Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 155

Search results for: Matthew Arnold

155 Yu Kwang-Chung vs. Yu Kwang-Chung: Untranslatability as the Touchstone of a Poet

Authors: Min-Hua Wu

Abstract:

The untranslatability of an established poet’s tour de force is thoroughly explored by Matthew Arnold (1822-1888). In his On Translating Homer (1861), Arnold lists the four most striking poetic qualities of Homer, namely his rapidity, plainness and directness of style and diction, plainness and directness of ideas, and nobleness. He concludes that such celebrated English translators as Cowper, Pope, Chapman, and Mr. Newman are all doomed, due to their respective failure in rendering the totality of the four Homeric poetic qualities. Why poetic translation always amounts to being proven such a mission impossible for the translator? According to Arnold, it is because there constantly exists a mist interposed between the translator’s own literary self-obsession and the objective artistic qualities that reside in the work of the original author. Foregrounding such a seemingly empowering yet actually detrimental poetic mist, he explains why the aforementioned translators fail in their attempts to bring the Homeric charm to the British reader. Drawing on Arnold’s analytical study on Homeric translation, the research attempts to bring Yu Kwang-chung the poet vis-à-vis Yu Kwang-chung the translator, with an aim not so much to find any similar mist as revealed by Arnold between his Chinese poetry and English translation as to probe into a latent and veiled literary and lingual mist interposed between Chinese and English, if not between Chinese and English literatures. The major work studied and analyzed for this study is Yu’s own Chinese poetry and his own English translation collected in The Night Watchman: Yu Kwang-chung 1958-2004. The research argues that the following critical elements that characterizes Yu’s poetics are to a certain extent 'transformed,' if not 'lost,' in his English translation: a. the Chinese pictographic and ideographic unit terms which so unfailingly characterize the poet’s incredible creativity, allowing him to habitually and conveniently coin concrete textual images or word-scapes almost at his own will; b. the subtle wordplay and punning which appear at a reasonable frequency; c. the parallel contrastive repetitive syntactic structure within a single poetic line; d. the ambiguous and highly associative diction in the adjective and noun categories; e. the literary allusion that harks back to the old times of Chinese literature; f. the alliteration that adds rhythm and smoothness to the lines; g. the rhyming patterns that bring about impressive sonority and lingering echo to the ears of the reader; h. the grandeur-imposing and sublimity-arousing word-scaping which hinges on the employment of verbs; i. the meandering cultural heritage that embraces such elements as Chinese medicine and kung fu; and j. other features of the like. Once we appeal to the Arnoldian tribunal and resort to the strict standards of such a Victorian cultural and literary critic who insists 'to see the object as in itself it really is,' we may serve as a potential judge for the tug of war between Yu Kwang-chung the poet and Yu Kwang-chung the translator, a tug of war that will not merely broaden our understating of Chinese poetics but deepen our apprehension of Chinese-English translatology.

Keywords: Yu Kwang-chung, The Night Watchman, poetry translation, Chinese-English translation, translation studies, Matthew Arnold

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154 The Desire to Know: Arnold’s Contribution to a Psychological Conceptualization of Academic Motivation

Authors: F. Ruiz-Fuster

Abstract:

Arnold’s redefinition of human motives can sustain a psychology of education which emphasizes the beauty of knowledge and the exercise of intellectual functions. Thus, education instead of focusing on skills and learning by doing would be centered on ‘the widest reaches of the human spirit’. One way to attain it is by developing children’s inherent interest. Arnold takes into account the fact that the desire to know is the inherent interest which leads students to explore and learn. She also emphasizes the need of exercising human functions as thinking, judging and reasoning. According to Arnold, the influence of psychological theories of motivation in education has derived in considering that all learning and school tasks should derive from children’s needs and impulses. The desire to know and the curiosity have not been considered as basic and active as any instinctive drive or basic need, so there has been an attempt to justify and understand how biological drives guide student’s learning. However, understanding motives and motivation not as a drive, an instinct or an impulse guided by our basic needs, but as a want that leads to action can help to understand, from a psychological perspective, how teachers can motivate students to learn, strengthening their desire and interest to reason and discover the whole new world of knowledge.

