Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 23999

Search results for: postural stability analysis

23999 Relationship between Personality Traits and Postural Stability among Czech Military Combat Troops

Authors: K. Rusnakova, D. Gerych, M. Stehlik


Postural stability is a complex process involving actions of biomechanical, motor, sensory and central nervous system components. Numerous joint systems, muscles involved, the complexity of sporting movements and situations require perfect coordination of the body's movement patterns. To adapt to a constantly changing situation in such a dynamic environment as physical performance, optimal input of information from visual, vestibular and somatosensory sensors are needed. Combat soldiers are required to perform physically and mentally demanding tasks in adverse conditions, and poor postural stability has been identified as a risk factor for lower extremity musculoskeletal injury. The aim of this study is to investigate whether some personality traits are related to the performance of static postural stability among soldiers of combat troops. NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) was used to identify personality traits and the Nintendo Wii Balance Board was used to assess static postural stability of soldiers. Postural stability performance was assessed by changes in center of pressure (CoP) and center of gravity (CoG). A posturographic test was performed for 60 s with eyes opened during quiet upright standing. The results showed that facets of neuroticism and conscientiousness personality traits were significantly correlated with measured parameters of CoP and CoG. This study can help for better understanding the relationship between personality traits and static postural stability. The results can be used to optimize the training process at the individual level.

Keywords: neuroticism, conscientiousness, postural stability, combat troops

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23998 Fiber Braggs Grating Sensor Based Instrumentation to Evaluate Postural Balance and Stability on an Unstable Platform

Authors: K. Chethana, A. S. Guru Prasad, H. N. Vikranth, H. Varun, S. N. Omkar, S. Asokan


This paper describes a novel application of Fiber Braggs Grating (FBG) sensors on an unstable platform to assess human postural stability and balance. The FBG sensor based Stability Analyzing Device (FBGSAD) developed demonstrates the applicability of FBG sensors in the measurement of plantar strain to assess the postural stability of subjects on unstable platforms during different stances in eyes open and eyes closed conditions on a rocker board. Comparing the Centre of Gravity (CG) variations measured on the lumbar vertebra of subjects using a commercial accelerometer along with FBGSAD validates the study. The results obtained depict qualitative similarities between the data recorded by both FBGSAD and accelerometer, illustrating the reliability and consistency of FBG sensors in biomechanical applications for both young and geriatric population. The developed FBGSAD simultaneously measures plantar strain distribution and postural stability and can serve as a tool/yardstick to mitigate space motion sickness, identify individuals who are susceptible to falls and to qualify subjects for balance and stability, which are important factors in the selection of certain unique professionals such as aircraft pilots, astronauts, cosmonauts etc.

Keywords: biomechanics, fiber bragg gratings, plantar strain measurement, postural stability analysis

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23997 Evaluation of Postural Stability in Female Patients with Structural Scoliosis

Authors: Ghada M. R. Koura, Ahmed M. F. El Shiwi


Background: structural scoliosis is a twisting deformity in the curve of vertebral column to the lateral side with simultaneous rotation of the vertebrae, which occurs during the growing years from 10 years to the puberty. Purpose: Studies investigating balance problems specific to scoliotic patients showed that those patients reveal variable balance abnormalities. In this study we evaluated the difference in postural stability responses between female patients (students, office worker and shish weapon players) with structural scoliosis and normal subjects. Methods: sixty subjects participated in this study. Thirty female patients with structural scoliosis with a mean age of (19.5 ± 3.26) years, with Cobb's angle ranged from 20º to 40° in the major curves, and thirty healthy female subjects with a mean age of (19.36 ± 2.41) years. Postural stability of both groups were evaluated by the Biodex Stability System. Results: There was no significant difference between both groups in dynamic balance test. Interpretation/Conclusion: As there was no significant difference between both groups in balance response, it is not recommended to add balance training as an extra physical therapy program for AIS female patients.

Keywords: structural scoliosis, postural stability, female patients, evaluation

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23996 Changes in Postural Stability after Coordination Exercise

Authors: Ivan Struhár, Martin Sebera, Lenka Dovrtělová


The aim of this study was to find out if the special type of exercise with elastic cord can improve the level of postural stability. The exercise programme was conducted twice a week for 3 months. The participants were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. The electronic balance board was used for testing of postural stability. All participants trained for 18 hours at the time of experiment without any special form of coordination programme. The experimental group performed 90 minutes plus of coordination exercise. The result showed that differences between pre-test and post-test occurred in the experimental group. It was used the nonparametric Wilcoxon t-test for paired samples (p=0.012; the significance level 95%). We calculated effect size by Cohen´s d. In the experimental group d is 1.96 which indicates a large effect. In the control group d is 0.04 which confirms no significant improvement.

