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Search results for: plant hormones

131 Incidence and Molecular Mechanism of Human Pathogenic Bacterial Interaction with Phylloplane of Solanum lycopersicum

Authors: Prabir K. Paul, Indu Gaur, Neha Bhadauria, Shilpi Shilpi, Susmita Goswami, Prem D. Sharma


The concept of organic agriculture has been accepted as novelty in Indian society, but there is no data available on the human pathogens colonizing plant parts due to such practices. Also, the pattern and mechanism of their colonization need to be understood in order to devise possible strategies for their prevention. In the present study, human pathogenic bacteria were isolated from organically grown tomato plants and five of them were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter ludwigii, Serratia fonticola, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Chryseobacterium jejuense. Tomato plants were grown in controlled aseptic conditions with 25±1˚C, 70% humidity and 12 hour L/D photoperiod. Six weeks old plants were divided into 6 groups of 25 plants each and treated as follows: Group 1: K. pneumonia, Group 2: E. ludwigii, Group 3: S. fonticola, Group 4: S. maltophilia, Group 5: C. jejuense, Group 6: Sterile distilled water (control). The inoculums for all treatments were prepared by overnight growth with uniform concentration of 108 cells/ml. Leaf samples from above groups were collected at 0.5, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours post inoculation for the colony forming unit counts (CFU/cm2 of leaf area) of individual pathogens using leaf impression method. These CFU counts were used for the in vivo colonization assay and adherence assay of individual pathogens. Also, resistance of these pathogens to at least 12 antibiotics was studied. Based on these findings S. fonticola was found to be most prominently colonizing the phylloplane of tomato and was further studied. Tomato plants grown in controlled aseptic conditions same as mentioned above were divided into 2 groups of 25 plants each and treated as follows: Group 1: S. fonticola, Group 2: Sterile distilled water (control). Leaf samples from above groups were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation and homogenized in suitable buffers for surface and cell wall protein isolation. Protein samples thus obtained were subjected to isocratic SDS-gel electrophoresis and analyzed. It was observed that presence of S. fonticola could induce the expression of at least 3 additional cell wall proteins at different time intervals. Surface proteins also showed variation in the expression pattern at different sampling intervals. Further identification of these proteins by MALDI-MS and bioinformatics tools revealed the gene(s) involved in the interaction of S. fonticola with tomato phylloplane.

Keywords: cell wall proteins, Solanum lycopersicum, phylloplane, human pathogenic bacteria

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130 Impact of UV on Toxicity of Zn²⁺ and ZnO Nanoparticles to Lemna minor

Authors: Gabriela Kalcikova, Andreja Zgajnar Gotvajn, Gregor Marolt, Anita Jemec Kokalj


Since the 90’s, nanotechnology is one of the fastest growing fields of science. Nanomaterials are increasingly becoming part of many products and technologies. Metal oxide nanoparticles are among the most used nanomaterials. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) is widely used due to its versatile properties; it has been used in products including plastics, paints, food, batteries, solar cells and cosmetic products. It is also a very effective photocatalyst used for water treatment. Such expanding application of nZnO increases their possible occurrence in the environment. In the aquatic ecosystem nZnO interact with natural environmental factors such as UV radiation, and thus it is essential to evaluate possible interaction between them. In this context, the aim of our study was to evaluate combined ecotoxicity of nZnO and Zn²⁺ on duckweed Lemna minor in presence or absence UV. Inhibition of vegetative growth of duckweed Lemna minor was monitored over a period of 7 days in multi-well plates. After the experiment, specific growth rate was determined. ZnO nanoparticles used were of primary size 13.6 ± 1.7 nm. The test was conducted with nominal nZnO and Zn²⁺ (in form of ZnCl₂) concentrations of 1, 10, 100 mg/L. Experiment was repeated with presence of natural intensity of UV (8h UV, 10 W/m² UVA, 0.5 W/m² UVB). Concentration of Zn during the test was determined by ICP-MS. In the regular experiment (absence of UV) the specific growth rate was slightly increased by low concentrations of nZnO and Zn²⁺ in comparison to control. However, 10 and 100 mg/L of Zn²⁺ resulted in 45% and 68% inhibition of the specific growth rate, respectively. In case of nZnO both concentrations (10 and 100 mg/L) resulted in similar ~ 30% inhibition and the response was not dose-dependent. The lack of the dose-response relationship is often observed in case of nanoparticles. The possible explanation is that the physical impact prevails instead of chemical ones. In the presence of UV the toxicity of Zn²⁺ was increased and 100 mg/L of Zn²⁺ caused total inhibition of the specific growth rate (100%). On the other hand, 100 mg/L of nZnO resulted in low inhibition (19%) in comparison to the experiment without UV (30%). It is thus expected, that tested nZnO is low photoactive, but could have a good UV absorption and/or reflective properties and thus protect duckweed against UV impacts. Measured concentration of Zn in the test suspension decreased only about 4% after 168h in the case of ZnCl₂. On the other hand concentration of Zn in nZnO test decreased by 80%. It is expected that nZnO were partially dissolved in the medium and at the same time agglomeration and sedimentation of particles took place and thus the concentration of Zn at the water level decreased. Results of our study indicated, that nZnO combined with UV of natural intensity does not increase toxicity of nZnO, but slightly protect the plant against UV negative effects. When Zn²⁺ and ZnO results are compared it seems that dissolved Zn plays a central role in the nZnO toxicity.