Keywords: academic motivation, interests, desire to know, educational psychology, intellectual functions

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153 Bitplanes Gray-Level Image Encryption Approach Using Arnold Transform

Authors: Ali Abdrhman M. Ukasha

Abstract:

Data security needed in data transmission, storage, and communication to ensure the security. The single step parallel contour extraction (SSPCE) method is used to create the edge map as a key image from the different Gray level/Binary image. Performing the X-OR operation between the key image and each bit plane of the original image for image pixel values change purpose. The Arnold transform used to changes the locations of image pixels as image scrambling process. Experiments have demonstrated that proposed algorithm can fully encrypt 2D Gary level image and completely reconstructed without any distortion. Also shown that the analyzed algorithm have extremely large security against some attacks like salt & pepper and JPEG compression. Its proof that the Gray level image can be protected with a higher security level. The presented method has easy hardware implementation and suitable for multimedia protection in real time applications such as wireless networks and mobile phone services.

Keywords: SSPCE method, image compression-salt- peppers attacks, bitplanes decomposition, Arnold transform, lossless image encryption

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152 Bitplanes Image Encryption/Decryption Using Edge Map (SSPCE Method) and Arnold Transform

Authors: Ali A. Ukasha

Abstract:

Data security needed in data transmission, storage, and communication to ensure the security. The single step parallel contour extraction (SSPCE) method is used to create the edge map as a key image from the different Gray level/Binary image. Performing the X-OR operation between the key image and each bit plane of the original image for image pixel values change purpose. The Arnold transform used to changes the locations of image pixels as image scrambling process. Experiments have demonstrated that proposed algorithm can fully encrypt 2D Gary level image and completely reconstructed without any distortion. Also shown that the analyzed algorithm have extremely large security against some attacks like salt & pepper and JPEG compression. Its proof that the Gray level image can be protected with a higher security level. The presented method has easy hardware implementation and suitable for multimedia protection in real time applications such as wireless networks and mobile phone services.

Keywords: SSPCE method, image compression, salt and peppers attacks, bitplanes decomposition, Arnold transform, lossless image encryption

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151 An Efficient Encryption Scheme Using DWT and Arnold Transforms

Authors: Ali Abdrhman M. Ukasha

Abstract:

Data security needed in data transmission, storage, and communication to ensure the security. The color image is decomposed into red, green, and blue channels. The blue and green channels are compressed using 3-levels discrete wavelet transform. The Arnold transform uses to changes the locations of red image channel pixels as image scrambling process. Then all these channels are encrypted separately using a key image that has same original size and is generating using private keys and modulo operations. Performing the X-OR and modulo operations between the encrypted channels images for image pixel values change purpose. The extracted contours of color image recovery can be obtained with accepted level of distortion using Canny edge detector. Experiments have demonstrated that proposed algorithm can fully encrypt 2D color image and completely reconstructed without any distortion. It has shown that the color image can be protected with a higher security level. The presented method has easy hardware implementation and suitable for multimedia protection in real time applications such as wireless networks and mobile phone services.

Keywords: color image, wavelet transform, edge detector, Arnold transform, lossy image encryption

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150 Robust Data Image Watermarking for Data Security

Authors: Harsh Vikram Singh, Ankur Rai, Anand Mohan

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose secure and robust data hiding algorithm based on DCT by Arnold transform and chaotic sequence. The watermark image is scrambled by Arnold cat map to increases its security and then the chaotic map is used for watermark signal spread in middle band of DCT coefficients of the cover image The chaotic map can be used as pseudo-random generator for digital data hiding, to increase security and robustness .Performance evaluation for robustness and imperceptibility of proposed algorithm has been made using bit error rate (BER), normalized correlation (NC), and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) value for different watermark and cover images such as Lena, Girl, Tank images and gain factor .We use a binary logo image and text image as watermark. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves higher security and robustness against JPEG compression as well as other attacks such as addition of noise, low pass filtering and cropping attacks compared to other existing algorithm using DCT coefficients. Moreover, to recover watermarks in proposed algorithm, there is no need to original cover image.

