing them to read both the target poet works as well as concrete poetry works – the detailed essays and prefaces in which the translator emphasizes the selection of works translated and strategies adopted enlighten his project as translator: for Cummings, it has led to the oblieraton of the more traditional and lyrical/romantic examples of his poetry while highlighting the more experimental aspects and poems; for Dickinson, his project has highligthed the more hermetic traits of her poems. To the domestic canons of both poets in Brazilian literary system, we analyze Campos’ contribution in this work.

Keywords: translation criticism, Augusto de Campos, E. E. Cummings, Emily Dickinson

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
529 A Learning Process for Aesthetics of Language in Thai Poetry for High School Teachers

Authors: Jiraporn Adchariyaprasit

Abstract:

The aesthetics of language in Thai poetry are emerged from the combination of sounds and meanings. The appreciation of such beauty can be achieved by means of education, acquisition of knowledge, and training. This research aims to study the learning process of aesthetics of language in Thai poetry for high school teachers in Bangkok and nearby provinces. There are 10 samples selected by purposive sampling for in-depth interviews. According to the research, there are four patterns in the learning process of aesthetics of language in Thai poetry which are 1) the study of characteristics and patterns of poetry, 2) the training of poetic reading, 3) the study of social and cultural contexts of poetry’s creation, and 4) the study of other sciences related to poetry such as linguistics, traditional dance, and so on.

Keywords: aesthetics, poetry, Thai poetry, poetry learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
528 Ancient Latin Language and Haiku Poetry: A Case Study between Teaching and Translation Studies

Authors: Arianna Sacerdoti

Abstract:

The translation of Haiku Poetry into Latin is fundamentally experimental in nature. One of the first seminal books containing such translations, alongside translations into different modern languages, 'A Piedi Scalzi', was written by Tartamella in 2016. The results of a text-oriented study of this book will be commented upon and analyzed. The author Arianna Sacerdoti made similar translations with high school student. Such an experiment garners interest across a diverse range of disciplines such as teaching, translation studies, and classics reception studies. The methodology employed is text-oriented as the Haiku poem translations will be commented on by considering their relationship with the original. The results of this investigation, conducted within the field of experimental teaching, are expected to confirm the usefulness of this approach to the teaching of Latin and its potential to actively involve students in identifying the diachronic differences between the world of classical antiquity and the contemporary one.

Keywords: ancient latin, Haiku, translation studies, reception of classics

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
527 The Element of Episode and Idea in the Descriptive Poetry of Hutai'A

Authors: Abubakar Ismaila Yusuf

Abstract:

This research studied element of episode (events) and idea in the descriptive poetry of Hutai’a with the intention to sale the opinion of this type of analysis to others, and also encourage and open door for researchers that thinks only in drama and novel those elements can be implemented. The research uses explanatory method to point out the element of episode and ideology from the said poetry to show that the same element of drama can be seen in poetry. The research finds that element of drama and novel can be seen and implemented analytically in dramatic and some descriptive poetry and its likes. The researcher finally advice colleague to widened scope of research and always think of modernizing it.

Keywords: Hutai'a, poetry, drama, novel

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
526 The Racism Found in Capitalism’s Poetry

Authors: Rich Murphy

Abstract:

‘The Racism Found in Capitalism’s Poetry’ claims that since the death of philosophy and the end of art modern poetry has been upstaged by capitalist poetry using similar strategies and techniques; while both sublime moments use spectacle one is more effective. The essay also claims that capitalist poetry is open to racism and analyzes KFC advertising campaign to produce evidence of wide spread acceptance in an era of ‘micro-aggressions’ and confederate flag removals. The essay spends considerable time outlining the history of advertising and the weak literary counters to it that inevitably lent its assistance in education. The essay also suggests that the concept of ‘Enormous Irony’ may be the only way to counter. However, as long as capitalism is the method of the economy and governance, the essay suggests, there was little hope in spite of Obama’s election.