Keywords: Toxicity, Nanoparticles, Environmental Factors, duckweed

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129 Genetic Diversity Analysis in Ecological Populations of Persian Walnut

Authors: Masoud Sheidai, Fahimeh Koohdar, Hashem Sharifi


Juglans regia (L.) commonly known as Persian walnut of the genus Juglans L. (Juglandaceae) is one of the most important cultivated plant species due to its high-quality wood and edible nuts. The genetic diversity analysis is essential for conservation and management of tree species. Persian walnut is native from South-Eastern Europe to North-Western China through Tibet, Nepal, Northern India, Pakistan, and Iran. The species like Persian walnut, which has a wide range of geographical distribution, should harbor extensive genetic variability to adapt to environmental fluctuations they face. We aimed to study the population genetic structure of seven Persian walnut populations including three wild and four cultivated populations by using ISSR (Inter simple sequence repeats) and SRAP (Sequence related amplified polymorphism) molecular markers. We also aimed to compare the genetic variability revealed by ISSR neutral multilocus marker and rDNA ITS sequences. The studied populations differed in morphological features as the samples in each population were clustered together and were separate from the other populations. Three wild populations studied were placed close to each other. The mantel test after 5000 times permutation performed between geographical distance and morphological distance in Persian walnut populations produced significant correlation (r = 0.48, P = 0.002). Therefore, as the populations become farther apart, they become more divergent in morphological features. ISSR analysis produced 47 bands/ loci, while we obtained 15 SRAP bands. Gst and other differentiation statistics determined for these loci revealed that most of the ISSR and SRAP loci have very good discrimination power and can differentiate the studied populations. AMOVA performed for these loci produced a significant difference (< 0.05) supporting the above-said result. AMOVA produced significant genetic difference based on ISSR data among the studied populations (PhiPT = 0.52, P = 0.001). AMOVA revealed that 53% of the total variability is due to among population genetic difference, while 47% is due to within population genetic variability. The results showed that both multilocus molecular markers and ITS sequences can differentiate Persian walnut populations. The studied populations differed genetically and showed isolation by distance (IBD). ITS sequence based MP and Bayesian phylogenetic trees revealed that Iranian walnut cultivars form a distinct clade separated from the cultivars studied from elsewhere. Almost all clades obtained have high bootstrap value. The results indicated that a combination of multilpcus and sequencing molecular markers can be used in genetic differentiation of Persian walnut.

Keywords: Population, Molecular markers, Genetic Diversity, genetic difference

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128 Evaluation of Medicinal Plants, Catunaregam spinosa, Houttuynia cordata, and Rhapis excelsa from Malaysia for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antiviral Properties

Authors: Yik Sin Chan, Bee Ling Chuah, Wei Quan Chan, Ri Jin Cheng, Yan Hang Oon, Kong Soo Khoo, Nam Weng Sit


Traditionally, medicinal plants have been used to treat different kinds of ailments including infectious diseases. They serve as a good source of lead compounds for the development of new and safer anti-infective agents. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial potential of the leaves of three medicinal plants, namely Catunaregam spinosa (Rubiaceae; Mountain pomegranate), Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae; "fishy-smell herb") and Rhapis excelsa (Arecaceae; “broadleaf lady palm”). The leaves extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were assessed using a colorimetric broth microdilution method against a panel of human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive: Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus; Gram-negative: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (yeasts: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans; Moulds: Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) respectively; while antiviral activity was evaluated against the Chikungunya virus on monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells by neutral red uptake assay. All the plant extracts showed bacteriostatic activity, however, only 72% of the extracts (13/18) were found to have bactericidal activity. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were given by the hexane extract of C. spinosa against S. aureus with the values of 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL respectively. All the extracts also possessed fungistatic activity. Only the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of H. cordata exerted inhibitory activity against A. fumigatus, giving the lowest fungal susceptibility index of 16.7%. In contrast, only 61% of the extracts (11/18) showed fungicidal activity. The ethanol extract of R. excelsa exhibited the strongest fungicidal activity against C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and T. mentagrophytes with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.04–0.08 mg/mL, in addition to its methanol extract against T. mentagrophytes (MFC=0.02 mg/mL). For anti-Chikungunya virus activity, only chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of R. excelsa showed significant antiviral activity with 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of 29.9 and 78.1 g/mL respectively. Extracts of R. excelsa warrant further investigations into their active principles responsible for antifungal and antiviral properties.