Keywords: data hiding, watermarking, DCT, chaotic sequence, arnold transforms

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149 Multilevel Gray Scale Image Encryption through 2D Cellular Automata

Authors: Rupali Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Cryptography is the science of using mathematics to encrypt and decrypt data; the data are converted into some other gibberish form, and then the encrypted data are transmitted. The primary purpose of this paper is to provide two levels of security through a two-step process, rather than transmitted the message bits directly, first encrypted it using 2D cellular automata and then scrambled with Arnold Cat Map transformation; it provides an additional layer of protection and reduces the chance of the transmitted message being detected. A comparative analysis on effectiveness of scrambling technique is provided by scrambling degree measurement parameters i.e. Gray Difference Degree (GDD) and Correlation Coefficient.

Keywords: scrambling, cellular automata, Arnold cat map, game of life, gray difference degree, correlation coefficient

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148 Fingerprint Image Encryption Using a 2D Chaotic Map and Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Authors: D. M. S. Bandara, Yunqi Lei, Ye Luo

Abstract:

Fingerprints are suitable as long-term markers of human identity since they provide detailed and unique individual features which are difficult to alter and durable over life time. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to encrypt and decrypt fingerprint images by using a specially designed Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) procedure based on block ciphers. In addition, to increase the confusing effect of fingerprint encryption, we also utilize a chaotic-behaved method called Arnold Cat Map (ACM) for a 2D scrambling of pixel locations in our method. Experimental results are carried out with various types of efficiency and security analyses. As a result, we demonstrate that the proposed fingerprint encryption/decryption algorithm is advantageous in several different aspects including efficiency, security and flexibility. In particular, using this algorithm, we achieve a margin of about 0.1% in the test of Number of Pixel Changing Rate (NPCR) values comparing to the-state-of-the-art performances.

Keywords: arnold cat map, biometric encryption, block cipher, elliptic curve cryptography, fingerprint encryption, Koblitz’s encoding

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147 Color Image Compression/Encryption/Contour Extraction using 3L-DWT and SSPCE Method

Authors: Ali A. Ukasha, Majdi F. Elbireki, Mohammad F. Abdullah

Abstract:

Data security needed in data transmission, storage, and communication to ensure the security. This paper is divided into two parts. This work interests with the color image which is decomposed into red, green and blue channels. The blue and green channels are compressed using 3-levels discrete wavelet transform. The Arnold transform uses to changes the locations of red image channel pixels as image scrambling process. Then all these channels are encrypted separately using the key image that has same original size and are generating using private keys and modulo operations. Performing the X-OR and modulo operations between the encrypted channels images for image pixel values change purpose. The extracted contours from color images recovery can be obtained with accepted level of distortion using single step parallel contour extraction (SSPCE) method. Experiments have demonstrated that proposed algorithm can fully encrypt 2D Color images and completely reconstructed without any distortion. Also shown that the analyzed algorithm has extremely large security against some attacks like salt and pepper and Jpeg compression. Its proof that the color images can be protected with a higher security level. The presented method has easy hardware implementation and suitable for multimedia protection in real time applications such as wireless networks and mobile phone services.