Keywords: modern poetry, advertising, Kentucky fried chicken, capitalism, poetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
525 Degree in Translation and Years of Professional Experience: Predictors of Translation Quality

Authors: Mohsen Varzande

Abstract:

Translators’ professional and academic characteristics may directly influence their translation quality. The present study aimed at investigating whether translators’ degree in translation and years of professional experience predict their translation quality. Following a causal-comparative study, a sample of one hundred professional translators was selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were divided into two groups each containing individuals with and without a degree in translation, respectively. The participants were asked to translate a paragraph to assess their translation quality. For data analysis, appropriate statistical procedures including correlation and regression were used. Results showed that both degree in translation and years of professional experience significantly predict translation quality. Also, the interaction of translators’ years of professional experience and degree in translation significantly affect their translation quality. An implication could be that besides providing translators with academic knowledge and theories, practical training in translation is necessary as a prerequisite for a competent translator.

Keywords: translation, degree in translation, translation quality, professional experience

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
524 Walking in the Steps of Poets: Evoking Past Poets in Sufi Poetry

Authors: Bilal Orfali

Abstract:

It is common practice in modern times to read mystical poetry and apply it to our mundane lives and loves. Sufis in the early period did the opposite. Their mystical hymns often spun out of the courtly poetic ghazal, panegyric, and wine songs. This paper highlights the relation of the Arabic courtly poetic canon to early Sufism. Sufi akhbār and poetry evoke past poets and their poetic heritage. They tend to quote or refer to eminent poets whose poetry must have been widely circulated and memorized. However, Sufism places this readily recognizable poetry in a new context that deliberately changes the past. It is a process of a metaphorization in which the reality of the pre-Islamic, Umayyad, and Abbasid models now acts as a device or metaphor for the Sufi poetics.

Keywords: Sufism, Arabic poetry, literature, Islamic literature, Abbasid

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
523 Direct Translation vs. Pivot Language Translation for Persian-Spanish Low-Resourced Statistical Machine Translation System

Authors: Benyamin Ahmadnia, Javier Serrano

Abstract:

In this paper we compare two different approaches for translating from Persian to Spanish, as a language pair with scarce parallel corpus. The first approach involves direct transfer using an statistical machine translation system, which is available for this language pair. The second approach involves translation through English, as a pivot language, which has more translation resources and more advanced translation systems available. The results show that, it is possible to achieve better translation quality using English as a pivot language in either approach outperforms direct translation from Persian to Spanish. Our best result is the pivot system which scores higher than direct translation by (1.12) BLEU points.

Keywords: statistical machine translation, direct translation approach, pivot language translation approach, parallel corpus

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
522 Original and the Translated: A Comparative Evaluation of Native and Non-Native English Translations of Faiz

Authors: Anam Nawaz

Abstract:

The present study is an attempt to compare the translations of Faiz’s poetry made by native and non-native translators, to determine the role of the translator in terms of preserving the cultural ethos of the original text. Peter Newmark and Katharine Reiss’s approaches to translation criticism have been used to provide a theoretical framework for the study. This study also emphasizes those cultural and semantic aspects of the original which are translated more convincingly by a native translator, and contrasting those features which the non-natives can tackle more ably. The research also highlights the linguistic sockets, ignored by the interpreters in the translation process. The analysis showed that both native and non-native translators have made an admirable effort to stay as close to the original as possible. The natives with their advantage of belonging to the same culture have excelled in preserving the original subject matter, whereas the non-native renderings have been presented in a much rhythmic and poetic manner with an excellent choice of words. Though none of the four translators has been successfully able to recreate Faiz’s magic, however V. G. Kiernan and Sarvat Rahman’s translations can be regarded as the closest to the original. Whereas V. G. Kiernan with his outstanding command over English mesmerizes the readers, Sarvat Rahman’s profound understanding of cultural ties helps establish her translations as a brilliant example of faithful re-renderings.

Keywords: comparative translations, linguistic and cultural constraints, native translators, non-native translators, poetry and translation, Faiz Ahmad Faiz

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
521 Translation Quality Assessment: Proposing a Linguistic-Based Model for Translation Criticism with Considering Ideology and Power Relations

Authors: Mehrnoosh Pirhayati

Abstract:

In this study, the researcher tried to propose a model of Translation Criticism (TC) regarding the phenomenon of Translation Quality Assessment (TQA). With changing the general view on re/writing as an illegal act, the researcher defined a scale for the act of translation and determined the redline of translation with other products. This research attempts to show TC as a related phenomenon to TQA. This study shows that TQA with using the rules and factors of TC as depicted in both product-oriented analysis and process-oriented analysis, determines the orientation or the level of the quality of translation. This study also depicts that TC, regarding TQA’s perspective, reveals the aim of the translation of original text and the root of ideological manipulation and re/writing. On the other hand, this study stresses the existence of a direct relationship between the linguistic materials and semiotic codes of a text or book. This study can be fruitful for translators, scholars, translation criticizers, and translation quality assessors, and also it is applicable in the area of pedagogy.