Keywords: Extraction, bactericidal, Chikungunya virus, fungicidal

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127 Understanding the Dynamics of Human-Snake Negative Interactions: A Study of Indigenous Perceptions in Tamil Nadu, Southern India

Authors: Gautam Talukdar, Mahesh Ganeshan, Abhijit Das, Ramesh Chinnasamy, Srishti Semalty, Vishnu S. Nair, Thirumurugan Vedagiri, Karthy Sivapushanam


Snakes form an integral component of ecological systems. Human population explosion and associated acceleration of habitat destruction and degradation, has led to a rapid increase in human-snake encounters. The study aims at understanding the level of awareness, knowledge, and attitude of the people towards human-snake negative interaction and role of awareness programmes in the Moyar river valley, Tamil Nadu. The study area is part of the Mudumalai and the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserves, which are significant wildlife corridors between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. The data was collected using questionnaire covering 644 respondents spread across 18 villages between 2018 and 2019. The study revealed that 86.5% of respondents had strong negative perceptions towards snakes which were propelled by fear, superstitions, and threat of snakebite which was common and did not vary among different villages (F=4.48; p = <0.05) and age groups (X2 = 1.946; p = 0.962). Cobra 27.8% (n = 294) and rat snake 21.3% (n = 225) were the most sighted species and most snake encounter occurred during the monsoon season i.e., July 35.6 (n = 218), June 19.1% (n = 117) and August 18.4% (n = 113). At least 1 out of 5 respondents was reportedly bitten by snakes during their lifetime. The most common species of snakes that were the cause of snakebite were Saw scaled viper (32.6%, n = 42) followed by Cobra 17.1% (n = 22). About 21.3% (n = 137) people reported livestock loss due to pythons and other snakes 21.3% (n = 137). Most people, preferred medical treatment for snakebite (87.3%), whereas 12.7%, still believed in traditional methods. The majority (82.3%) used precautionary measure by keeping traditional items such as garlic, kerosene, and snake plant to avoid snakes. About 30% of the respondents expressed need for technical and monetary support from the forest department that could aid in reducing the human-snake conflict. It is concluded that the general perception in the study area is driven by fear and negative attitude towards snakes. Though snakes such as Cobra were widely worshiped in the region, there are still widespread myths and misconceptions that have led to the irrational killing of snakes. Awareness and innovative education programs rooted in the local context and language should be integrated at the village level, to minimize risk and the associated threat of snakebite among the people. Results from this study shall help policy makers to devise appropriate conservation measures to reduce human-snake conflicts in India.

Keywords: human-wildlife conflict, Neglected Tropical Disease, envenomation, Health-Education, Snakebite Mitigation, Traditional Practitioners

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126 Quantification of Lawsone and Adulterants in Commercial Henna Products

Authors: Deepak K. Semwal, Ruchi B. Semwal, Alvaro M. Viljoen, Thobile A. N. Nkosi


The use of Lawsonia inermis L. (Lythraeae), commonly known as henna, has many medicinal benefits and is used as a remedy for the treatment of diarrhoea, cancer, inflammation, headache, jaundice and skin diseases in folk medicine. Although widely used for hair dyeing and temporary tattooing, henna body art has popularized over the last 15 years and changed from being a traditional bridal and festival adornment to an exotic fashion accessory. The naphthoquinone, lawsone, is one of the main constituents of the plant and responsible for its dyeing property. Henna leaves typically contain 1.8–1.9% lawsone, which is used as a marker compound for the quality control of henna products. Adulteration of henna with various toxic chemicals such as p-phenylenediamine, p-methylaminophenol, p-aminobenzene and p-toluenodiamine to produce a variety of colours, is very common and has resulted in serious health problems, including allergic reactions. This study aims to assess the quality of henna products collected from different parts of the world by determining the lawsone content, as well as the concentrations of any adulterants present. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was used to determine the lawsone concentrations in 172 henna products. Separation of the chemical constituents was achieved on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using gradient elution (0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile). The results from UPLC-MS revealed that of 172 henna products, 11 contained 1.0-1.8% lawsone, 110 contained 0.1-0.9% lawsone, whereas 51 samples did not contain detectable levels of lawsone. High performance thin layer chromatography was investigated as a cheaper, more rapid technique for the quality control of henna in relation to the lawsone content. The samples were applied using an automatic TLC Sampler 4 (CAMAG) to pre-coated silica plates, which were subsequently developed with acetic acid, acetone and toluene (0.5: 1.0: 8.5 v/v). A Reprostar 3 digital system allowed the images to be captured. The results obtained corresponded to those from UPLC-MS analysis. Vibrational spectroscopy analysis (MIR or NIR) of the powdered henna, followed by chemometric modelling of the data, indicates that this technique shows promise as an alternative quality control method. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the data by observing clustering and identifying outliers. Partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models were constructed for the quantification of lawsone. In conclusion, only a few of the samples analysed contain lawsone in high concentrations, indicating that they are of poor quality. Currently, the presence of adulterants that may have been added to enhance the dyeing properties of the products, is being investigated.