Keywords: balance board, balance training, coordination, stability

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23995 Investigation of Effectiveness of Activity-Based Postural Stability Training on Occupational Performance in Individuals with Visually Impairment: Pilot Study

Authors: Esma Ozkan, Esra Aki


The purpose of this study is an investigation of the effect of person-centered, based on activity postural stability training on occupational performance levels in visually impaired individuals. Postural stability norm studies were performed on healthy individuals who were between 18 and 35 years of age in the Biodex Balance System to determine inclusion criteria before blind individuals were included in the study. Healthy young adult subjects who participated in the study were 127 (81 female, 46 male) aged 18-35 years with an average age of 22,49 ± 3,66 years. Postural stability was assessed with the Biodex Stability System (Biodex Medical System, New York, USA). In case of standing on two legs; static and dynamic postural stability were assessed. Nine blind individuals (4 female, 5 male) were included in the study between 18 and 35 years of age, average age 26 ± 5,85 which had a standard value above the standard value in the data obtained from this normative study and have visual acuity less than 6/60. Socio-demographic information of the individuals was recorded. Before the intervention, individuals were administered Canada Occupational Performance Scale (COPM). According to COPM, the activities that are forced in the areas of self-care, leisure time and productivity are determined. In addition, the performance and satisfaction values of COPM were determined. Individuals Hacettepe University Department of Occupational Therapy, Vocational Rehabilitation Center conducted postural stability training based on activity for 2 days a week for 12 weeks. The same measurements and evaluations were repeated after the training. The dynamic overall stability deviation of the participants before the intervention was 3.64 ± 0.97 while it was recorded as 2.25 ± 0.68 after the intervention. After the training, postural stability values such as medio-lateral stability, anterior-posterior stability ve overall stability were significantly improved (p < 0,01) in the Biodex Balance System evaluations. Participants' pre-training COPM performance scores were 4,16 ± 1,08 point, while post-training COPM performance scores increased to 6,05 ± 1,13 point, similarly, COPM satisfaction scores were 4,16 ± 1,29 point to 6,50 ± 1,11 point. It was observed that visually impaired individuals included in the study had a statistically significant increase in the positive side in the values of COPM performance and satisfaction (p < 0,01). Person-centered postural stability training based on activity in visually impaired individuals is thought to increase the occupational performance of the individual with visually impairment. It is suggested that education should be person-centered, while postural stability training based on activity is planned in visually impaired individuals.

Keywords: occupational performance, occupational participation, postural stability, visually impaired

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23994 Effect of Whole Body Vibration on Posture Stability and Planter Pressure in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

Authors: Azza M. Atya, Mahmoud M. Nasser


Background/ /Significance: Peripheral neuropathy is one of the long term serious complications of diabetes, which may attribute to postural instability and alteration of planter pressure. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a somatosensory stimulation type of exercise that has been emerged in sport training and rehabilitation of neuromuscular disorders. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of whole Body Vibration on antroposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML) posture stability and planter foot pressure in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Subjects: forty diabetic patients with moderate peripheral neuropathy aged from 35 to 50 years, were randomly assigned to WBV group (n=20) and control group (n=20). Methods and Materials: the WBV intervention consisted of three session weekly for 8 weeks (frequency 20 Hz, peak-to peak displacement 4mm, acceleration 3.5 g). Biodex balance system was used for postural stability assessment and the foot scan plate was used to measure the mean peak pressure under the first and lesser metatarsals. The main Outcome measures were antroposterior stability index (APSI), mediolateral stability index (MLSI), overall stability index (OSI),and mean peak foot pressure. Analyses: Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software package (SPSS for Windows Release 18.0). T-test was used to compare between the pre- and post-treatment values between and within groups. Results: For the 40 study participants (18male and 22 females) there were no between-group differences at baseline. At the end of 8 weeks, Subjects in WBV group experienced significant increase in postural stability with a reduction of mean peak of planter foot pressure (P<0.05) compared with the control group. Conclusion: The result suggests that WBV is an effective therapeutic modality for increasing postural stability and reducing planter pressure in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

Keywords: whole body vibration, diabetic neuropathy, posture stability, foot pressure

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23993 Effects of Kinesio Taping on Postural Stability in Young Soccer Players

Authors: Mustafa Gulsen, Nihan Pekyavas, Emine Atıcı


Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Kinesio taping on postural stability and in young soccer players. Subjects and Methods: 62 volunteered soccer players from Cayyolu Sports Club were included in our study. Permissions were also taken from the club directors about the inclusion of their players to our study. Soccer players between the age of 12 and 16 were included in our study. Players that had previous injury on lower extremities were excluded from the study. Players were randomly divided into two groups: Kinesio taping (KT) (n=31), and control group (n = 31). KT application including gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris muscle facilitation techniques were applied to the first group. A rest time for 45 minutes was given in order to see the best effectiveness of the tape. The second group was set as the control group and no application was made. All participants were assessed before the application and 45 minutes later. In order to provide the double-blind design of the study, an experienced physiotherapist has done the assessments and another experienced physiotherapist has done the taping. The patients were randomly assigned to one of the two groups using an online random allocation software program. Postural stability was assessed by using Tetrax Interactive Balance System. Thermographic assessment was done by using FLIR E5 (FLIR Systems AB, Sweden) thermal camera in order to see which muscles have the most thermal activity while maintaining postural stability. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in all assessment parameters in both Kinesio Taping and control groups (all p<0.05) except thermal imaging of dominant gastrocnemius muscle results (p=0.668) (Table 1). In comparison of the two groups, statistically significant differences were found in all parameters (all p<0.05). Conclusion: In this study, we investigated the effects of Kinesio taping on postural stability in young soccer players and found that KT application on Quadriceps and Gastrocnemius muscles may have decreased the risk of falling more than the control group. According to thermal imaging assessments, both Quadriceps and Gastrocnemius muscles may be active in maintaining postural stability but in KT group, the temperature of these muscles are higher which leads us to think that they are more activated.

