Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3576

Search results for: plantar strain measurement

3576 Fiber Braggs Grating Sensor Based Instrumentation to Evaluate Postural Balance and Stability on an Unstable Platform

Authors: K. Chethana, A. S. Guru Prasad, H. N. Vikranth, H. Varun, S. N. Omkar, S. Asokan


This paper describes a novel application of Fiber Braggs Grating (FBG) sensors on an unstable platform to assess human postural stability and balance. The FBG sensor based Stability Analyzing Device (FBGSAD) developed demonstrates the applicability of FBG sensors in the measurement of plantar strain to assess the postural stability of subjects on unstable platforms during different stances in eyes open and eyes closed conditions on a rocker board. Comparing the Centre of Gravity (CG) variations measured on the lumbar vertebra of subjects using a commercial accelerometer along with FBGSAD validates the study. The results obtained depict qualitative similarities between the data recorded by both FBGSAD and accelerometer, illustrating the reliability and consistency of FBG sensors in biomechanical applications for both young and geriatric population. The developed FBGSAD simultaneously measures plantar strain distribution and postural stability and can serve as a tool/yardstick to mitigate space motion sickness, identify individuals who are susceptible to falls and to qualify subjects for balance and stability, which are important factors in the selection of certain unique professionals such as aircraft pilots, astronauts, cosmonauts etc.

Keywords: biomechanics, fiber bragg gratings, plantar strain measurement, postural stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 491
3575 The Effect of Fixing Kinesiology Tape onto the Plantar Surface during Loading Phase of Gait

Authors: Albert K. Chong, Jasim Ahmed Ali Al-Baghdadi, Peter B. Milburn


Precise capture of plantar 3D surface of the foot at the loading gait phases on rigid substrate was found to be valuable for the assessment of the physiology, health and problems of the feet. Photogrammetry, a precision 3D spatial data capture technique is suitable for this type of dynamic application. In this research, the technique is utilised to study of the effect on the plantar deformation for having a strip of kinesiology tape on the plantar surface while going through the loading phase of gait. For this pilot study, one healthy adult male subject was recruited under the USQ University human research ethics guidelines for this preliminary study. The 3D plantar deformation data of both with and without applying the tape were analysed. The results and analyses are presented together with the detail of the findings.

Keywords: gait, human plantar, plantar loading, photogrammetry, kinesiology tape

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
3574 A Convolution Neural Network Approach to Predict Pes-Planus Using Plantar Pressure Mapping Images

Authors: Adel Khorramrouz, Monireh Ahmadi Bani, Ehsan Norouzi, Morvarid Lalenoor


Background: Plantar pressure distribution measurement has been used for a long time to assess foot disorders. Plantar pressure is an important component affecting the foot and ankle function and Changes in plantar pressure distribution could indicate various foot and ankle disorders. Morphologic and mechanical properties of the foot may be important factors affecting the plantar pressure distribution. Accurate and early measurement may help to reduce the prevalence of pes planus. With recent developments in technology, new techniques such as machine learning have been used to assist clinicians in predicting patients with foot disorders. Significance of the study: This study proposes a neural network learning-based flat foot classification methodology using static foot pressure distribution. Methodologies: Data were collected from 895 patients who were referred to a foot clinic due to foot disorders. Patients with pes planus were labeled by an experienced physician based on clinical examination. Then all subjects (with and without pes planus) were evaluated for static plantar pressures distribution. Patients who were diagnosed with the flat foot in both feet were included in the study. In the next step, the leg length was normalized and the network was trained for plantar pressure mapping images. Findings: From a total of 895 image data, 581 were labeled as pes planus. A computational neural network (CNN) ran to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. The prediction accuracy of the basic CNN-based model was performed and the prediction model was derived through the proposed methodology. In the basic CNN model, the training accuracy was 79.14%, and the test accuracy was 72.09%. Conclusion: This model can be easily and simply used by patients with pes planus and doctors to predict the classification of pes planus and prescreen for possible musculoskeletal disorders related to this condition. However, more models need to be considered and compared for higher accuracy.