Keywords: lawsone, Lawsonia inermis, paraphenylenediamine, temporary tattooing

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125 Ecofriendly Synthesis of [email protected] Nanocomposites and Their Catalytic Activity on Multicomponent Domino Annulation-Aromatization for Quinoline Synthesis

Authors: Kanti Sapkota, Do Hyun Lee, Sung Soo Han


Nanocomposites have been widely used in various fields such as electronics, catalysis, and in chemical, biological, biomedical and optical fields. They display broad biomedical properties like antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibacterial activities. Moreover, nanomaterials have been used for wastewater treatment. Particularly, bimetallic hybrid nanocomposites exhibit unique features as compared to their monometallic components. Hybrid nanomaterials not only afford the multifunctionality endowed by their constituents but can also show synergistic properties. In addition, these hybrid nanomaterials have noteworthy catalytic and optical properties. Notably, Au−Ag based nanoparticles can be employed in sensor and catalysis due to their characteristic composition-tunable plasmonic properties. Due to their importance and usefulness, various efforts were developed for their preparation. Generally, chemical methods have been described to synthesize such bimetallic nanocomposites. In such chemical synthesis, harmful and hazardous chemicals cause environmental contamination and increase toxicity levels. Therefore, ecologically benevolent processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials are highly desirable to diminish such environmental and safety concerns. In this regard, here we disclose a simple, cost-effective, external additive free and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of [email protected] nanocomposites using Nephrolepis cordifolia root extract. [email protected] NCs were obtained by the simultaneous reduction of cationic Ag and Au into AgCl in the presence of plant extract. The particle size of 10 to 50 nm was observed with the average diameter of 30 nm. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by various modern characterization techniques. For example, UV−visible spectroscopy was used to determine the optical activity of the synthesized NCs, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to investigate the functional groups present in the biomolecules that were responsible for both reducing and capping agents during the formation of nanocomposites. Similarly, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were used to determine crystallinity, size, oxidation states, thermal stability and weight loss of the synthesized nanocomposites. As a synthetic application, the synthesized nanocomposite exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the multicomponent synthesis of biologically interesting quinoline molecules via domino annulation-aromatization reaction of aniline, arylaldehyde, and phenyl acetylene derivatives. Interestingly, the nanocatalyst was efficiently recycled for five times without substantial loss of catalytic properties.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Catalysis, quinoline, multicomponent

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124 Finite Element Modeling of Mass Transfer Phenomenon and Optimization of Process Parameters for Drying of Paddy in a Hybrid Solar Dryer

Authors: Punyadarshini P. Tripathy, Aprajeeta Jha


Drying technologies for various food processing operations shares an inevitable linkage with energy, cost and environmental sustainability. Hence, solar drying of food grains has become imperative choice to combat duo challenges of meeting high energy demand for drying and to address climate change scenario. But performance and reliability of solar dryers depend hugely on sunshine period, climatic conditions, therefore, offer a limited control over drying conditions and have lower efficiencies. Solar drying technology, supported by Photovoltaic (PV) power plant and hybrid type solar air collector can potentially overpower the disadvantages of solar dryers. For development of such robust hybrid dryers; to ensure quality and shelf-life of paddy grains the optimization of process parameter becomes extremely critical. Investigation of the moisture distribution profile within the grains becomes necessary in order to avoid over drying or under drying of food grains in hybrid solar dryer. Computational simulations based on finite element modeling can serve as potential tool in providing a better insight of moisture migration during drying process. Hence, present work aims at optimizing the process parameters and to develop a 3-dimensional (3D) finite element model (FEM) for predicting moisture profile in paddy during solar drying. COMSOL Multiphysics was employed to develop a 3D finite element model for predicting moisture profile. Furthermore, optimization of process parameters (power level, air velocity and moisture content) was done using response surface methodology in design expert software. 3D finite element model (FEM) for predicting moisture migration in single kernel for every time step has been developed and validated with experimental data. The mean absolute error (MAE), mean relative error (MRE) and standard error (SE) were found to be 0.003, 0.0531 and 0.0007, respectively, indicating close agreement of model with experimental results. Furthermore, optimized process parameters for drying paddy were found to be 700 W, 2.75 m/s at 13% (wb) with optimum temperature, milling yield and drying time of 42˚C, 62%, 86 min respectively, having desirability of 0.905. Above optimized conditions can be successfully used to dry paddy in PV integrated solar dryer in order to attain maximum uniformity, quality and yield of product. PV-integrated hybrid solar dryers can be employed as potential and cutting edge drying technology alternative for sustainable energy and food security.