Keywords: Kinesio taping, fall risk, muscle temperature, postural stability

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23992 The Associations of Pes Planus Plantaris (Flat Foot) to the Postural Stability of Basketball Student-Athletes Through the Ground Reaction Force Vector (vGRF)

Authors: Def Primal, Sasanty Kusumaningtyas, Ermita I. Ibrahim


Purpose: The main objective of this study is to determine the pes planus plantaris (flat foot) condition can contribute to the disturbance of postural stability in basketball athletes in static and dynamic activities. Methods: This cross-sectional quantitative analytical retrospective study on 47 subjects of basketball student-athletes identified the foot arch index by extensive footprint area and AMTI (Advanced Mechanical Technology Inc.) Force flat-form (force plate) determined their postural stability. Subjects were conducted in three activities (static, dynamic vertical jump, and dynamic loading response) for ground reaction force (GRF) resultant vectors towards the vertical plane of body mass (W). Results Analytical results obtained that 80.9% of subjects had pes planus plantaris. It shows no significant differences in pes planus plantaris incidence in both sexes subject (p>0.005); however, there are differences in athlete’s exercise period aspect. Athlete students who have practiced strictly for more than four years’ experience over 50% of pes planus plantaris; furthermore, a long period of exercise was believed to stimulate pes planus. The average value of GRF vectors of pes planus plantaris subjects on three different basketball movements shows a significant correlation to postural stability. Conclusions Pes planus plantaris affected almost basketball athletes regarding the length and intensity of exercise performed. The condition significantly contributes to postural stability disturbance on a static condition, dynamic vertical jump, and dynamic vertical jump loading response.

Keywords: pes planus plantaris, flatfoot, ground reaction force, static and dynamic stability

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23991 The Effect of Isokinetic Fatigue of Ankle, Knee, and Hip Muscles on the Dynamic Postural Stability Index

Authors: Masoumeh Shojaei, Natalie Gedayloo, Amir Sarshin


The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Isokinetic fatigue of muscles around the ankle, knee, and hip on the indicators of dynamic postural stability. Therefore, 15 female university students (age 19.7± 0.6 years old, weight 54.6± 9.4 kg, and height 163.9± 5.6 cm) participated in within-subjects design for 5 different days. In the first session, the postural stability indices (time to stabilization after jump-landing) without fatigue were assessed by force plate and in each next sessions, one of muscle groups of the lower limb including the muscles around ankles, knees, and hip was randomly exhausted by Biodex Isokinetic dynamometer and the indices were assessed immediately after the fatigue of each muscle group. The method involved landing on a force plate from a dynamic state, and transitioning balance into a static state. Results of ANOVA with repeated measures indicated that there was no significant difference between the time to stabilization (TTS) before and after Isokinetic fatigue of the muscles around the ankle, knee and hip in medial – lateral direction (p > 0.05), but in the anterior – posterior (AP) direction, the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Least Significant Difference (LSD) post hoc test results also showed that there was significant difference between TTS in knee and hip muscles before and after isokinetic fatigue in AP direction. In the other hand knee and hip muscles group were affected by isokinetic fatigue only in AP surface (p < 0.05).

Keywords: dynamic balance, fatigue, lower limb muscles, postural control

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23990 The Effect and Durability of Functional Exercises on Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Bestest) in Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Report

Authors: Saeid Bahiraei, Hassan Daneshmandi , Ali Asghar Norasteh


The present study aims at the effects of 8 weeks of selected corrective exercise training in stable and unstable levels on the postural control people with ID. Problems and limitations of movement in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are highly common, which particularly may cause the loss of basic performance and limitation of the person's independence in doing their daily activities. In the present study, thirty-four young adult intellectual disabilities were selected randomly and divided into three groups. In order to measure the balance variable indicators, BESTest was used. The intervention group did the selected performance exercise in 8 weeks (3 times of 45 to 50 minutes a week). Meanwhile, the control group did not experience any kind of exercise. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS on a significant level (p<0/05). The results showed the compromise between time and the group in all the BESTest tests is significant (P=0/001). The results of the research test compared to the studied groups with time measurements showed that there is a significant difference in the unstable group in Biomechanical constraints (P<0/05). And also, a significant difference exists in the stable and unstable level instability limits/Vertically, Postural responses, and Anticipatory postural adjustment variables (except for the follow-up and pre-test levels), Stability in Gait and Sensory Orientation in the pre-test, post-test, and follow up- pre-test stage of the test (P<0/05). In the comparison between the times of measurement with the groups under study, the results showed that Biomechanical Constraints, Anticipatory Postural adjustment and Postural responses at the pre-test-follow upstage, there was a significant difference between unstable-stable and unstable-control groups (P<0/05), it was also significant between all groups in Stability Limits/Vertically, Sensory Orientation, Stability in Gait and Overall stability index variables (P<0/05). The findings showed that the practice group at an unstable level has move improvement compared to the practice group at a stable level. In conclusion, this study presents evidence that shows selected performative practices can be recognized as a comprehensive and effective mediator in the betterment and improvement of the balance in intellectually disabled people and also affect the performative and moving activities.