Keywords: foot disorder, machine learning, neural network, pes planus

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
3573 The Characteristics of Static Plantar Loading in the First-Division College Sprint Athletes

Authors: Tong-Hsien Chow


Background: Plantar pressure measurement is an effective method for assessing plantar loading and can be applied to evaluating movement performance of the foot. The purpose of this study is to explore the sprint athletes’ plantar loading characteristics and pain profiles in static standing. Methods: Experiments were undertaken on 80 first-division college sprint athletes and 85 healthy non-sprinters. ‘JC Mat’, the optical plantar pressure measurement was applied to examining the differences between both groups in the arch index (AI), three regional and six distinct sub-regional plantar pressure distributions (PPD), and footprint characteristics. Pain assessment and self-reported health status in sprint athletes were examined for evaluating their common pain areas. Results: Findings from the control group, the males’ AI fell into the normal range. Yet, the females’ AI was classified as the high-arch type. AI values of the sprint group were found to be significantly lower than the control group. PPD were higher at the medial metatarsal bone of both feet and the lateral heel of the right foot in the sprint group, the males in particular, whereas lower at the medial and lateral longitudinal arches of both feet. Footprint characteristics tended to support the results of the AI and PPD, and this reflected the corresponding pressure profiles. For the sprint athletes, the lateral knee joint and biceps femoris were the most common musculoskeletal pains. Conclusions: The sprint athletes’ AI were generally classified as high arches, and that their PPD were categorized between the features of runners and high-arched runners. These findings also correspond to the profiles of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS)-related plantar pressure. The pain profiles appeared to correspond to the symptoms of high-arched runners and PFPS. The findings reflected upon the possible link between high arches and PFPS. The correlation between high-arched runners and PFPS development is worth further studies.

Keywords: sprint athletes, arch index, plantar pressure distributions, high arches, patellofemoral pain syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
3572 A Low-Cost of Foot Plantar Shoes for Gait Analysis

Authors: Zulkifli Ahmad, Mohd Razlan Azizan, Nasrul Hadi Johari


This paper presents a study on development and conducting of a wearable sensor system for gait analysis measurement. For validation, the method of plantar surface measurement by force plate was prepared. In general gait analysis, force plate generally represents a studies about barefoot in whole steps and do not allow analysis of repeating movement step in normal walking and running. The measurements that were usually perform do not represent the whole daily plantar pressures in the shoe insole and only obtain the ground reaction force. The force plate measurement is usually limited a few step and it is done indoor and obtaining coupling information from both feet during walking is not easily obtained. Nowadays, in order to measure pressure for a large number of steps and obtain pressure in each insole part, it could be done by placing sensors within an insole. With this method, it will provide a method for determine the plantar pressures while standing, walking or running of a shoe wearing subject. Inserting pressure sensors in the insole will provide specific information and therefore the point of the sensor placement will result in obtaining the critical part under the insole. In the wearable shoe sensor project, the device consists left and right shoe insole with ten FSR. Arduino Mega was used as a micro-controller that read the analog input from FSR. The analog inputs were transmitted via bluetooth data transmission that gains the force data in real time on smartphone. Blueterm software which is an android application was used as an interface to read the FSR reading on the shoe wearing subject. The subject consist of two healthy men with different age and weight doing test while standing, walking (1.5 m/s), jogging (5 m/s) and running (9 m/s) on treadmill. The data obtain will be saved on the android device and for making an analysis and comparison graph.

Keywords: gait analysis, plantar pressure, force plate, earable sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
3571 Combination of Plantar Pressure and Star Excursion Balance Test for Evaluation of Dynamic Posture Control on High-Heeled Shoes

Authors: Yan Zhang, Jan Awrejcewicz, Lin Fu


High-heeled shoes force the foot into plantar flexion position resulting in foot arch rising and disturbance of the articular congruence between the talus and tibiofibular mortice, all of which may increase the challenge of balance maintenance. Plantar pressure distribution of the stance limb during the star excursion balance test (SEBT) contributes to the understanding of potential sources of reaching excursions in SEBT. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dynamic posture control while wearing high-heeled shoes using SEBT in a combination of plantar pressure measurement. Twenty healthy young females were recruited. Shoes of three heel heights were used: flat (0.8 cm), low (4.0 cm), high (6.6 cm). The testing grid of SEBT consists of three lines extending out at 120° from each other, which were defined as anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. Participants were instructed to stand on their dominant limb with the heel in the middle of the testing grid and hands on hips and to reach the non-stance limb as far as possible towards each direction. The distal portion of the reaching limb lightly touched the ground without shifting weight. Then returned the reaching limb to the beginning position. The excursion distances were normalized to leg length. The insole plantar measurement system was used to record peak pressure, contact area, and pressure-time integral of the stance limb. Results showed that normalized excursion distance decreased significantly as heel height increased. The changes of plantar pressure in SEBT as heel height increased were more obvious in the medial forefoot (MF), medial midfoot (MM), rearfoot areas. At MF, the peak pressure and pressure-time integral of low and high shoes increased significantly compared with that of flat shoes, while the contact area decreased significantly as heel height increased. At MM, peak pressure, contact area, and pressure-time integral of high and low shoes were significantly lower than that of flat shoes. To reduce posture instability, the stance limb plantar loading shifted to medial forefoot. Knowledge of this study identified dynamic posture control deficits while wearing high-heeled shoes and the critical role of the medial forefoot in dynamic balance maintenance.