Keywords: Finite element modeling, Process Optimization, moisture migration, paddy grain, PV integrated hybrid solar dryer

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123 Transformations of River Zones in Hanoi, Vietnam: Problems of Urban Drainage and Environmental Pollution

Authors: Phong Le Ha


In many cities the entire world, the relationship between cities and rivers is always considered as a fundament of urban history research because of their profound interactions. This kind of relationship makes the river zones become extremely sensitive in many aspects. One of the most important aspect is their roles in the drainage of cities. In this paper we will examine an extraordinary case of Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam and Red river zones. This river has contradictory impacts to this city: It is considered as a source of life of the inhabitants who live along its two banks, however, the risk of inundation caused by the complicated hydrology system of this river is always a real threat to the cities that it flows through. Morphologically, Red river was connected to the inner rivers system that made Hanoi a complete form of a river city. This structure combined with the topography of Hanoi helps this city to assure a stable drainage system in which the river zones in the north of Hanoi play some extreme important roles. Nevertheless, in the late 20 years, Hanoi's strong urbanization and the instability of Red river's complicated hydrology make the very remarkable transformations in the relationship river-city and in the river zones: The connection between the river and the city declines; the system of inner lakes are progressively replaced by habitat land; in the river zones, the infrastructure system can't adapt to the transformations of the new quarters which have the origin of the agricultural villages. These changes bring out many chances for the urban development, but also many risks and problems, particularly in the environment and technical sides. Among these, pluvial and used water evacuation is one of the most severe problems. The disappear of inner-city lakes, the high dike and the topographical changes of Hanoi blow up the risk of inundation of this city. In consequences, the riverine zones, particularly in the north of Hanoi, where the two most important water evacuation rivers of Hanoi meet each other, are burdened with the drainage pressure. The unique water treatment plant in this zone seems to be overcharged in receiving each day about 40000m3 of used water (not include pluvial water). This kind of problem leads also to another risk related to the environmental pollution (water pollution and air pollution). So, in order to better understand the situation and to propose the solutions to resolve the problems, an interdisciplinary research covering many different fields such urban planning, architecture, geography, and especially drainage and environment has been carried out. In general, this paper will analyze an important part of the research : the process of urban transformation of Hanoi (changes in urban morphology, infrastructure system, evolution of the dike system, ...) and the hydrological changes of Red river which cause the drainage and environmental problems. The conclusions of these analyses will be the solid base of the following researches focusing on the solutions of a sustainable development.

Keywords: Environment, Infrastructure, Urbanization, Drainage, Hanoi, red rivers

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122 Change of Substrate in Solid State Fermentation Can Produce Proteases and Phytases with Extremely Distinct Biochemical Characteristics and Promising Applications for Animal Nutrition