Keywords: intellectual disability, BSETest, rehabilitation, postural control

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23989 Evaluation of Postural Stability in Patients with Flat Feet: A Controlled Trial

Authors: Ghada Mohamed Rashad, Doaa Ayoub Elimy, Mohamed Hussein Elgendy, Ahmed Mohamed Fathi Elshiwi, Mahmoud Ghazy


Background: Flat feet cause changes in foot mobility, foot posture, and load distribution under the foot which influences dynamic balance, that is essential in activities of daily living and for optimal performance in sports activity. Purpose: To investigate the effect of flat feet on dynamic balance including overall stability index (OAI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI) and mediolateral stability index (MLSI). Study Design: The design of the study was an experimental design. Subjects: Forty subjects from both sexes were selected from the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, their mean age (23.55 ± 1.74 ) years, divided into two groups, group A (8 males and 12 females) with flat feet, and group B (9 males and 11 females) with normal feet. Methods: The Navicular Drop Test was used to determine if the feet were pronated and Biodex Balance System was used to assess dynamic balance at level 8 and level 4 for both groups. Results: There was no significant difference in dynamic balance including (OSI, APSI and MLSI) of the Biodex at stability level (8) (most stable) (p = 0.56). While there was a significant difference between both groups in all dependent variables at stability level (4) (less stable level) (p = 0.0001). Conclusion: It may be concluded that flat feet have an effect on dynamic balance and there is balance affection in subjects with flat feet.

Keywords: flat feet, dynamic balance, postural stability, types of flat feet, eversion strength

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23988 Hip Strategy in Dynamic Postural Control in Recurrent Ankle Sprain

Authors: Radwa Elshorbagy, Alaa Elden Balbaa, Khaled Ayad, Waleed Reda


Introduction: Ankle sprain is a common lower limb injury that is complicated by high recurrence rate. The cause of recurrence is not clear; however, changes in motor control have been postulated. Objective: to determine the contribution of proximal hip strategy to dynamic postural control in patients with recurrent ankle sprain. Methods: Fifteen subjects with recurrent ankle sprain (group A) and fifteen healthy control subjects (group B) participated in this study. Abductor-adductors as well as flexor-extensor hip musculatures control was abolished by fatigue using the Biodex Isokinetic System. Dynamic postural control was measured before and after fatigue by the Biodex Balance System. Results: Repeated measures MANOVA was used to compare between and within group differences, in group A fatiguing of hip muscles (flexors-extensors and abductors-adductors) increased overall stability index (OASI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI) and mediolateral stability index (MLSI) significantly (p=0.00) whereas; in group B fatiguing of hip flexors-extensors increased significantly OASI and APSI only (p= 0.017, 0.010; respectively) while fatiguing of hip abductors-adductors has no significant effect on these variables. Moreover, patients with ankle sprain had significantly lower dynamic balance after hip muscles fatigue compared to the control group. Specifically, after hip flexor-extensor fatigue, the OASI, APSI and MLSI were increased significantly than those of the control values (p= 0.002, 0.011, and 0.003, respectively) whereas fatiguing of hip abductors-adductors increased significantly in OASI and APSI only (p=0.012, 0.026, respectively). Conclusion: To maintain dynamic balance, patients with recurrent ankle sprain seem to rely more on the hip strategy. This means that those patients depend on a top to down instead of down to top strategy clinical relevance: patients with recurrent ankle sprain less efficient in maintaining the dynamic postural control due to the change in motor strategies. Indicating that health care providers and rehabilitation specialists should treat CAI as a global/central and not just as a simple local or peripheral injury.

Keywords: hip strategy, ankle strategy, postural control, dynamic balance

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23987 Relationship between Static Balance and Body Characteristics in the Elderly

Authors: J. W. Kim, Y. R. Kwon, Y. J. Ho, H. M. Jeon, G. M. Eom


The aim of this study was to investigate the association of anthropometry with static balance in the elderly and their possible gender difference. Forty six subjects (23 men and 23 women) participated in this study. COP (Center of Pressure) was measured on a force-platform during quiet feet-together standing. As outcome measures, mean distance were derived from the COP. Weight was significantly correlated with postural variable only in the elderly men. This result suggests that the gender should be considered when normalizing postural variables.

Keywords: body characteristics, postural balance, elderly, gender difference

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23986 Comparison of Developed Statokinesigram and Marker Data Signals by Model Approach

Authors: Boris Barbolyas, Kristina Buckova, Tomas Volensky, Cyril Belavy, Ladislav Dedik


Background: Based on statokinezigram, the human balance control is often studied. Approach to human postural reaction analysis is based on a combination of stabilometry output signal with retroreflective marker data signal processing, analysis, and understanding, in this study. The study shows another original application of Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST), too. Methods: In this study, the participants maintained quiet bipedal standing for 10 s on stabilometry platform. Consequently, bilateral vibration stimuli to Achilles tendons in 20 s interval was applied. Vibration stimuli caused that human postural system took the new pseudo-steady state. Vibration frequencies were 20, 60 and 80 Hz. Participant's body segments - head, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles and little fingers were marked by 12 retroreflective markers. Markers positions were scanned by six cameras system BTS SMART DX. Registration of their postural reaction lasted 60 s. Sampling frequency was 100 Hz. For measured data processing were used Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory. Regression analysis of developed statokinesigram trajectory (DST) data and retroreflective marker developed trajectory (DMT) data were used to find out which marker trajectories most correlate with stabilometry platform output signals. Scaling coefficients (λ) between DST and DMT by linear regression analysis were evaluated, too. Results: Scaling coefficients for marker trajectories were identified for all body segments. Head markers trajectories reached maximal value and ankle markers trajectories had a minimal value of scaling coefficient. Hips, knees and ankles markers were approximately symmetrical in the meaning of scaling coefficient. Notable differences of scaling coefficient were detected in head and shoulders markers trajectories which were not symmetrical. The model of postural system behavior was identified by MDST. Conclusion: Value of scaling factor identifies which body segment is predisposed to postural instability. Hypothetically, if statokinesigram represents overall human postural system response to vibration stimuli, then markers data represented particular postural responses. It can be assumed that cumulative sum of particular marker postural responses is equal to statokinesigram.