Keywords: dynamic posture control, high-heeled shoes, plantar pressure, star excursion balance test.

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
3570 Measurement of Temperature, Humidity and Strain Variation Using Bragg Sensor

Authors: Amira Zrelli, Tahar Ezzeddine


Measurement and monitoring of temperature, humidity and strain variation are very requested in great fields and areas such as structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Currently, the use of fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGS) is very recommended in SHM systems due to the specifications of these sensors. In this paper, we present the theory of Bragg sensor, therefore we try to measure the efficient variation of strain, temperature and humidity (SV, ST, SH) using Bragg sensor. Thus, we can deduce the fundamental relation between these parameters and the wavelength of Bragg sensor.

Keywords: Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors (FBGS), strain, temperature, humidity, structural health monitoring (SHM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
3569 Neural Network and Support Vector Machine for Prediction of Foot Disorders Based on Foot Analysis

Authors: Monireh Ahmadi Bani, Adel Khorramrouz, Lalenoor Morvarid, Bagheri Mahtab


Background:- Foot disorders are common in musculoskeletal problems. Plantar pressure distribution measurement is one the most important part of foot disorders diagnosis for quantitative analysis. However, the association of plantar pressure and foot disorders is not clear. With the growth of dataset and machine learning methods, the relationship between foot disorders and plantar pressures can be detected. Significance of the study:- The purpose of this study was to predict the probability of common foot disorders based on peak plantar pressure distribution and center of pressure during walking. Methodologies:- 2323 participants were assessed in a foot therapy clinic between 2015 and 2021. Foot disorders were diagnosed by an experienced physician and then they were asked to walk on a force plate scanner. After the data preprocessing, due to the difference in walking time and foot size, we normalized the samples based on time and foot size. Some of force plate variables were selected as input to a deep neural network (DNN), and the probability of any each foot disorder was measured. In next step, we used support vector machine (SVM) and run dataset for each foot disorder (classification of yes or no). We compared DNN and SVM for foot disorders prediction based on plantar pressure distributions and center of pressure. Findings:- The results demonstrated that the accuracy of deep learning architecture is sufficient for most clinical and research applications in the study population. In addition, the SVM approach has more accuracy for predictions, enabling applications for foot disorders diagnosis. The detection accuracy was 71% by the deep learning algorithm and 78% by the SVM algorithm. Moreover, when we worked with peak plantar pressure distribution, it was more accurate than center of pressure dataset. Conclusion:- Both algorithms- deep learning and SVM will help therapist and patients to improve the data pool and enhance foot disorders prediction with less expense and error after removing some restrictions properly.

Keywords: deep neural network, foot disorder, plantar pressure, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
3568 Arterial Compliance Measurement Using Split Cylinder Sensor/Actuator

Authors: Swati Swati, Yuhang Chen, Robert Reuben


Coronary stents are devices resembling the shape of a tube which are placed in coronary arteries, to keep the arteries open in the treatment of coronary arterial diseases. Coronary stents are routinely deployed to clear atheromatous plaque. The stent essentially applies an internal pressure to the artery because its structure is cylindrically symmetrical and this may introduce some abnormalities in final arterial shape. The goal of the project is to develop segmented circumferential arterial compliance measuring devices which can be deployed (eventually) in vivo. The segmentation of the device will allow the mechanical asymmetry of any stenosis to be assessed. The purpose will be to assess the quality of arterial tissue for applications in tailored stents and in the assessment of aortic aneurism. Arterial distensibility measurement is of utmost importance to diagnose cardiovascular diseases and for prediction of future cardiac events or coronary artery diseases. In order to arrive at some generic outcomes, a preliminary experimental set-up has been devised to establish the measurement principles for the device at macro-scale. The measurement methodology consists of a strain gauge system monitored by LABVIEW software in a real-time fashion. This virtual instrument employs a balloon within a gelatine model contained in a split cylinder with strain gauges fixed on it. The instrument allows automated measurement of the effect of air-pressure on gelatine and measurement of strain with respect to time and pressure during inflation. Compliance simple creep model has been applied to the results for the purpose of extracting some measures of arterial compliance. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to study the effect of air pressure on strain at varying time intervals. The results clearly demonstrate that with decrease in arterial volume and increase in arterial pressure, arterial strain increases thereby decreasing the arterial compliance. The measurement system could lead to development of portable, inexpensive and small equipment and could prove to be an efficient automated compliance measurement device.