Keywords: a model of translation criticism, a model of translation quality assessment, critical discourse analysis (CDA), re/writing, translation criticism (TC), translation quality assessment (TQA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
520 Perception and Implementation of Machine Translation Applications by the Iranian English Translators

Authors: Abdul Amir Hazbavi

Abstract:

The present study is an attempt to provide a relatively comprehensive preview of the Iranian English translators’ perception on Machine Translation. Furthermore, the study tries to shed light on the status of implementation of Machine Translation among the Iranian English Translators. To reach the aforementioned objectives, the Localization Industry Standards Association’s questioner for measuring perceptions with regard to the adoption of a technology innovation was adapted and used to investigate three parameter among the participants of the study, namely familiarity with Machine Translation, general perception on Machine Translation and implementation of Machine Translation systems in translation tasks. The participants of the study were 224 last-year undergraduate Iranian students of English translation at 10 universities across the country. The study revealed a very low level of adoption and a very high level of willingness to get familiar with and learn about Machine Translation, as well as a positive perception of and attitude toward Machine Translation by the Iranian English translators.

Keywords: translation technology, machine translation, perception, implementation

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
519 Poetry as Valuable Tool for Tackling Climate Change and Environmental Pollution

Authors: Benjamin Anabaraonye

Abstract:

Our environment is our entitlement, and it is our duty to guard it for the safety of our society. It is, therefore, in our best interest to explore the necessary tools required to tackle the issues of environmental pollution which are major causes of climate change. Poetry has been discovered through our study as a valuable tool for tackling climate change and environmental pollution. This study explores the science of poetry and how important it is for scientists and engineers to develop their creativity to obtain relevant skills needed to tackle these global challenges. Poetry has been discovered as a great tool for climate change education which in turn brings about climate change adaptation and mitigation. This paper is, therefore, a clarion and urgent call for us to rise to our responsibility for a sustainable future.

Keywords: climate change, education, environment, poetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
518 An Analysis of Machine Translation: Instagram Translation vs Human Translation on the Perspective Translation Quality

Authors: Aulia Fitri

Abstract:

This aims to seek which part of the linguistics with the common mistakes occurred between Instagram translation and human translation. Instagram is a social media account that is widely used by people in the world. Everyone with the Instagram account can consume the captions and pictures that are shared by their friends, celebrity, and public figures across countries. Instagram provides the machine translation under its caption space that will assist users to understand the language of their non-native. The researcher takes samples from an Indonesian public figure whereas the account is followed by many followers. The public figure tries to help her followers from other countries understand her posts by putting up the English version after the Indonesian version. However, the research on Instagram account has not been done yet even though the account is widely used by the worldwide society. There are 20 samples that will be analysed on the perspective of translation quality and linguistics tools. As the MT, Instagram tends to give a literal translation without regarding the topic meant. On the other hand, the human translation tends to exaggerate the translation which leads a different meaning in English. This is an interesting study to discuss when the human nature and robotic-system influence the translation result.

Keywords: human translation, machine translation (MT), translation quality, linguistic tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
517 Literary Translation Human vs Machine: An Essay about Online Translation

Authors: F. L. Bernardo, R. A. S. Zacarias

Abstract:

The ways to translate are manifold since textual genres undergoing translations are diverse. In this essay, our goal is to give special attention to the literary genre and to the online translation tool Google Translate (GT), widely used either by nonprofessionals or by scholars, in order to show evidence of the indispensability of human wit in a good translation. Our study has its basis on a literary review of prominent authors, with emphasis on translation categories. Also highlighting the issue of polysemous literary translation, we aim to shed light on the translator’s craft and the fallible nature of online translation. To better illustrate these principles, the methodology consisted on performing a comparative analysis involving the original text Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe in English to its online translation given by GT and to a translation into Brazilian Portuguese performed by a human. We proceeded to identifying and analyzing the degrees of textual equivalence according to the following categories: volume, levels and order. The results have attested the unsuitability in a translation done by a computer connected to the World Wide Web.