Keywords: center of pressure (CoP), method of developed statokinesigram trajectory (MDST), model of postural system behavior, retroreflective marker data

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23985 The Contribution of Hip Strategy in Dynamic Postural Control in Recurrent Ankle Sprain

Authors: Radwa El Shorbagy, Alaa El Din Balbaa, Khaled Ayad, Waleed Reda


Introduction: Ankle sprain is a common lower limb injury that is complicated by high recurrence rate. The cause of recurrence is not clear; however, changes in motor control have been postulated. Objective: to determine the contribution of proximal hip strategy to dynamic postural control in patients with recurrent ankle sprain. Methods: Fifteen subjects with recurrent ankle sprain (group A) and fifteen healthy control subjects (group B) participated in this study. Abductor-adductors as well as flexor-extensor hip musculatures control was abolished by fatigue using the Biodex Isokinetic System. Dynamic postural control was measured before and after fatigue by the Biodex Balance System Results: Repeated measures MANOVA was used to compare between and within group differences, In group A fatiguing of hip muscles (flexors-extensors and abductors-adductors) increased overall stability index (OASI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI) and mediolateral stability index (MLSI) significantly (p= 0.00) whereas; in group B fatiguing of hip flexors-extensors increased significantly OASI and APSI only (p= 0.017, 0.010; respectively) while fatiguing of hip abductors-adductors has no significant effect on these variables. Moreover, patients with ankle sprain had significantly lower dynamic balance after hip muscles fatigue compared to the control group. Specifically, after hip flexor-extensor fatigue, the OASI, APSI and MLSI were increased significantly than those of the control values (p= 0.002, 0.011, and 0.003, respectively) whereas fatiguing of hip abductors-adductors increased significantly in OASI and APSI only (p=0.012, 0.026, respectively). Conclusion: To maintain dynamic balance, patients with recurrent ankle sprain seem to relay more on the hip strategy. This means that those patients depend on a top to down instead of down to top strategy clinical relevance: patients with recurrent ankle sprain less efficient in maintaining the dynamic postural control due to the change in motor strategies. Indicating that health care providers and rehabilitation specialists should treat CAI as a global/central and not just as a simple local or peripheral injury.

Keywords: ankle sprain, fatigue hip muscles, dynamic balance

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23984 Nonlinear Analysis of Postural Sway in Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Hua Cao, Laurent Peyrodie, Olivier Agnani, Cecile Donze


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease, which affects the central nervous system, and causes balance problem. In clinical, this disorder is usually evaluated using static posturography. Some linear or nonlinear measures, extracted from the posturographic data (i.e. center of pressure, COP) recorded during a balance test, has been used to analyze postural control of MS patients. In this study, the trend (TREND) and the sample entropy (SampEn), two nonlinear parameters were chosen to investigate their relationships with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score. Forty volunteers with different EDSS scores participated in our experiments with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC). TREND and two types of SampEn (SampEn1 and SampEn2) were calculated for each combined COP’s position signal. The results have shown that TREND had a weak negative correlation to EDSS while SampEn2 had a strong positive correlation to EDSS. Compared to TREND and SampEn1, SampEn2 showed a better significant correlation to EDSS and an ability to discriminate the MS patients in the EC case. In addition, the outcome of the study suggests that the multi-dimensional nonlinear analysis could provide some information about the impact of disability progression in MS on dynamics of the COP data.

Keywords: balance, multiple sclerosis, nonlinear analysis, postural sway

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23983 Gastrointestinal Disturbances in Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)

Authors: Chandralekha Ashangari, Amer Suleman


Background and Purpose: The Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) affects primarily young women. POTS is a form of dysautonomia that is estimated to impact between 1,000,000 and 3,000,000 Americans, and millions more around the world. POTS is a form of orthostatic intolerance that is associated with many Gastrointestinal disturbances. The aim of this study is to determine the Gastrointestinal disturbances in Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) patients.2. Methods: 249 patients referred to our clinic from January to November with POTS. Reviewed the medical records of 249 POTS patients and gastrointestinal symptoms. Results: however out of 249 patients, 226 patients are female (90.76%; average age 32.69), 23 patients are male (9.24%; average age 27.91) Data analysis: Out of 249 patients 189 patients (76%) had vomiting or nausea, 150 patients (60%) had irritable bowel syndrome, 128 patients (51%) had bloating, 125 patients (50%) had constipation , 80 patients (32%) had abdominal pain, 56 patients (22%) had delayed gastric emptying, 24 patients (10%) had lactose intolerance, 8 patients (3%) had Gastroesophageal reflux disease, 5 patients (2%) had Iron deficiency anemia, 6 patients (2%) had Peptic ulcer disease, 4 patients (2%) had Celiac Disease. Conclusion: Patients with POTS have a very high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms however the majority of abnormalities appear to be motility related. Motility testing should be performed be performed in POTS patients. The diagnostic yield of endoscopic procedures appears to be low.