Keywords: arterial compliance, atheromatous plaque, mechanical symmetry, strain measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
3567 Full-Field Estimation of Cyclic Threshold Shear Strain

Authors: E. E. S. Uy, T. Noda, K. Nakai, J. R. Dungca


Cyclic threshold shear strain is the cyclic shear strain amplitude that serves as the indicator of the development of pore water pressure. The parameter can be obtained by performing either cyclic triaxial test, shaking table test, cyclic simple shear or resonant column. In a cyclic triaxial test, other researchers install measuring devices in close proximity of the soil to measure the parameter. In this study, an attempt was made to estimate the cyclic threshold shear strain parameter using full-field measurement technique. The technique uses a camera to monitor and measure the movement of the soil. For this study, the technique was incorporated in a strain-controlled consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial test. Calibration of the camera was first performed to ensure that the camera can properly measure the deformation under cyclic loading. Its capacity to measure deformation was also investigated using a cylindrical rubber dummy. Two-dimensional image processing was implemented. Lucas and Kanade optical flow algorithm was applied to track the movement of the soil particles. Results from the full-field measurement technique were compared with the results from the linear variable displacement transducer. A range of values was determined from the estimation. This was due to the nonhomogeneous deformation of the soil observed during the cyclic loading. The minimum values were in the order of 10-2% in some areas of the specimen.

Keywords: cyclic loading, cyclic threshold shear strain, full-field measurement, optical flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
3566 Experimental Characterization of Composite Material with Non Contacting Methods

Authors: Nikolaos Papadakis, Constantinos Condaxakis, Konstantinos Savvakis


The aim of this paper is to determine the elastic properties (elastic modulus and Poisson ratio) of a composite material based on noncontacting imaging methods. More specifically, the significantly reduced cost of digital cameras has given the opportunity of the high reliability of low-cost strain measurement. The open source platform Ncorr is used in this paper which utilizes the method of digital image correlation (DIC). The use of digital image correlation in measuring strain uses random speckle preparation on the surface of the gauge area, image acquisition, and postprocessing the image correlation to obtain displacement and strain field on surface under study. This study discusses technical issues relating to the quality of results to be obtained are discussed. [0]8 fabric glass/epoxy composites specimens were prepared and tested at different orientations 0[o], 30[o], 45[o], 60[o], 90[o]. Each test was recorded with the camera at a constant frame rate and constant lighting conditions. The recorded images were processed through the use of the image processing software. The parameters of the test are reported. The strain map output which is obtained through strain measurement using Ncorr is validated by a) comparing the elastic properties with expected values from Classical laminate theory, b) through finite element analysis.

Keywords: composites, Ncorr, strain map, videoextensometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
3565 Development of a Real Time Axial Force Measurement System and IoT-Based Monitoring for Smart Bearing

Authors: Hassam Ahmed, Yuanzhi Liu, Yassine Selami, Wei Tao, Hui Zhao


The purpose of this research is to develop a real time axial force measurement system for a smart bearing through the use of strain-gauges, whereby the data acquisition is performed by an Arduino microcontroller due to its easy manipulation and low-cost. The measured signal is acquired and then discretized using a Wheatstone Bridge and an Analog-Digital Converter (ADC) respectively. For bearing monitoring, a real time monitoring system based on Internet of things (IoT) and Bluetooth were developed. Experimental tests were performed on a bearing within a force range up to 600 kN. The experimental results show that there is a proportional linear relationship between the applied force and the output voltage, and the error R squared is within 0.9878 based on the regression analysis.

Keywords: bearing, force measurement, IoT, strain gauge

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
3564 Determination of Mechanical Properties of Adhesives via Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Method

Authors: Murat Demir Aydin, Elanur Celebi


Adhesively bonded joints are used as an alternative to traditional joining methods due to the important advantages they provide. The most important consideration in the use of adhesively bonded joints is that these joints have appropriate requirements for their use in terms of safety. In order to ensure control of this condition, damage analysis of the adhesively bonded joints should be performed by determining the mechanical properties of the adhesives. When the literature is investigated; it is generally seen that the mechanical properties of adhesives are determined by traditional measurement methods. In this study, to determine the mechanical properties of adhesives, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method, which can be an alternative to traditional measurement methods, has been used. The DIC method is a new optical measurement method which is used to determine the parameters of displacement and strain in an appropriate and correct way. In this study, tensile tests of Thick Adherent Shear Test (TAST) samples formed using DP410 liquid structural adhesive and steel materials and bulk tensile specimens formed using and DP410 liquid structural adhesive was performed. The displacement and strain values of the samples were determined by DIC method and the shear stress-strain curves of the adhesive for TAST specimens and the tensile strain curves of the bulk adhesive specimens were obtained. Various methods such as numerical methods are required as conventional measurement methods (strain gauge, mechanic extensometer, etc.) are not sufficient in determining the strain and displacement values of the very thin adhesive layer such as TAST samples. As a result, the DIC method removes these requirements and easily achieves displacement measurements with sufficient accuracy.