Keywords: SSPCE method, image compression and salt and peppers attacks, bitplanes decomposition, Arnold transform, color image, wavelet transform, lossless image encryption

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146 On the Mathematical Modelling of Aggregative Stability of Disperse Systems

Authors: Arnold M. Brener, Lesbek Tashimov, Ablakim S. Muratov

Abstract:

The paper deals with the special model for coagulation kernels which represents new control parameters in the Smoluchowski equation for binary aggregation. On the base of the model the new approach to evaluating aggregative stability of disperse systems has been submitted. With the help of this approach the simple estimates for aggregative stability of various types of hydrophilic nano-suspensions have been obtained.

Keywords: aggregative stability, coagulation kernels, disperse systems, mathematical model

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145 Efficient Design of Distribution Logistics by Using a Model-Based Decision Support System

Authors: J. Becker, R. Arnold

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The design of distribution logistics has a decisive impact on a company's logistics costs and performance. Hence, such solutions make an essential contribution to corporate success. This article describes a decision support system for analyzing the potential of distribution logistics in terms of logistics costs and performance. In contrast to previous procedures of business process re-engineering (BPR), this method maps distribution logistics holistically under variable distribution structures. Combined with qualitative measures the decision support system will contribute to a more efficient design of distribution logistics.

Keywords: decision support system, distribution logistics, potential analyses, supply chain management

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144 The Development and Provision of a Knowledge Management Ecosystem, Optimized for Genomics

Authors: Matthew I. Bellgard

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The field of bioinformatics has made, and continues to make, substantial progress and contributions to life science research and development. However, this paper contends that a systems approach integrates bioinformatics activities for any project in a defined manner. The application of critical control points in this bioinformatics systems approach may be useful to identify and evaluate points in a pathway where specified activity risk can be reduced, monitored and quality enhanced.

Keywords: bioinformatics, food security, personalized medicine, systems approach

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143 Improving Pediatric Patient Experience

Authors: Matthew Pleshaw, Caroline Lynch, Caleb Eaton, Ali Kiapour

Abstract:

The problem addressed in this proposal is that of the lacking comfort and safety of inpatient rooms, specifically at Boston Children’s Hospital, with the implementation of a system that will allow inpatient children to feel more comfortable in the unfamiliar environment of a hospital. The focus is that of advancing and enhancing the healing process for children in a long-term inpatient stay at the hospital, though a combination of announcing a clinician or hospital staff’s arrival utilizing RFID (Fig. 1), and improving communication between clinicians, parents/guardians, patients, etc. by integrating a mobile application.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Hospital, RFID, Technology

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142 Measuring E-Learning Effectiveness Using a Three-Way Comparison

Authors: Matthew Montebello

Abstract:

The way e-learning effectiveness has been notoriously measured within an academic setting is by comparing the e-learning medium to the traditional face-to-face teaching methodology. In this paper, a simple yet innovative comparison methodology is introduced, whereby the effectiveness of next generation e-learning systems are assessed in contrast not only to the face-to-face mode, but also to the classical e-learning modality. Ethical and logistical issues are also discussed, as this three-way approach to compare teaching methodologies was applied and documented in a real empirical study within a higher education institution.

Keywords: e-learning effectiveness, higher education, teaching modality comparison

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141 Development of Ferrous-Aluminum Alloys from Recyclable Material by High Energy Milling

Authors: Arnold S. Freitas Neto, Rodrigo E. Coelho, Erick S. Mendonça

Abstract:

This study aimed to obtain an alloy of Iron and Aluminum in the proportion of 50% of atomicity for each constituent. Alloys were obtained by processing recycled aluminum and chips of 1200 series carbon steel in a high-energy mill. For the experiment, raw materials were processed thorough high energy milling before mixing the substances. Subsequently, the mixture of 1200 series carbon steel and Aluminum powder was carried out a milling process. Thereafter, hot compression was performed in a closed die in order to obtain the samples. The pieces underwent heat treatments, sintering and aging. Lastly, the composition and the mechanical properties of their hardness were analyzed. In this paper, results are compared with previous studies, which used iron powder of high purity instead of Carbon steel in the composition.