Keywords: gastrointestinal disturbances, Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS), celiac disease, POTS patients

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23982 Sensory Weighting and Reweighting for Standing Postural Control Among Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorder Compared with Typically Developing Children and Adolescents

Authors: Eglal Y. Ali, Smita Rao, Anat Lubetzky, Wen Ling


Background: Postural abnormalities, rigidity, clumsiness, and frequent falls are common among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The central nervous system’s ability to process all reliable sensory inputs (weighting) and disregard potentially perturbing sensory input (reweighting) is critical for successfully maintaining standing postural control. This study examined how sensory inputs (visual and somatosensory) are weighted and reweighted to maintain standing postural control in children with ASD compared with typically developing (TD) children. Subjects: Forty (20 (TD) and 20 ASD) children and adolescents participated in this study. The groups were matched for age, weight, and height. Participants had normal somatosensory (no somatosensory hypersensitivity), visual, and vestibular perception. Participants with ASD were categorized with severity level 1 according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) and Social Responsiveness Scale. Methods: Using one force platform, the center of pressure (COP) was measured during quiet standing for 30 seconds, 3 times first standing on a stable surface with eyes open (Condition 1), followed by randomization of the following 3 conditions: Condition 2 standing on a stable surface with eyes closed, (visual input perturbed); Condition 3 standing on a compliant foam surface with eyes open, (somatosensory input perturbed); and Condition 4 standing on compliant foam surface with eyes closed, (both visual and somatosensory inputs perturbed). Standing postural control was measured by three outcome measures: COP sway area, COP anterior-posterior (AP), and mediolateral (ML) path length (PL). A repeated measure mixed model Analysis of Variance was conducted to determine whether there was a significant difference between the two groups in the mean of the three outcome measures across the four conditions. Results: According to all three outcome measures, both groups showed a gradual increase in postural sway from condition 1 to condition 4. However, TD participants showed a larger postural sway than thosewith ASD. There was a significant main effect of condition on three outcome measures (p< 0.05). Only the COP AP PL showed a significant main effect of the group (p<0.05) and a significant group by condition interaction (p<0.05). In COP AP PL, TD participants showed a significant difference between condition 2 and the baseline (p<0.05), whereas the ASD group did not. This suggests that the ASD group did not weight visual input as much as the TD group. A significant difference between conditions for the ASD group was seen only when participants stood on foam regardless of the visual condition, suggesting that the ASD group relied more on the somatosensory inputs to maintain the standing postural control. Furthermore, the ASD group exhibited significantly smaller postural sway compared with TD participants during standing on the stable surface, whereas the postural sway of the ASD group was close to that of the TD group on foam. Conclusion: These results suggest that participants with high functioning ASD (level 1, no somatosensory hypersensitivity in ankles and feet) over-rely on somatosensory inputs anduse astiffening strategy for standing postural control. this deviation in the reweighting mechanism might explain the postural abnormalities mentioned above among children with ASD.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, postural sway, sensory weighting and reweighting, standing postural control

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23981 Parameter Measurement Systems to Evaluate Performance of Archers

Authors: Muhammad Zikril Hakim Md. Azizi, Norhafizan Ahmad, Raja Ariffin Raja Ghazilla


Postural stability, attention level of the archer and particularly the vibrations of the bow itself plays a prominent role in determining the athletes performance. Many techniques and systems had been developing to monitor the parameters of the archers during training. In Malaysia, archery coaches tend to use non-scientific ways that they are familiar with, to evaluate archer performance. An approach that provides more affordable yet accurate systems to the masses and relatively easy system deployment procedure need to be proposed. Hence, this project will address to fulfil the needs. Three area of the archer parameter were included for data monitoring sensors. Attention level can be measured using EEG sensor, centre of mass linked to the postural stability can be measured by foot pressure sensor, and the bow vibrations in three axis will be relayed by the vibrations sensors placed directly on the bow using wireless sensors. Arduino based microcontroller used to relay all the data back to the interfacing systems. Interface systems will be using Python language and C++ framework for user interface and hardware interfacing systems. All sensor data can be observed in real time using the in-house applications, and each sessions can be saved to common files so that coach and the team can have a further discussion and comparisons.

Keywords: archery, graphical user interface, microcontroller, wireless sensor, monitoring system

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23980 Modal Analysis of Power System with a Microgrid

Authors: Burak Yildirim, Muhsin Tunay Gençoğlu


A microgrid (MG) is a small power grid composed of localized medium or low level power generation, storage systems, and loads. In this paper, the effects of a MG on power systems voltage stability are shown. The MG model, designed to demonstrate the effects of the MG, was applied to the IEEE 14 bus power system which is widely used in power system stability studies. Eigenvalue and modal analysis methods were used in simulation studies. In the study results, it is seen that MGs affect system voltage stability positively by increasing system voltage instability limit value for buses of a power system in which MG are placed.