Keywords: structural adhesive, adhesively bonded joints, digital image correlation, thick adhered shear test (TAST)

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
3563 The Comparison of Backward and Forward Running Program on Balance Development and Plantar Flexion Force in Pre Seniors: Healthy Approach

Authors: Neda Dekamei, Mostafa Sarabzadeh, Masoumeh Bigdeli


Backward running is commonly used in different sports conditioning, motor learning, and neurological purposes, and even more commonly in physical rehabilitation. The present study evaluated the effects of six weeks backward and forward running methods on balance promotion adaptation in students. 12 male and female preseniors with the age range of 45-60 years participated and were randomly classified into two groups of backward running (n: 6) and forward running (n: 6) training interventions. During six weeks, 3 sessions per week, all subjects underwent stated different models of backward and forward running training on treadmill (65-80 of HR max). Pre and post-tests were performed by force plate and electromyogram, two times before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using by T test. On the basis of obtained data, significant differences were recorded on balance and plantar flexion force in backward running (BR) and no difference for forward running (FR). It seems the training model of backward running can generate more stimulus to achieve better plantar flexion force and strengthening ankle protectors which leads to balance improvement in pre aging period. It can be recommended as an effective method to promote seniors life quality especially in balance neuromuscular parameters.

Keywords: backward running, balance, plantar flexion, pre seniors

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
3562 A Method for Measurement and Evaluation of Drape of Textiles

Authors: L. Fridrichova, R. Knížek, V. Bajzík


Drape is one of the important visual characteristics of the fabric. This paper is introducing an innovative method of measurement and evaluation of the drape shape of the fabric. The measuring principle is based on the possibility of multiple vertical strain of the fabric. This method more accurately simulates the real behavior of the fabric in the process of draping. The method is fully automated, so the sample can be measured by using any number of cycles in any time horizon. Using the present method of measurement, we are able to describe the viscoelastic behavior of the fabric.

Keywords: drape, drape shape, automated drapemeter, fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 551
3561 Influence of the Paint Coating Thickness in Digital Image Correlation Experiments

Authors: Jesús A. Pérez, Sam Coppieters, Dimitri Debruyne


In the past decade, the use of digital image correlation (DIC) techniques has increased significantly in the area of experimental mechanics, especially for materials behavior characterization. This non-contact tool enables full field displacement and strain measurements over a complete region of interest. The DIC algorithm requires a random contrast pattern on the surface of the specimen in order to perform properly. To create this pattern, the specimen is usually first coated using a white matt paint. Next, a black random speckle pattern is applied using any suitable method. If the applied paint coating is too thick, its top surface may not be able to exactly follow the deformation of the specimen, and consequently, the strain measurement might be underestimated. In the present article, a study of the influence of the paint thickness on the strain underestimation is performed for different strain levels. The results are then compared to typical paint coating thicknesses applied by experienced DIC users. A slight strain underestimation was observed for paint coatings thicker than about 30μm. On the other hand, this value was found to be uncommonly high compared to coating thicknesses applied by DIC users.

Keywords: digital image correlation, paint coating thickness, strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
3560 Experimental and Finite Element Forming Limit Diagrams for Interstitial Free Steels

Authors: Basavaraj Vadavadagi, Satishkumar Shekhawat


Interstitial free steels posses better formability and have many applications in automotive industries. Forming limit diagrams (FLDs) indicate the formability of materials which can be determined by experimental and finite element (FE) simulations. FLDs were determined experimentally by LDH test, utilizing optical strain measurement system for measuring the strains in different width specimens and by FE simulations in Interstitial Free (IF) and Interstitial Free High Strength (IFHS) steels. In this study, the experimental and FE simulated FLDs are compared and also the stress based FLDs were investigated.

Keywords: forming limit diagram, limiting dome height, optical strain measurement, interstitial

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
3559 Fully Printed Strain Gauges: A Comparison of Aerosoljet-Printing and Micropipette-Dispensing

Authors: Benjamin Panreck, Manfred Hild


Strain sensors based on a change in resistance are well established for the measurement of forces, stresses, or material fatigue. Within the scope of this paper, fully additive manufactured strain sensors were produced using an ink of silver nanoparticles. Their behavior was evaluated by periodic tensile tests. Printed strain sensors exhibit two advantages: Their measuring grid is adaptable to the use case and they do not need a carrier-foil, as the measuring structure can be printed directly onto a thin sprayed varnish layer on the aluminum specimen. In order to compare quality characteristics, the sensors have been manufactured using two different technologies, namely aerosoljet-printing and micropipette-dispensing. Both processes produce structures which exhibit continuous features (in contrast to what can be achieved with droplets during inkjet printing). Briefly summarized the results show that aerosoljet-printing is the preferable technology for specimen with non-planar surfaces whereas both technologies are suitable for flat specimen.