Keywords: Fe-Al alloys, high energy milling, metallography characterization, powder metallurgy

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140 A Survey of Grammar-Based Genetic Programming and Applications

Authors: Matthew T. Wilson

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This paper covers a selection of research utilizing grammar-based genetic programming, and illustrates how context-free grammar can be used to constrain genetic programming. It focuses heavily on grammatical evolution, one of the most popular variants of grammar-based genetic programming, and the way its operators and terminals are specialized and modified from those in genetic programming. A variety of implementations of grammatical evolution for general use are covered, as well as research each focused on using grammatical evolution or grammar-based genetic programming on a single application, or to solve a specific problem, including some of the classically considered genetic programming problems, such as the Santa Fe Trail.

Keywords: context-free grammar, genetic algorithms, genetic programming, grammatical evolution

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139 The Feasibility of Online, Interactive Workshops to Facilitate Anatomy Education during the UK COVID-19 Lockdowns

Authors: Prabhvir Singh Marway, Kai Lok Chan, Maria-Ruxandra Jinga, Rachel Bok Ying Lee, Matthew Bok Kit Lee, Krishan Nandapalan, Sze Yi Beh, Harry Carr, Christopher Kui

Abstract:

We piloted a structured series of online workshops on the 3D segmentation of anatomical structures from CT scans. 33 participants were recruited from four UK universities for two-day workshops between 2020 and 2021. Open-source software (3D-Slicer) was used. We hypothesized that active participation via real-time screen-sharing and voice-communication via Discord would enable improved engagement and learning, despite national lockdowns. Written feedback indicated positive learning experiences, with subjective measures of anatomical understanding and software confidence improving.

Keywords: medical education, workshop, segmentation, anatomy

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138 Getting What You Paid For: Using Mutual Fund Governance to Predict the Activeness of Mutual Funds

Authors: Matthew Morey, Aron Gottesman

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This paper examines the relationship between mutual fund governance and the activeness of equity mutual funds. Using a fund’s corporate culture as a proxy for its governance and controlling for other variables, we find that funds with the better governance are significantly more active than other funds. Further, we find the probability of finding a highly active fund increases significantly as the governance of the fund improves. We also find some evidence that the probability of finding a closet index fund increases as the governance of the fund declines. These results demonstrate that mutual fund governance should be considered carefully when making mutual fund investment decisions.

Keywords: active, share, mutual funds, economics

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137 Linear MIMO Model Identification Using an Extended Kalman Filter

Authors: Matthew C. Best

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Linear Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) dynamic models can be identified, with no a priori knowledge of model structure or order, using a new Generalised Identifying Filter (GIF). Based on an Extended Kalman Filter, the new filter identifies the model iteratively, in a continuous modal canonical form, using only input and output time histories. The filter’s self-propagating state error covariance matrix allows easy determination of convergence and conditioning, and by progressively increasing model order, the best fitting reduced-order model can be identified. The method is shown to be resistant to noise and can easily be extended to identification of smoothly nonlinear systems.

Keywords: system identification, Kalman filter, linear model, MIMO, model order reduction

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136 An Analysis of Fundamentals and Factors of Positive Thinking and the Ways of Its Emergence in Islam and the New Testament