Authors: Paula K. Novelli, Margarida M. Barros, Luciana F. Flueri


Utilization of agricultural by-products, wheat ban and soybean bran, as substrate for solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied, aiming the achievement of different enzymes from Aspergillus sp. with distinct biological characteristics and its application and improvement on animal nutrition. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzea were studied as they showed very high yield of phytase and protease production, respectively. Phytase activity was measure using p-nitrophenilphosphate as substrate and a standard curve of p-nitrophenol, as the enzymatic activity unit was the quantity of enzyme necessary to release one μmol of p-nitrophenol. Protease activity was measure using azocasein as substrate. Activity for phytase and protease substantially increased when the different biochemical characteristics were considered in the study. Optimum pH and stability of the phytase produced by A. niger with wheat bran as substrate was between 4.0 - 5.0 and optimum temperature of activity was 37oC. Phytase fermented in soybean bran showed constant values at all pHs studied, for optimal and stability, but low production. Phytase with both substrates showed stable activity for temperatures higher than 80oC. Protease from A. niger showed very distinct behavior of optimum pH, acid for wheat bran and basic for soybean bran, respectively and optimal values of temperature and stability at 50oC. Phytase produced by A. oryzae in wheat bran had optimum pH and temperature of 9 and 37oC, respectively, but it was very unstable. On the other hand, proteases were stable at high temperatures, all pH’s studied and showed very high yield when fermented in wheat bran, however when it was fermented in soybean bran the production was very low. Subsequently the upscale production of phytase from A. niger and proteases from A. oryzae were applied as an enzyme additive in fish fed for digestibility studies. Phytases and proteases were produced with stable enzyme activity of 7,000 U.g-1 and 2,500 U.g-1, respectively. When those enzymes were applied in a plant protein based fish diet for digestibility studies, they increased protein, mineral, energy and lipids availability, showing that these new enzymes can improve animal production and performance. In conclusion, the substrate, as well as, the microorganism species can affect the biochemical character of the enzyme produced. Moreover, the production of these enzymes by SSF can be up to 90% cheaper than commercial ones produced with the same fungi species but submerged fermentation. Add to that these cheap enzymes can be easily applied as animal diet additives to improve production and performance.

Keywords: Animal Nutrition, Agricultural By-Products, solid state fermentation, enzymes production

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121 Quality Improvement of the Sand Moulding Process in Foundries Using Six Sigma Technique

Authors: Peter Olubambi, Didier Nyembwe, Cindy Sithole


The sand casting process involves pattern making, mould making, metal pouring and shake out. Every step in the sand moulding process is very critical for production of good quality castings. However, waste generated during the sand moulding operation and lack of quality are matters that influences performance inefficiencies and lack of competitiveness in South African foundries. Defects produced from the sand moulding process are only visible in the final product (casting) which results in increased number of scrap, reduced sales and increases cost in the foundry. The purpose of this Research is to propose six sigma technique (DMAIC, Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) intervention in sand moulding foundries and to reduce variation caused by deficiencies in the sand moulding process in South African foundries. Its objective is to create sustainability and enhance productivity in the South African foundry industry. Six sigma is a data driven method to process improvement that aims to eliminate variation in business processes using statistical control methods .Six sigma focuses on business performance improvement through quality initiative using the seven basic tools of quality by Ishikawa. The objectives of six sigma are to eliminate features that affects productivity, profit and meeting customers’ demands. Six sigma has become one of the most important tools/techniques for attaining competitive advantage. Competitive advantage for sand casting foundries in South Africa means improved plant maintenance processes, improved product quality and proper utilization of resources especially scarce resources. Defects such as sand inclusion, Flashes and sand burn on were some of the defects that were identified as resulting from the sand moulding process inefficiencies using six sigma technique. The courses were we found to be wrong design of the mould due to the pattern used and poor ramming of the moulding sand in a foundry. Six sigma tools such as the voice of customer, the Fishbone, the voice of the process and process mapping were used to define the problem in the foundry and to outline the critical to quality elements. The SIPOC (Supplier Input Process Output Customer) Diagram was also employed to ensure that the material and process parameters were achieved to ensure quality improvement in a foundry. The process capability of the sand moulding process was measured to understand the current performance to enable improvement. The Expected results of this research are; reduced sand moulding process variation, increased productivity and competitive advantage.

Keywords: Defects, Quality improvement, foundries, sand moulding, six sigma (DMAIC)

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120 Optimization of the Feedstock Supply of an Oilseeds Conversion Unit for Biofuel Production in West Africa: A Comparative Study of the Supply of Jatropha curcas and Balanites aegyptiaca Seeds