Keywords: aerosoljet-printing, micropipette-dispensing, printed electronics, printed sensors, strain gauge

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
3558 New Dynamic Constitutive Model for OFHC Copper Film

Authors: Jin Sung Kim, Hoon Huh


The material properties of OFHC copper film was investigated with the High-Speed Material Micro Testing Machine (HSMMTM) at the high strain rates. The rate-dependent stress-strain curves from the experiment and the Johnson-Cook curve fitting showed large discrepancies as the plastic strain increases since the constitutive model implies no rate-dependent strain hardening effect. A new constitutive model was proposed in consideration of rate-dependent strain hardening effect. The strain rate hardening term in the new constitutive model consists of the strain rate sensitivity coefficients of the yield strength and strain hardening.

Keywords: rate dependent material properties, dynamic constitutive model, OFHC copper film, strain rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
3557 Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE

Authors: Rida B. Arieby, Hameed N. Hameed


In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.

Keywords: strain rate jump tests, volume strain, high density polyethylene, large strain, thermodynamics approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
3556 Flexural Strength Design of RC Beams with Consideration of Strain Gradient Effect

Authors: Mantai Chen, Johnny Ching Ming Ho


The stress-strain relationship of concrete under flexure is one of the essential parameters in assessing ultimate flexural strength capacity of RC beams. Currently, the concrete stress-strain curve in flexure is obtained by incorporating a constant scale-down factor of 0.85 in the uniaxial stress-strain curve. However, it was revealed that strain gradient would improve the maximum concrete stress under flexure and concrete stress-strain curve is strain gradient dependent. Based on the strain-gradient-dependent concrete stress-strain curve, the investigation of the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength on flexural strength of RC beams was extended to high strength concrete up to 100 MPa by theoretical analysis. As an extension and application of the authors’ previous study, a new flexural strength design method incorporating the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength is developed. A set of equivalent rectangular concrete stress block parameters is proposed and applied to produce a series of design charts showing that the flexural strength of RC beams are improved with strain gradient effect considered.

Keywords: beams, equivalent concrete stress block, flexural strength, strain gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
3555 Impact Tensile Mechanical Properties of 316L Stainless Steel at Different Strain Rates

Authors: Jiawei Chen, Jia Qu, Dianwei Ju


316L stainless steel has good mechanical and technological properties, has been widely used in shipbuilding and aerospace manufacturing. In order to understand the effect of strain rate on the yield limit of 316L stainless steel and the constitutive relationship of the materials at different strain rates, this paper used the INSTRON-4505 electronic universal testing machine to study the mechanical properties of the tensile specimen under quasi-static conditions. Meanwhile, the Zwick-Roell RKP450 intelligent oscillometric impact tester was used to test the tensile specimens at different strain rates. Through the above two kinds of experimental researches, the relationship between the true stress-strain and the engineering stress-strain at different strain rates is obtained. The result shows that the tensile yield point of 316L stainless steel increases with the increase of strain rate, and the real stress-strain curve of the 316L stainless steel has a better normalization than that of the engineering stress-strain curve. The real stress-strain curves can be used in the practical engineering of impact stretch to improve its safety.

Keywords: impact stretch, 316L stainless steel, strain rate, real stress-strain, normalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
3554 Engine Thrust Estimation by Strain Gauging of Engine Mount Assembly

Authors: Rohit Vashistha, Amit Kumar Gupta, G. P. Ravishankar, Mahesh P. Padwale


Accurate thrust measurement is required for aircraft during takeoff and after ski-jump. In a developmental aircraft, takeoff from ship is extremely critical and thrust produced by the engine should be known to the pilot before takeoff so that if thrust produced is not sufficient then take-off can be aborted and accident can be avoided. After ski-jump, thrust produced by engine is required because the horizontal speed of aircraft is less than the normal takeoff speed. Engine should be able to produce enough thrust to provide nominal horizontal takeoff speed to the airframe within prescribed time limit. The contemporary low bypass gas turbine engines generally have three mounts where the two side mounts transfer the engine thrust to the airframe. The third mount only takes the weight component. It does not take any thrust component. In the present method of thrust estimation, the strain gauging of the two side mounts is carried out. The strain produced at various power settings is used to estimate the thrust produced by the engine. The quarter Wheatstone bridge is used to acquire the strain data. The engine mount assembly is subjected to Universal Test Machine for determination of equivalent elasticity of assembly. This elasticity value is used in the analytical approach for estimation of engine thrust. The estimated thrust is compared with the test bed load cell thrust data. The experimental strain data is also compared with strain data obtained from FEM analysis. Experimental setup: The strain gauge is mounted on the tapered portion of the engine mount sleeve. Two strain gauges are mounted on diametrically opposite locations. Both of the strain gauges on the sleeve were in the horizontal plane. In this way, these strain gauges were not taking any strain due to the weight of the engine (except negligible strain due to material's poison's ratio) or the hoop's stress. Only the third mount strain gauge will show strain when engine is not running i.e. strain due to weight of engine. When engine starts running, all the load will be taken by the side mounts. The strain gauge on the forward side of the sleeve was showing a compressive strain and the strain gauge on the rear side of the sleeve shows a tensile strain. Results and conclusion: the analytical calculation shows that the hoop stresses dominate the bending stress. The estimated thrust by strain gauge shows good accuracy at higher power setting as compared to lower power setting. The accuracy of estimated thrust at max power setting is 99.7% whereas at lower power setting is 78%.