Authors: Zahra Mohagheghian, Fatema Agharebparast

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The comparative study of religions is one of the ways which provides peace and makes the believers of religions closer together. Finding the common notions could be a foundation for the dialog among the monotheistic religions and a background to eliminate the misunderstandings and to reach common point of views. The cornerstone of all the common efforts of the believers of the religions is to reach an understanding for building a better world where true peace is established. So, the article seeks to verify the notion of positive thinking in the religious resources of Islam and Christianity. In order to understand the foundations of the religious teachings and to provide a better understanding among the believers, then, the article tries to discover the common fundamentals and the opposing points about the positive thinking in these two religions. We first try to explain the notion of positive thinking in Islam and Christianity and then offer recommended ways in both religions to create and to strengthen this way of thinking. As the different parts of the New Testament is not theologically homogeneous, this collection has been verified and explained in four different parts: Three Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke), John's thoughts, thoughts and ideas of Paul and finally the Christian sects . The findings of the survey show that the notion of positive thinking in the monotheistic religions of Islam and Christianity can be traced back by the keyword "hope". It is only the hope which could finally create the soul of positive attitude and thinking inside the humankind. This hope is accompanied by the prospect and causes the humankind to work hard to reach their goals. However, there are some opposing points in these two religions about the basic foundation of this true hope. From the Quran viewpoint, the main foundation of the hope is God and the human is obliged to follow his worldly goals in accordance with this foundation as well as faith to God and avoidance of committing sins. On the other hand, the basic foundation of hope in the Three Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke) and the teachings of Paul is the promise of a coming Kingdom. Although there are some opposing views about the meaning of this as well as the ways to attain this hope, this hope is generally related to the purpose of human life and afterlife. The Christ, in the John's thoughts, is the source of hope and everybody, believing in God, must also have hope for Jesus Christ. Effects and functions of such hope are strengthening the spirit of love and kindness to others. Hence, in Christianity, the hope and positive thinking about the future, along with good deeds, reflects different viewpoints. On the other hand, in Quran, this is faith to God and fulfilling the Sharia orders which ignite and strengthen this hope and way of thinking. This is the base that continues nowadays with Vilāya and the love for Ahlulbeit in the Shiite views.

Keywords: God, new testament, positive thinking, Quran

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135 A Survey in Techniques for Imbalanced Intrusion Detection System Datasets

Authors: Najmeh Abedzadeh, Matthew Jacobs

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An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a software application that monitors malicious activities and generates alerts if any are detected. However, most network activities in IDS datasets are normal, and the relatively few numbers of attacks make the available data imbalanced. Consequently, cyber-attacks can hide inside a large number of normal activities, and machine learning algorithms have difficulty learning and classifying the data correctly. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review is conducted on different types of algorithms for both implementing the IDS and methods in correcting the imbalanced IDS dataset. The most famous algorithms are machine learning (ML), deep learning (DL), synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), and reinforcement learning (RL). Most of the research use the CSE-CIC-IDS2017, CSE-CIC-IDS2018, and NSL-KDD datasets for evaluating their algorithms.

Keywords: IDS, imbalanced datasets, sampling algorithms, big data

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134 Tornadic Waterspout Impacts on Coastal Zones

Authors: Matthew J. Glanville, Christian J. Rohr

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Coastal waterspout activity is known to occur globally over a wide climatic range. This study has focussed on recent tornadic waterspout activity along the temperate New South Wales coastline of Australia. Recent tornadic waterspout impacts were surveyed at Kurnell, Kiama, and Lennox Head in coastal New South Wales and are thought to have formed either wholly or partly offshore. It is proposed that a warm, moist layer of air at the sea surface creates more unstable atmospheric conditions than would an approaching supercell path over land, and hence a greater propensity to generate a tornadic event. Measured and observed wind velocities in the vicinity of 60 ms-1 associated with the observed tornadic waterspouts are considerably higher in magnitude than the basic wind speed presented in AS1170.2 for an estimated return period of 2000 years in Region A.

Keywords: coastal, survey, tornadic, waterspout

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133 Pulmonary Valve Papillary Fibroelastoma: A Case Report of a Fibroelastoma Presenting as a Pulmonary Embolism

Authors: Frazer Kirk, Matthew Yong, Peter Williams, Andrie Strobel

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Pulmonary valve papillary fibroelastoma is an exceedingly rare pathology. The experience and literature regarding them are largely anecdotal and based on sporadic, single case reports. Throughout their known history, two features remain salient that they are classically asymptomatic and found incidentally. The demographic profile of those affected is unclear, as reports regarding those affected are mixed, and there is no clear gender or age predominance, although there is some suggestion of a predisposition to affect females. Nor has there been a well-structured epidemiological study of the entity. Interestingly they are becoming more common on peri-mortum examination. Here-after we describe our experience with a symptomatic presentation of pulmonary papillary fibroelastoma masquerading as a pulmonary embolism and its subsequent assessment and management, with intraoperative photography and echocardiography for reference.