Authors: Linda D. F. Bambara, Marie Sawadogo


Jatropha curcas (jatropha) is the plant that has been the most studied for biofuel production in West Africa. There exist however other plants such as Balanites aegyptiaca (balanites) that have been targeted as a potential feedstock for biofuel production. This biomass could be an alternative feedstock for the production of straight vegetable oil (SVO) at costs lower than jatropha-based SVO production costs. This study aims firstly to determine, through an MILP model, the optimal organization that minimizes the costs of the oilseeds supply of two biomass conversion units (BCU) exploiting respectively jatropha seeds and the balanitès seeds. Secondly, the study aims to carry out a comparative study of these costs obtained for each BCU. The model was then implemented on two theoretical cases studies built on the basis of the common practices in Burkina Faso and two scenarios were carried out for each case study. In Scenario 1, 3 pre-processing locations ("at the harvesting area", "at the gathering points", "at the BCU") are possible. In scenario 2, only one location ("at the BCU") is possible. For each biomass, the system studied is the upstream supply chain (harvesting, transport and pre-processing (drying, dehulling, depulping)), including cultivation (for jatropha). The model optimizes the area of land to be exploited based on the productivity of the studied plants and material losses that may occur during the harvesting and the supply of the BCU. It then defines the configuration of the logistics network allowing an optimal supply of the BCU taking into account the most common means of transport in West African rural areas. For the two scenarios, the results of the implementation showed that the total area exploited for balanites (1807 ha) is 4.7 times greater than the total area exploited for Jatropha (381 ha). In both case studies, the location of pre-processing “at the harvesting area” was always chosen for scenario1. As the balanites trees were not planted and because the first harvest of the jatropha seeds took place 4 years after planting, the cost price of the seeds at the BCU without the pre-processing costs was about 430 XOF/kg. This cost is 3 times higher than the balanites's one, which is 140 XOF/kg. After the first year of harvest, i.e. 5 years after planting, and assuming that the yield remains constant, the same cost price is about 200 XOF/kg for Jatropha. This cost is still 1.4 times greater than the balanites's one. The transport cost of the balanites seeds is about 120 XOF/kg. This cost is similar for the jatropha seeds. However, when the pre-processing is located at the BCU, i.e. for scenario2, the transport costs of the balanites seeds is 1200 XOF/kg. These costs are 6 times greater than the transport costs of jatropha which is 200 XOF/kg. These results show that the cost price of the balanites seeds at the BCU can be competitive compared to the jatropha's one if the pre-processing is located at the harvesting area.

Keywords: Optimization, biomass conversion, jatropha curcas, Balanites aegyptiaca, post-harvest operations

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119 Evaluation of Different Cropping Systems under Organic, Inorganic and Integrated Production Systems

Authors: Sidramappa Gaddnakeri, Lokanath Malligawad


Any kind of research on production technology of individual crop / commodity /breed has not brought sustainability or stability in crop production. The sustainability of the system over years depends on the maintenance of the soil health. Organic production system includes use of organic manures, biofertilizers, green manuring for nutrient supply and biopesticides for plant protection helps to sustain the productivity even under adverse climatic condition. The study was initiated to evaluate the performance of different cropping systems under organic, inorganic and integrated production systems at The Institute of Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka-India) under ICAR Network Project on Organic Farming. The trial was conducted for four years (2013-14 to 2016-17) on fixed site. Five cropping systems viz., sequence cropping of cowpea – safflower, greengram– rabi sorghum, maize-bengalgram, sole cropping of pigeonpea and intercropping of groundnut + cotton were evaluated under six nutrient management practices. The nutrient management practices are NM1 (100% Organic farming (Organic manures equivalent to 100% N (Cereals/cotton) or 100% P2O5 (Legumes), NM2 (75% Organic farming (Organic manures equivalent to 75% N (Cereals/cotton) or 100% P2O5 (Legumes) + Cow urine and Vermi-wash application), NM3 (Integrated farming (50% Organic + 50% Inorganic nutrients, NM4 (Integrated farming (75% Organic + 25% Inorganic nutrients, NM5 (100% Inorganic farming (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers)) and NM6 (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + Recommended rate of farm yard manure (FYM). Among the cropping systems evaluated for different production systems indicated that the Groundnut + Hybrid cotton (2:1) intercropping system found more remunerative as compared to Sole pigeonpea cropping system, Greengram-Sorghum sequence cropping system, Maize-Chickpea sequence cropping system and Cowpea-Safflower sequence cropping system irrespective of the production systems. Production practices involving application of recommended rates of fertilizers + recommended rates of organic manures (Farmyard manure) produced higher net monetary returns and higher B:C ratio as compared to integrated production system involving application of 50 % organics + 50 % inorganic and application of 75 % organics + 25 % inorganic and organic production system only Both the two organic production systems viz., 100 % Organic production system (Organic manures equivalent to 100 % N (Cereals/cotton) or 100 % P2O5 (Legumes) and 75 % Organic production system (Organic manures equivalent to 75 % N (Cereals) or 100 % P2O5 (Legumes) + Cow urine and Vermi-wash application) are found to be on par. Further, integrated production system involving application of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers found more beneficial over organic production systems.