Keywords: engine mounts, finite elements analysis, strain gauge, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
3553 Experimental Characterization of Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Textile Woven Fabric

Authors: Rym Zouari, Sami Ben Amar, Abdelwaheb Dogui


This paper presents an experimental characterization of the anisotropic mechanical behavior of 4 textile woven fabrics with different weaves (Twill 3, Plain, Twill4 and Satin 4) by off-axis tensile testing. These tests are applied according seven directions oriented by 15° increment with respect to the warp direction. Fixed and articulated jaws are used. Analysis of experimental results is done through global (Effort/Elongation curves) and local scales. Global anisotropy was studied from the Effort/Elongation curves: shape, breaking load (Frup), tensile elongation (EMT), tensile energy (WT) and linearity index (LT). Local anisotropy was studied from the measurement of strain tensor components in the central area of the specimen as a function of testing orientation and effort: longitudinal strain ɛL, transverse strain ɛT and shearing ɛLT. The effect of used jaws is also analyzed.

Keywords: anisotropy, off-axis tensile test, strain fields, textile woven fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
3552 Inelastic and Elastic Taping in Plantar Pressure of Runners Pronators: Clinical Trial

Authors: Liana Gomide, Juliana Rodrigues


The morphology of the foot defines its mode of operation and a biomechanical reform indispensable for a symmetrical distribution of plantar pressures in order not to overload some of its components in isolation. High plantar pressures at specific points in the foot may be a causal factor in several orthopedic disorders that affect the feet such as pain and stress fracture. With digital baro-podometry equipment one can observe an intensity of pressures along the entire foot and quantify some of the movements, such as a subtalar pronation present in the midfoot region. Although, they are involved in microtraumas. In clinical practice, excessive movement has been limited with the use of different taping techniques applied on the plantar arch. Thus, the objective of the present study was to analyze and compare the influence of the inelastic and elastic taping on the distribution of plantar pressure of runners pronators. This is a randomized clinical trial and blind-crossover. Twenty (20) male subjects, mean age 33 ± 7 years old, mean body mass of 71 ± 7 kg, mean height of 174 ± 6 cm, were included in the study. A data collection was carried out by a single research through barop-odometry equipment - Tekscan, model F-scan mobile. The tests were performed at three different times. In the first, an initial barop-odometric evaluation was performed, without a bandage application, with edges at a speed of 9.0 km/h. In the second and third moments, the inelastic or elastic taping was applied consecutively, according to the definition defined in the randomization. As results, it was observed that both as inelastic and elastic taping, provided significant reductions in contact pressure and peak pressure values when compared to the moment without a taping. However, an elastic taping was more effective in decreasing contact pressure (no bandage = 714 ± 201, elastic taping = 690 ± 210 and inelastic taping = 716 ± 180) and no peak pressure in the midfoot region (no bandage = 1490 ± 42, elastic taping = 1273 ± 323 and inelastic taping = 1487 ± 437). It is possible to conclude that it is an elastic taping provided by pressure in the middle region, thereby reducing the subtalar pronunciation event during the run.