Keywords: cardiac tumor, pulmonary valve, fibroelastoma, cardiac surgery

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132 Paper-Based Detection Using Synthetic Gene Circuits

Authors: Vanessa Funk, Steven Blum, Stephanie Cole, Jorge Maciel, Matthew Lux

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Paper-based synthetic gene circuits offer a new paradigm for programmable, fieldable biodetection. We demonstrate that by freeze-drying gene circuits with in vitro expression machinery, we can use complimentary RNA sequences to trigger colorimetric changes upon rehydration. We have successfully utilized both green fluorescent protein and luciferase-based reporters for easy visualization purposes in solution. Through several efforts, we are aiming to use this new platform technology to address a variety of needs in portable detection by demonstrating several more expression and reporter systems for detection functions on paper. In addition to RNA-based biodetection, we are exploring the use of various mechanisms that cells use to respond to environmental conditions to move towards all-hazards detection. Examples include explosives, heavy metals for water quality, and toxic chemicals.

Keywords: cell-free lysates, detection, gene circuits, in vitro

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131 A Futuristic Look at American Indian Nationhood: Zits in Sherman Alexie’s Flight

Authors: Shaimaa Alobaidi

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The presentation examines how urbanization opens possibilities for American Indian characters like Zits in Alexie’s Flightto explore new definitionsoftheirtribal self-identification. Zits travels in time and views the world from different bodies, ages, and races; his journeys end with different perspectives on the idea of nationhood as an American Indian. He is an example of Vine Deloria’s statementthat “urban Indians have become the cutting edge of the new Indian nationalism” (248). Flight is chosen because the momentZits leaves the real world for time-traveling adventures is very critical; it is a moment of rage that ends in the mass murder of many Anglo-Americans. The paper focus on the turning point when he returns into his body with new opportunities towards his existence among the majority of anglo-Americans who cannot help but see him American Indian minority in need of help and assistance. Characters, such as Zits, attempt to outlive alienation, and Alexie gives new definitionsof their ethnic nationhood. Futuristicdoes not mean the very far unpredictable future; it is rather a nearpotential future for teenagers of American Indians, like Zits, Arnold, andCoyoteSprings- the band in ReservationBlues; all revolutionary personalitiesin Alexie’s works. They will be analyzed as Gerald Vizenor’s “postindianwarriors” who have the ability to identify Indigenous nationalism in a post-colonial context.

Keywords: alienation, self-identification, nationhood, urbanization, postindian

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130 What Does FDI Inflow Mean for Emerging African Economies?

Authors: E.George, P. Ojeaga, O. Matthew, A. Adekola

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Can foreign direct investment (FDI), promote growth in Africa? What does the inflow of investment hold for African emerging economies? Are the determinants of FDI different for different regional blocs in Africa? This study reviews the implication of FDI for different regional blocs in Africa. FDI was found to have a significant effect on growth in North Africa but had no significant effect in East, Southern and West Africa. FDI was also found not to be driving growth in the whole of Africa in a significant manner. The implications of the findings are that even though trade openness seems to be a major factor driving FDI. Poor domestic markets were still preventing many African economies from taking full advantage of the gains from foreign direct investment. The study results could be useful to scholars who study the dynamics surrounding FDI disbursement and strategies on how FDI can drive growth in developing countries.