Keywords: Google Translator, human translation, literary translation, Moll Flanders

Procedia PDF Downloads 531
516 Spatial Setting in Translation: A Comparative Evaluation of translations from Pre-Islamic Poetry

Authors: Raja Lahiani

Abstract:

This study is concerned with scrutinising translations into English and French of references to locations in the desert of pre-Islamic Arabia. These references are used in the Source Text (ST) within a poetic image. Reference is made to the names of three different mountains in Arabia, namely Qatan, Sitar, and Yadhbul. As these mountains are referred to in the context of the poet’s description of the density and expansion of the clouds, it is crucial to know that while Sitar and Yadhbul are close to each other, Qatan is far away from them. This distance was functional for the poet to describe the expansion of the clouds. This reflects the spacious place (desert) he handled, and the fact that it was possible for him to physically see what he described. The purpose of this image is for the poet to communicate the vastness of the space he managed to see as he was in a moment of contemplation. Thus, knowledge of this characteristic about the setting is capital for the receiver to understand the communicative function of the verse. A corpus of eighteen translations is gathered. These vary between verse and prose renderings. The methodology adopted in this research work is comparative. Comparison is conducted at both the synchronic and diachronic levels; every translation shall be compared to the ST and then to previous translations. The comparative work will prove at the end that the translators who target historical facts do not necessarily succeed in preserving the image of the ST. It also proves that the more recent the translation is, the deeper the translator’s awareness is the link between imagery, setting, and point of view. Since the late eighteenth century and until nowadays, pre-Islamic poetry has been translated into Western languages. Translators differ as to motives, sources, priorities and intellectual backgrounds. A translator's skopoi undoubtedly affect the way s/he handles aspects of the ST. When it comes to culture-specific aspects and details related to setting, the problem is even more complex. Setting is a very important factor that reveals a great deal of the culture of pre-Islamic Arabia as this is remote in place, historical framework and literary tradition from its translators. History is present in pre-Islamic poetry, which justifies the important literature that has been written to extract information and data from it. These are imbedded not only by signalling given facts, events, and meditations but also by means of references to specific locations and landmarks that used to exist at the time. Spatial setting is an integral part of a literary text as it places it within its historical context. The importance of the translator’s awareness of spatial anthropological data before indulging in the process of translation is tested. This is also crucial in measuring the effect of setting loss and setting gain in translation. The findings of this research would ultimately evaluate the extent to which a comparative methodology is reliable in investigating the role of spatial setting awareness in translation.

Keywords: historical context, translation, comparative literature, spatial setting

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
515 L2 Strategies in the English Translation of Fengshen Yanyi

Authors: Yanbin Cai

Abstract:

L2 Translation, or translation out of one’s native language, is often adopted for Chinese classical literature. The purpose of this study is to investigate problems arisen in this process and the strategies different from translation by native speakers. Texts selected for this study is a Ming dynasty novel, Fengshen Yanyi, written by Xu Zhonglin and translated into English by Gu Zhizhong. Translated proper names and dialogues are analyzed, followed with a review on translator’s shifting focus on text selection. The result reveals not the problem of linguistic incompetence or cultural negligence, but translation strategies adopted for specific purposes and target readers.

Keywords: L2 translation, Chinese literature, literature translation, Fengshen Yanyi

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
514 Evolution of the Speaker in Russian Military Poetry of the Second Half of the 20th Century

Authors: Ilya A. Snegirev

Abstract:

The article focuses on the comparative study of Russian military poetry of the 20th century. To make a complete description, the verse of different genres, mainly minor lyrical form, is taken. The study makes it possible to emphasize the idea that genre is not completely representative for a comprehensive research, as it is also necessary to dwell upon the strategies of war description in verse. Furthermore, the tendency of lyrical hero individualization is noted. This tendency can be traced throughout the whole second half of the 20th century – the poets of the Second World War – and further, to the whole post-war poetry. To characterize these changes, the texts by K.M. Simonov and A.A. Surkov are being analyzed as the examples of the qualitative transition to an individual hero.