Keywords: eigenvalue analysis, microgrid, modal analysis, voltage stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
23979 Effect of Change in Angle of Slope and Height of an Embankment on Safety Factor during Rapid Drawdown

Authors: Seyed Abolhassan Naeini, Azam Kouhpeyma


Reduction of water level at which a slope is submerged with it is called drawdown. Draw down can took place rapidly or slowly and in both situations, it can affect slope stability. Using coupled analysis (seepage and stability analysis) causes more accurate results. In this study, the stability of homogeneous embankment is investigated numerically. Slope safety factor changes due to changes in three factors of height, slope and drawdown rate have been investigated and compared. It was found that with increasing height and slope, the safety factor decreases, and with increasing the discharge rate, the safety factor increases.

Keywords: drawdown, slope stability, coupled seepage and stability analysis

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23978 The Effect of Elastic-Resistance Training on Postural Control in Sedentary Women

Authors: Yagmur Kocaoglu, Nurtekin Erkmen


The aim of this study was to determine effects of elastic resistance band training on body composition and postural control in sedentary women. Thirty-four sedentary females participated voluntarily for this study. Subjects' age was 21.88 ± 1.63 years, height was 161.50 ± 4.45 cm, and weight was 59.47 ± 7.03 kg. Participants were randomly placed into one of two groups (Experimental = 17, Control = 17). The elastic resistance training program lasted 8 weeks with 3 sessions per week. Experimental Group performed elastic resistance band training with red color for first 3 weeks, blue color for second 3 weeks and for last 2 weeks. The subjects carried out exercises 3 set, 10-15 repetitions with 15 seconds rest between exercises. The rest between sets was 30 seconds. The subjects underwent a standard warm-up for 10 minutes in every session. The elastic resistance training lasted 40 minutes for each session. After the training, all subjects performed a standard cool down for 10 minutes in each session. After and before 8 weeks training period, all subjects in experimental group and control group participated body composition and postural control measurements. Independent t-Test and Mann Whitney U Test were conducted to compare differences between experimental and control groups. Paired t-Test and Wilcoxon Z Test were used to compare differences between pre and posttests. There is no significant difference between pre and posttests in BMI (p>0.05). After the elastic resistance training, postural control scores and body fat significantly decreased in experimental group (p<0.05). In conclusion, it can be concluded that elastic resistance training improves postural control and body composition in sedentary women.

Keywords: body composition, elastic resistance band, postural control, sedentary women

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23977 Postural Balance And Falls Risk In Persons With Multiple Sclerosis: Effect Of Gender Differences

Authors: Sonda Jallouli, Sameh Ghroubi, Salma Sakka, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Mohamed Habib Elleuch, Imen Ben Dhia, Chokri Mhiri, Omar Hammouda


The pathophysiology, prevalence, and progression of MS are gender dependent. Indeed, the inflammation is more pronounced in women, but the neurodegeneration is more important in men. In addition, women have more sleep disorders while men suffer more from cognitive decline. These non-physical disorders can negatively affect postural balance and fall risk. However, no study has examined the difference between men and women in those physical parameters in MS. Our objective was to determine the effect gender difference on postural balance and fall risk in MS persons. Methods: Eight men and twelve women with relapsing remitting-MS participated in this study. The assessment includes a posturographic examination to assess static (with eyes opened (EO) and eyes closed (EC)) and dynamic (with EO) postural balance. Unipedal balance and fall risk were assessed by a clinical unipedal balance test and the Four Square Step Test, respectively. Sleep quality was assessed using Spiegel's questionnaire, and cognitive assessment was performed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Simple Reaction Time Test. Results: Compared to men, women showed an increase in CdPVm in static bipedal condition with EC (p=0.037; d=0.71) and a decrease in MoCA scores (p=0.028; d=1.06). No gender differences were found in the other tests. Discussion: Static postural balance was more impaired in women compared to men. This result could be explained by the more pronounced cognitive decline observed in women compared to men. Indeed, cognitive disorders have been shown to be predictive factors of postural balance impairment. Conclusion: women were less stable than men in the static condition, possibly due to their lower cognitive performance. This gender difference could be taken into account by therapists in training programs.

Keywords: multiple sclerosis, bipedal postural balance, fall risk, sleep disturbance, cognitive deficiency

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23976 Stability of the Wellhead in the Seabed in One of the Marine Reservoirs of Iran

Authors: Mahdi Aghaei, Saeid Jamshidi, Mastaneh Hajipour


Effective factors on the mechanical wellbore stability are divided in to two categories: 1) Controllable factors, 2) Uncontrollable factors. The purpose of geo-mechanical modeling of wells is to determine the limit of controlled parameters change based on the stress regime at each point and by solving the governing equations the pore-elastic environment around the well. In this research, the mechanical analysis of wellbore stability was carried out for Soroush oilfield. For this purpose, the geo-mechanical model of the field is made using available data. This model provides the necessary parameters for obtaining the distribution of stress around the wellbore. Initially, a basic model was designed to perform various analysis, based on obtained data, using Abaqus software. All of the subsequent sensitivity analysis such as sensitivity analysis on porosity, permeability, etc. was done on the same basic model. The results obtained from these analysis gives various result such as: with the constant geomechanical parameters, and sensitivity analysis on porosity permeability is ineffective. After the most important parameters affecting the wellbore stability and instability are geo-mechanical parameters.