Keywords: Africa, political economy, FDI, regional policy, markets

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129 Psychometric Examination of the QUEST-25: An Online Assessment of Intellectual Curiosity and Scientific Epistemology

Authors: Matthew J. Zagumny

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The current study reports an examination of the QUEST-25 (Q-Assessment of Undergraduate Epistemology and Scientific Thinking) online version for assessing the dispositional attitudes toward scientific thinking and intellectual curiosity among undergraduate students. The QUEST-25 consists of scientific thinking (SIQ-25) and intellectual curiosity (ICIQ-25), which were correlated in hypothesized directions with the Religious Commitment Inventory, Curiosity and Exploration Inventory, Belief in Science scale, and measures of academic self-efficacy. Additionally, concurrent validity was established by the resulting significant differences between those identifying the centrality of religious belief in their lives and those who do not self-identify as being guided daily by religious beliefs. This study demonstrates the utility of the QUEST-25 for research, evaluation, and theory development.

Keywords: guided-inquiry learning, intellectual curiosity, psychometric assessment, scientific thinking

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128 Implication of Attention Deficit and Task Avoidance on the Mathematics Performance of Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Matthew Bamidele Ojuawo

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To some parents, task avoidance implies the time when argument ensues between parents and their children in order to get certain things done correctly without being forced. However, some children avoid certain task because of the fears that it is too hard or cannot be done without parental help. Laziness plays a role in task avoidance when children do not want to do something because they do not feel like it is easy enough or if they just want their parent help them get it over with more quickly. Children with attention deficit disorder more often have difficulties with social skills, such as social interaction and forming and maintaining friendships. The focus of this study is how task avoidance and attention deficit have effect on the mathematics performance of pupils in the lower basic classroom. Mathematics performance of pupils with learning disabilities has been seriously low due to avoidance of task and attention deficit posed as carried out in the previous researches, but the research has not been carried out in the lower basic classroom in Oyo, Oyo state, Nigeria.

Keywords: task avoidance, parents, children with attention deficit, mathematics

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127 Extremely Large Sinus Pericranii with Involvement of the Torcular and Associated with Crouzon’s Syndrome

Authors: Felipe H. Sanders, Bryan A. Edwards, Matthew Fusco, Rod J. Oskouian, R. Shane Tubbs

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Introduction: Sinus pericranii is a rare vascular malformation that connects the intracranial dural sinuses to the extracranial venous drainage system and is caused by either trauma or congenital defects. Although the majority of these vascular structures are due to trauma, some are congenital. Case report: Herein, we report a 5-month-old patient with a very large and fluctuating subcutaneous mass over the occiput and the diagnosis of Crouzon’s syndrome. The child presented with a large midline mass that on imaging, connected to the underlying torcular and was diagnosed as a sinus pericranii. At long-term follow up and without operative intervention, the sinus pericranii resolved. This uncommon relationship is reviewed. Conclusion: Premature closure of posterior fossa sutures as part of Crouzon syndrome can present with large sinus pericranii. Such subcutaneous swellings might resolve spontaneously.

Keywords: congenital, craniosynostosis, pediatric, vascular malformation

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126 Abating the Barriers to the Deployment of RFID for Construction Project Delivery in South Africa

Authors: Matthew O. Ikuabe, Ayodeji E. Oke, Clinton O. Aigbavboa, Douglas O. Aghimien

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The use of technological innovations have been touted to be beneficial in the delivery of construction projects. Particularly, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is widely regarded to be of immense advantage for the management of construction projects. This study focused on evaluating the barriers to the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for the delivery of construction projects. Using Gauteng Provincein South Africa as the study area, questionnaire was used in eliciting responses from construction professionals, which made up the population of the study. Retrieved data was analysed using Mean Item Score and One-Sample t-test. Findings from the study showed that the most significant barriers to the deployment of RFID for construction project delivery are high cost and lack of awareness. Conclusively, the study made recommendations that would aid in the abatement of the barriers to the use of RFID technology for construction project delivery.

Keywords: barriers, construction, project delivery, RFID

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