Keywords: literature’s evolution, narrator, storytelling poetry, tradition

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
513 The Effect of Using Computer-Assisted Translation Tools on the Translation of Collocations

Authors: Hassan Mahdi

Abstract:

The integration of computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools in translation creates several opportunities for translators. However, this integration is not useful in all types of English structures. This study aims at examining the impact of using CAT tools in translating collocations. Seventy students of English as a foreign language participated in this study. The participants were divided into three groups (i.e., CAT tools group, Machine Translation group, and the control group). The comparison of the results obtained from the translation output of the three groups demonstrated the improvement of translation using CAT tools. The results indicated that the participants who used CAT tools outscored the participants who used MT, and in turn, both groups outscored the control group who did not use any type of technology in translation. In addition, there was a significant difference in the use of CAT for translation different types of collocations. The results also indicated that CAT tools were more effective in translation fixed and medium-strength collocations than weak collocations. Finally, the results showed that CAT tools were effective in translation collocations in both types of languages (i.e. target language or source language). The study suggests some guidelines for translators to use CAT tools.

Keywords: machine translation, computer-assisted translation, collocations, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
512 Statistical Comparison of Machine and Manual Translation: A Corpus-Based Study of Gone with the Wind

Authors: Yanmeng Liu

Abstract:

This article analyzes and compares the linguistic differences between machine translation and manual translation, through a case study of the book Gone with the Wind. As an important carrier of human feeling and thinking, the literature translation poses a huge difficulty for machine translation, and it is supposed to expose distinct translation features apart from manual translation. In order to display linguistic features objectively, tentative uses of computerized and statistical evidence to the systematic investigation of large scale translation corpora by using quantitative methods have been deployed. This study compiles bilingual corpus with four versions of Chinese translations of the book Gone with the Wind, namely, Piao by Chunhai Fan, Piao by Huairen Huang, translations by Google Translation and Baidu Translation. After processing the corpus with the software of Stanford Segmenter, Stanford Postagger, and AntConc, etc., the study analyzes linguistic data and answers the following questions: 1. How does the machine translation differ from manual translation linguistically? 2. Why do these deviances happen? This paper combines translation study with the knowledge of corpus linguistics, and concretes divergent linguistic dimensions in translated text analysis, in order to present linguistic deviances in manual and machine translation. Consequently, this study provides a more accurate and more fine-grained understanding of machine translation products, and it also proposes several suggestions for machine translation development in the future.

Keywords: corpus-based analysis, linguistic deviances, machine translation, statistical evidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
511 Spacial Poetic Text throughout Samih al-Qasim's Poetry

Authors: Saleem Abu Jaber, Khaled Igbaria

Abstract:

For readers, space/place is one of the most significant references to reveal deep significances and indications in modern Arabic poetic texts. Generally, when poets evoke places and/or spaces, they do not mean to refer readers to detailed geographic or physical spaces, but to the symbolic significances and dimensions that those spaces have and through which poets encourage spacial awareness in their readers. Recently, as a result, there has been a great deal of interest in research addressing spacial poetic texts and dimensions in modern Arabic poetry in general and in Palestinian poetry in particular. Samih al-Qasim is one of the most recent prominent Palestinian revolutionary poets. Al-Qasim has published six series of poems that are well known in the Arab world. Although several researchers have studied al-Qasim's poetry, to our knowledge, yet no one has studied the aspect of spacial poetic text in his poetry. Therefore, this paper seeks to fill a gap in the scholarship that has not been addressed up to now. This article aims, not only to demonstrate the presence of spacial poetic text and dimensions throughout al-Qasim's poetry, but also to investigate the purpose for which the poet uses spacial poetic text. Our theory is that the poet, consciously and significantly, uses spacial poetic texts to magnify the Palestinian identity of the Palestinian readers.  Methodologically, we applied a descriptive analytic method, referencing al-Qasim's poetry, addressing spacial poetic texts practically but not theoretically or statistically.

Keywords: spatial poetic text, Samih al-Qasim, space and identity, Palestinian poetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
510 Protest Poetry in South Africa: A Study of Oswald Mbuyiseni Mtshali’s Sounds of a Cowhide Drum

Authors: Ogbu Harry Omilonye

Abstract:

This paper examines protest as a literary mechanism against the unpopular political policy of the white minority regime in South Africa. It examines some of Mtshali’s poems as examples of protest poetry, showing how he deploys his artistic acumen in the popular struggle of the oppressed South Africans against the aberrations and obnoxious apartheid policy.