Keywords: wellbore stability, movement, stress, instability

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23975 Stabilizing a Failed Slope in Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Umer Zubair, Kamran Akhtar, Muhammad Arsalan Khan


This paper is based on a research carried out on a failed slope in Defence Housing Authority (DHA) Phase I, Islamabad. The research included determination of Soil parameters, Site Surveying and Cost Estimation. Apart from these, the use of three dimensional (3D) slope stability analysis in conjunction with two dimensional (2D) analysis was used determination of slope conditions. In addition collection of soil reports, a detailed survey was carried out to create a 3D model in Surfer 8 software. 2D cross-sections that needed to be analyzed for stability were generated from 3D model. Slope stability softwares, Rocscience Slide 6.0 and Clara-W were employed for 2D and 3D Analyses respectively which have the ability to solve complex mathematical functions. Results of the analyses were used to confirm site conditions and the threats were identified to recommend suitable remedies.The most effective remedy was suggested for slope stability after analyzing all remedies in software Slide 6 and its feasibility was determined through cost benefit analysis. This paper should be helpful to Geotechnical engineers, design engineers and the organizations working with slope stability.

Keywords: slope stability, Rocscience, Clara W., 2d analysis, 3D analysis, sensitivity analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
23974 The Effect of Microgrid on Power System Oscillatory Stability

Authors: Burak Yildirim, Muhsin Tunay Gencoglu


This publication shows the effects of Microgrid (MG) integration on the power systems oscillating stability. Generated MG model power systems were applied to the IEEE 14 bus test system which is widely used in stability studies. Stability studies were carried out with the help of eigenvalue analysis over linearized system models. In addition, Hopf bifurcation point detection was performed to show the effect of MGs on the system loadability margin. In the study results, it is seen that MGs affect system stability positively by increasing system loadability margin and has a damper effect on the critical modes of the system and the electromechanical local modes, but they make the damping amount of the electromechanical interarea modes reduce.

Keywords: Eigenvalue analysis, microgrid, Hopf bifurcation, oscillatory stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
23973 Effects of Wearable Garments on Postural Regulation in Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults

Authors: Mei Teng Woo, Keith Davids, Jarmo Liukkonen, Jia Yi Chow, Timo Jaakkola


Wearable garments such as tapes, compression garments, and braces could improve proprioception and reduced postural sway. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of wearable garments on postural regulation in a sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals, aged 65 years. It was hypothesized that wearable garments such as socks would provide stimulation to lower leg mechanoreceptors, and help participants achieve better postural regulation. Participants (N=63) performed a 30-s Romberg balance test protocol under four conditions (barefoot; wearing commercial socks; wearing clinical compression socks; wearing non-clinical compression socks), in a counterbalanced order, with four levels of performance difficulty: (1) standing on a stable surface with open eyes (SO); (2) a stable surface with closed eyes (SC); (3) a foam surface with open eyes (FO); and (4) a foam surface with closed eyes (FC). Centre of pressure (CoP) measurements included postural sway area (C90 area), trace length (TL) and sway velocity. Thirty-five participants (55.6%) showed positive effects of wearing the socks (responded group). In the responded group, it was revealed that socks showed significant differences in SO, SC and FO conditions for the two CoP measurements - TL and sway velocity (p < 0.05). In contrast, in the non-responded group, barefoot condition significantly decreased the TL and velocity in the SO condition. From the positive effects observed in the responded group, it is possible that wearable garments provide sensory cues that could interact with a biological cueing system to enhance performance in the postural regulation system. This study suggests that individuals respond to the socks treatments differently and future research should be undertaken to examine the factors that benefited the responded group of participants.

Keywords: community-dwelling, elderly adults, postural regulation, wearable garments

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23972 Features of Rail Strength Analysis in Conditions of Increased Force Loading

Authors: G. Guramishvili, M. Moistsrapishvili, L. Andghuladze


In the article are considered the problems arising at increasing of transferring from rolling stock axles on rail loading from 210 KN up to 270 KN and is offered for rail strength analysis definition of rail force loading complex integral characteristic with taking into account all affecting force factors that is characterizing specific operation condition of rail structure and defines the working capability of structure. As result of analysis due mentioned method is obtained that in the conditions of 270 KN loading the rail meets the working assessment criteria of rail and rail structures: Strength, rail track stability, rail links stability and its transverse stability, traffic safety condition that is rather important for post-Soviet countries railways.

Keywords: axial loading, rail force loading, rail structure, rail strength analysis, rail track stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
23971 Stability Analysis of Rabies Model with Vaccination Effect and Culling in Dogs

Authors: Eti Dwi Wiraningsih, Folashade Agusto, Lina Aryati, Syamsuddin Toaha, Suzanne Lenhart, Widodo, Willy Govaerts


This paper considers a deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of rabies virus in the wild dogs-domestic dogs-human zoonotic cycle. The effect of vaccination and culling in dogs is considered on the model, then the stability was analysed to get basic reproduction number. We use the next generation matrix method and Routh-Hurwitz test to analyze the stability of the Disease-Free Equilibrium and Endemic Equilibrium of this model.

Keywords: stability analysis, rabies model, vaccination effect, culling in dogs

Procedia PDF Downloads 537
23970 Flow and Heat Transfer over a Shrinking Sheet: A Stability Analysis

Authors: Anuar Ishak


The characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer over a permeable shrinking sheet is studied. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using MATLAB routine boundary value problem solver bvp4c. Numerical results show that dual solutions are possible for a certain range of the suction parameter. A stability analysis is performed to determine which solution is linearly stable and physically realizable.

Keywords: dual solutions, heat transfer, shrinking sheet, stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 329