Keywords: elastic taping, inelastic taping, running, subtalar pronation

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3551 A Crystal Plasticity Approach to Model Dynamic Strain Aging

Authors: Burak Bal, Demircan Canadinc


Dynamic strain aging (DSA), resulting from the reorientation of C-Mn clusters in the core of dislocations, can provide a strain hardening mechanism. In addition, in Hadfield steel, negative strain rate sensitivity is observed due to the DSA. In our study, we incorporated dynamic strain aging onto crystal plasticity computations to predict the local instabilities and corresponding negative strain rate sensitivity. Specifically, the material response of Hadfield steel was obtained from monotonic and strain-rate jump experiments under tensile loading. The strain rate range was adjusted from 10⁻⁴ to 10⁻¹s ⁻¹. The crystal plasticity modeling of the material response was carried out based on Voce-type hardening law and corresponding Voce hardening parameters were determined. The solute pinning effect of carbon atom was incorporated to crystal plasticity simulations at microscale level by computing the shear stress contribution imposed on an arrested dislocation by carbon atom. After crystal plasticity simulations with modifying hardening rule, which takes into account the contribution of DSA, it was seen that the model successfully predicts both the role of DSA and corresponding strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: crystal plasticity, dynamic strain aging, Hadfield steel, negative strain rate sensitivity

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3550 Electro-Discharge Drilling in Residual Stress Measurement of Annealed St.37 Steel

Authors: H. Gholami, M. Jalali Azizpour


For materials such as hard coating whose stresses state are difficult to obtain by a widely used method called high-speed hole-drilling method (ASTM Standard E837). It is important to develop a non contact method. This process itself imposes an additional stresses. The through thickness residual stress of st37 steel using elector-discharge was investigated. The strain gage and dynamic strain indicator used in all cases was FRS-2-11 rosette type and TML 221, respectively. The average residual stress in depth of 320 µm was -6.47 MPa.

Keywords: HVOF, residual stress, thermal spray, WC-Co

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3549 Numerical Study of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor: Longitudinal and Transverse Detection of Temperature and Strain

Authors: K. Khelil, H. Ammar, K. Saouchi


Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) structure is an periodically modulated optical fiber. It acts as a selective filter of wavelength whose reflected peak is called Bragg wavelength and it depends on the period of the fiber and the refractive index. The simulation of FBG is based on solving the Coupled Mode Theory equation by using the Transfer Matrix Method which is carried out using MATLAB. It is found that spectral reflectivity is shifted when the change of temperature and strain is uniform. Under non-uniform temperature or strain perturbation, the spectrum is both shifted and destroyed. In case of transverse loading, reflectivity spectrum is split into two peaks, the first is specific to X axis, and the second belongs to Y axis. FBGs are used in civil engineering to detect perturbations applied to buildings.

Keywords: Bragg wavelength, coupled mode theory, optical fiber, temperature measurement

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3548 Study of Human Upper Arm Girth during Elbow Isokinetic Contractions Based on a Smart Circumferential Measuring System

Authors: Xi Wang, Xiaoming Tao, Raymond C. H. So


As one of the convenient and noninvasive sensing approaches, the automatic limb girth measurement has been applied to detect intention behind human motion from muscle deformation. The sensing validity has been elaborated by preliminary researches but still need more fundamental study, especially on kinetic contraction modes. Based on the novel fabric strain sensors, a soft and smart limb girth measurement system was developed by the authors’ group, which can measure the limb girth in-motion. Experiments were carried out on elbow isometric flexion and elbow isokinetic flexion (biceps’ isokinetic contractions) of 90°/s, 60°/s, and 120°/s for 10 subjects (2 canoeists and 8 ordinary people). After removal of natural circumferential increments due to elbow position, the joint torque is found not uniformly sensitive to the limb circumferential strains, but declining as elbow joint angle rises, regardless of the angular speed. Moreover, the maximum joint torque was found as an exponential function of the joint’s angular speed. This research highly contributes to the application of the automatic limb girth measuring during kinetic contractions, and it is useful to predict the contraction level of voluntary skeletal muscles.

Keywords: fabric strain sensor, muscle deformation, isokinetic contraction, joint torque, limb girth strain

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3547 Development of a Highly Flexible, Sensitive and Stretchable Polymer Nanocomposite for Strain Sensing

Authors: Shaghayegh Shajari, Mehdi Mahmoodi, Mahmood Rajabian, Uttandaraman Sundararaj, Les J. Sudak


Although several strain sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been reported, the stretchability and sensitivity of these sensors have remained as a challenge. Highly stretchable and sensitive strain sensors are in great demand for human motion monitoring and human-machine interface. This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of a new type of strain sensors based on a stretchable fluoropolymer / CNT nanocomposite system made via melt-mixing technique. Electrical and mechanical characterizations were obtained. The results showed that this nanocomposite sensor has high stretchability up to 280% of strain at an optimum level of filler concentration. The piezoresistive properties and the strain sensing mechanism of the strain sensor were investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). High sensitivity was obtained (gauge factor as large as 12000 under 120% applied strain) in particular at the concentrations above the percolation threshold. Due to the tunneling effect, a non- linear piezoresistivity was observed at high concentrations of CNT loading. The nanocomposites with good conductivity and lightweight could be a promising candidate for strain sensing applications.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, fluoropolymer, piezoresistive, strain sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 216