Keywords: protest poetry, poems, minority, oppression

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
509 Randomness in Cybertext: A Study on Computer-Generated Poetry from the Perspective of Semiotics

Authors: Hongliang Zhang

Abstract:

The use of chance procedures and randomizers in poetry-writing can be traced back to surrealist works, which, by appealing to Sigmund Freud's theories, were still logocentrism. In the 1960s, random permutation and combination were extensively used by the Oulipo, John Cage and Jackson Mac Low, which further deconstructed the metaphysical presence of writing. Today, the randomly-generated digital poetry has emerged as a genre of cybertext which should be co-authored by readers. At the same time, the classical theories have now been updated by cybernetics and media theories. N· Katherine Hayles put forward the concept of ‘the floating signifiers’ by Jacques Lacan to be the ‘the flickering signifiers’ , arguing that the technology per se has become a part of the textual production. This paper makes a historical review of the computer-generated poetry in the perspective of semiotics, emphasizing that the randomly-generated digital poetry which hands over the dual tasks of both interpretation and writing to the readers demonstrates the intervention of media technology in literature. With the participation of computerized algorithm and programming languages, poems randomly generated by computers have not only blurred the boundary between encoder and decoder, but also raises the issue of human-machine. It is also a significant feature of the cybertext that the productive process of the text is full of randomness.

Keywords: cybertext, digital poetry, poetry generator, semiotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
508 Yu Kwang-Chung vs. Yu Kwang-Chung: Untranslatability as the Touchstone of a Poet

Authors: Min-Hua Wu

Abstract:

The untranslatability of an established poet’s tour de force is thoroughly explored by Matthew Arnold (1822-1888). In his On Translating Homer (1861), Arnold lists the four most striking poetic qualities of Homer, namely his rapidity, plainness and directness of style and diction, plainness and directness of ideas, and nobleness. He concludes that such celebrated English translators as Cowper, Pope, Chapman, and Mr. Newman are all doomed, due to their respective failure in rendering the totality of the four Homeric poetic qualities. Why poetic translation always amounts to being proven such a mission impossible for the translator? According to Arnold, it is because there constantly exists a mist interposed between the translator’s own literary self-obsession and the objective artistic qualities that reside in the work of the original author. Foregrounding such a seemingly empowering yet actually detrimental poetic mist, he explains why the aforementioned translators fail in their attempts to bring the Homeric charm to the British reader. Drawing on Arnold’s analytical study on Homeric translation, the research attempts to bring Yu Kwang-chung the poet vis-à-vis Yu Kwang-chung the translator, with an aim not so much to find any similar mist as revealed by Arnold between his Chinese poetry and English translation as to probe into a latent and veiled literary and lingual mist interposed between Chinese and English, if not between Chinese and English literatures. The major work studied and analyzed for this study is Yu’s own Chinese poetry and his own English translation collected in The Night Watchman: Yu Kwang-chung 1958-2004. The research argues that the following critical elements that characterizes Yu’s poetics are to a certain extent 'transformed,' if not 'lost,' in his English translation: a. the Chinese pictographic and ideographic unit terms which so unfailingly characterize the poet’s incredible creativity, allowing him to habitually and conveniently coin concrete textual images or word-scapes almost at his own will; b. the subtle wordplay and punning which appear at a reasonable frequency; c. the parallel contrastive repetitive syntactic structure within a single poetic line; d. the ambiguous and highly associative diction in the adjective and noun categories; e. the literary allusion that harks back to the old times of Chinese literature; f. the alliteration that adds rhythm and smoothness to the lines; g. the rhyming patterns that bring about impressive sonority and lingering echo to the ears of the reader; h. the grandeur-imposing and sublimity-arousing word-scaping which hinges on the employment of verbs; i. the meandering cultural heritage that embraces such elements as Chinese medicine and kung fu; and j. other features of the like. Once we appeal to the Arnoldian tribunal and resort to the strict standards of such a Victorian cultural and literary critic who insists 'to see the object as in itself it really is,' we may serve as a potential judge for the tug of war between Yu Kwang-chung the poet and Yu Kwang-chung the translator, a tug of war that will not merely broaden our understating of Chinese poetics but deepen our apprehension of Chinese-English translatology.

Keywords: Yu Kwang-chung, The Night Watchman, poetry translation, Chinese-English translation, translation studies, Matthew Arnold

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
507 The Relation between Subtitling and General Translation from a Didactic Perspective

Authors: Sonia Gonzalez Cruz

Abstract:

Subtitling activities allow for acquiring and developing certain translation skills, and they also have a great impact on the students' motivation. Active subtitling is a relatively recent activity that has generated a lot of interest particularly in the field of second-language acquisition, but it is also present within both the didactics of general translation and language teaching for translators. It is interesting to analyze the level of inclusion of these new resources into the existent curricula and observe to what extent these different teaching methods are being used in the translation classroom. Although subtitling has already become an independent discipline of study and it is considered to be a type of translation on its own, it is necessary to do further research on the different didactic varieties that this type of audiovisual translation offers. Therefore, this project is framed within the field of the didactics of translation, and it focuses on the relationship between the didactics of general translation and active subtitling as a didactic tool. Its main objective is to analyze the inclusion of interlinguistic active subtitling in general translation curricula at different universities. As it has been observed so far, the analyzed curricula do not make any type of reference to the use of this didactic tool in general translation classrooms. However, they do register the inclusion of other audiovisual activities such as dubbing, script translation or video watching, among others. By means of online questionnaires and interviews, the main goal is to confirm the results obtained after the observation of the curricula and find out to what extent subtitling has actually been included into general translation classrooms.

Keywords: subtitling, general translation, didactics, translation competence

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
506 Prospective English Language Teachers’ Views on Translation Use in Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: Ozlem Bozok, Yusuf Bozok

Abstract:

The importance of using mother tongue and translation in foreign language classrooms cannot be ignored and translation can be utilized as a method in English Language Teaching courses. There exist researches advocating or objecting to the use of translation in foreign language learning but they all have a point in common: Translation should be used as an aid to teaching, not an end in itself. In this research, prospective English language teachers’ opinions about translation use and use of mother tongue in foreign language teaching are investigated and according to the findings, some explanations and recommendations are made.

Keywords: exposure to foreign language translation, foreign language learning, prospective teachers’ opinions, use of L1

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
505 Translation and Transculturality in Contemporary Chinese Art: A Case Study of Gu Wenda’s 'Forest of Stone Steles' and 'United Nations: Temple of Heaven'

Authors: Rui Zhang

Abstract:

Translation has been elevated to one of the key notions in contemporary cultural discourse for a wide range of fields. It focuses not only on communication or transmission of meaning between different languages, but also on ways in which the very act of translation can be understood as a metaphor for cultural process. In recent years, the notion of translation is employed by some contemporary Chinese artists in a conceptual way, whose works contribute to constructing/deconstructing global/local cultural discourse and their own cultural identities. This study examines two artworks by contemporary Chinese artist Gu Wenda from a translational perspective, namely Forest of Stone Steles - Retranslation & Rewriting of Tang Poetry and United Nations - China Monument: Temple of Heaven, aiming to broaden the scope of Translation Studies to investigate visual culture and enrich methodological approach to contemporary Chinese art. Focusing on the relationship between translation, visuality and materiality in these two works, this study explores the nature of translation as part of the production of cultural discourse in the age of globalization as well as a way of establishing cultural identity. Gu Wenda, one of the most prestigious artists in contemporary China, is considered a pioneer in ‘85 Art Movement of China, and thereafter he went abroad for his artistic pursuits. His transnational experience enriches his cultural identity and the underlying discourse constructed/deconstructed in many of his works. In the two works already mentioned, the concept of translation is deployed by Gu Wenda on both linguistic level and metaphorical level for artistic expression. These two works produce discourses in which the artist’s perception of cultural identity in a transnational context is articulated by the tension between source text and target text. Based on the conceptual framework of cultural identity proposed by Stuart Hall, analyses of Gu Wenda’s cultural identity revealed through translation in these two works are centred on two axes, i.e., the axis of similarity and continuity with Chinese intellectual culture and the axis of difference and rupture with it, and the dialogic relationship between these two vectors. It argues that besides serving as a means of constructing visuality in the two works, translation metaphorizes Gu Wenda’s journey from overcoming his cultural identity anxiety to re-establishing a transcultural identity embedded in the underlying discourse.

Keywords: contemporary Chinese art, cultural identity, transculturality, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
504 Teaching Translation during Covid-19 Outbreak: Challenges and Discoveries

Authors: Rafat Alwazna

Abstract:

Translation teaching is a particular activity that includes translators and interpreters training either inside or outside institutionalised settings, such as universities. It can also serve as a means of teaching other fields, such as foreign languages. Translation teaching began in the twentieth century. Teachers of translation hold the responsibilities of educating students, developing their translation competence and training them to be professional translators. The activity of translation teaching involves various tasks, including curriculum design, course delivery, material writing as well as application and implementation. The present paper addresses translation teaching during COVID-19 outbreak, seeking to find out the challenges encountered by translation teachers in online translation teaching and the discoveries/solutions arrived at to resolve them. The paper makes use of a comprehensive questionnaire, containing closed-ended and open-ended questions to elicit both quantitative as well as qualitative data from about sixty translation teachers who have been teaching translation at BA and MA levels during COVID-19 outbreak. The data shows that about 40% of the participants evaluate their online translation teaching experience during COVID-19 outbreak as enjoyable and exhilarating. On the contrary, no participant has evaluated his/her online translation teaching experience as being not good, nor has any participant evaluated his/her online translation teaching experience as being terrible. The data also presents that about 23.33% of the participants evaluate their online translation teaching experience as very good, and the same percentage applies to those who evaluate their online translation teaching experience as good to some extent. Moreover, the data indicates that around 13.33% of the participants evaluate their online translation teaching experience as good. The data also demonstrates that the majority of the participants have encountered obstacles in online translation teaching and have concurrently proposed solutions to resolve them.

Keywords: online translation teaching, electronic learning platform, COVID-19 outbreak, challenges, solutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
503 Retrospection and Introspection on the Three-Decade Sight Translation Research in China—Bibliometric Analysis of CNKI (1987—2015) Relevant Articles

Authors: Wei Deng

Abstract:

Based on sorting and analyzing related literature on CNKI for nearly three decades between 1987—2015, this paper, adopting the method of bibliometrics, summarized and reviewed the domestic research on sight translation from three aspects. The analysis concluded the following findings: 1) The majority research had focused on the noumenon of sight translation. The rest of the three main research perspectives are in descending order: sight translation teaching, sight translation skills and other associated skills, and cognitive research of sight translation. 2) The domestic research increased significantly in recent five years, but there is much room for the quality. 3) The non-empirical study has had higher proportion, while the empirical study is unitary with the lack of triangle validation. This paper suggested that sight translation being in sore need of unified definition, multilingual, even interdisciplinary cooperation.

Keywords: bibliometric analysis, perspectives, sight translation, tendency

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
502 Motherhood in the Poetry of Rosario Castellanos: Other Face of Womanhood

Authors: Dovile Kuzminskaite

Abstract:

Rosario Castellanos is one of the most important Mexican writers; in her poetry and essays, she demythologizes social stereotypes about womanhood that were deeply present in Mexican society of the XXth century. In her extent poetic work, Rosario Castellanos demythologizes such concepts as romance, marriage, and motherhood, showing them in a way which did not agree with the norms of the catholic based society of her times. The aim of this research is to analyze the poetry of Rosario Castellanos working on sematic and structural levels and to investigate closely how she represents motherhood, what is the role of mother and the relationship of mother and child in her poems. Also, it is of interest to observe what are the elements used in the process of creating a different concept of motherhood. In order to reflect on this subject, this research will be based on semiotics, queer studies, and the philosophy of Michel Foucault, who introduces the concept of power when reflecting on gender and society. Rosario Castellanos turned into an example of disobedience and otherness for a generation of intellectuals in Spanish speaking countries, and because of this reason, it is of great importance to understand the politic and social statements that are represented by her poetry.

Keywords: motherhood, women, poetry, Mexico

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
501 Some Theoretical Approaches on the Style of Lyrical Subject of the Confessional Poetry

Authors: Lemac Tin

Abstract:

This paper deals with the lyrical subject of the confessional poetry which is the main part of her stylistic strucuture. We concluded two types of this subject in the classical confessional poetic discourse; reflexive and authentic subject. We offer the model of their genesis, textual features and appeareance realisations. Genesis is related to the theories of deriving poetry from emotion and magic and their similar position in the primitive lyrics and lyrics of the ancient civilizations. Textual features are related to the emotive and semiotic analysis of each type. Appearance realisations of these two types are I-subject, We-subject, transvocal and objectified subject. We check this approaches on some of the poems from World literature.

Keywords: confessional poetry, confessional lyrical subject, magic, emotion, emotive analysis, semiotic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 203