Keywords: Production Systems, Cropping systems, Cotton, safflower, Cowpea, groundnut, greengram, pigeonpea

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118 The Composition of Biooil during Biomass Pyrolysis at Various Temperatures

Authors: Zoltán Sebestyén, Eszter Barta-Rajnai, Emma Jakab, Zsuzsanna Czegeny


Extraction of the energy content of lignocellulosic biomass is one of the possible pathways to reduce the greenhouse gas emission derived from the burning of the fossil fuels. The application of the bioenergy can mitigate the energy dependency of a country from the foreign natural gas and the petroleum. The diversity of the plant materials makes difficult the utilization of the raw biomass in power plants. This problem can be overcome by the application of thermochemical techniques. Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of the raw materials under inert atmosphere at high temperatures, which produces pyrolysis gas, biooil and charcoal. The energy content of these products can be exploited by further utilization. The differences in the chemical and physical properties of the raw biomass materials can be reduced by the use of torrefaction. Torrefaction is a promising mild thermal pretreatment method performed at temperatures between 200 and 300 °C in an inert atmosphere. The goal of the pretreatment from a chemical point of view is the removal of water and the acidic groups of hemicelluloses or the whole hemicellulose fraction with minor degradation of cellulose and lignin in the biomass. Thus, the stability of biomass against biodegradation increases, while its energy density increases. The volume of the raw materials decreases so the expenses of the transportation and the storage are reduced as well. Biooil is the major product during pyrolysis and an important by-product during torrefaction of biomass. The composition of biooil mostly depends on the quality of the raw materials and the applied temperature. In this work, thermoanalytical techniques have been used to study the qualitative and quantitative composition of the pyrolysis and torrefaction oils of a woody (black locust) and two herbaceous samples (rape straw and wheat straw). The biooil contains C5 and C6 anhydrosugar molecules, as well as aromatic compounds originating from hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, respectively. In this study, special emphasis was placed on the formation of the lignin monomeric products. The structure of the lignin fraction is different in the wood and in the herbaceous plants. According to the thermoanalytical studies the decomposition of lignin starts above 200 °C and ends at about 500 °C. The lignin monomers are present among the components of the torrefaction oil even at relatively low temperatures. We established that the concentration and the composition of the lignin products vary significantly with the applied temperature indicating that different decomposition mechanisms dominate at low and high temperatures. The evolutions of decomposition products as well as the thermal stability of the samples were measured by thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry (TG/MS). The differences in the structure of the lignin products of woody and herbaceous samples were characterized by the method of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). As a statistical method, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to find correlation between the composition of lignin products of the biooil and the applied temperatures.

Keywords: pyrolysis, Torrefaction, Lignin, biooil

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117 Endemic Asteraceae from Mauritius Islands as Potential Phytomedicines

Authors: S.Kauroo, J. Govinden Soulange, D. Marie


Psiadia species from the Asteraceae are traditionally used in the folk medicine of Mauritius to treat cutaneous and bronchial infections. The present study aimed at validating the phytomedicinal properties of the selected species from the Asteraceae family, namely Psiadia arguta, Psiadia viscosa, Psiadia lithospermifolia, and Distephanus populifolius. Dried hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol leaf extracts were studied for their antioxidant properties using the DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), and Deoxyribose assays. Antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria namely Escherichia coli (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC27853), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778) was measured using the broth microdilution assay. Qualitative phytochemical screening using standard methods revealed the presence of coumarins, tannins, leucoanthocyanins, and steroids in all the tested extracts. The measured phenolics level of the selected plant extracts varied from 24.0 to 231.6 mg GAE/g with the maximum level in methanol extracts in all four species. The highest flavonoids and proanthocyanidins content was noted in Psiadia arguta methanolic extracts with 65.7±1.8 mg QE/g and 5.1±0.0 mg CAT/g dry weight (DW) extract, respectively. The maximum free radical scavenging activity was measured in Psiadia arguta methanol and ethyl acetate extracts with IC50 11.3±0.2 and 11.6± 0.2 µg/mL, respectively and followed by Distephanus populifolius methanol extracts with an IC50 of 11.3± 0.8 µg/mL. The maximum ferric reducing antioxidant potential was noted in Psiadia lithospermifolia methanol extracts with a FRAP value of 18.8 ± 0.4 µmol Fe2+/L/g DW. The antioxidant capacity based on DPPH and Deoxyribose values were negatively related to total phenolics, flavonoid and proanthocyanidins content while the ferric reducing antioxidant potential were strongly correlated to total phenolics, flavonoid and proanthocyanidins content. All four species exhibited antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria (both Gram-negative and Gram-positive). Interestingly, the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Psiadia viscosa and Psiadia lithospermifolia were more active than the control antibiotic Chloramphenicol. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Psiadia viscosa and Psiadia lithospermifolia against the tested bacteria ranged from (62.5 to 500 µg/ml). These findings validate the use of these tested Asteraceae in the traditional medicine of Mauritius and also highlight their pharmaceutical potential as prospective phytomedicines.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Flavonoids, DPPH, antioxidant, FRAP, Psiadia spp

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116 Impact of the Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) Extracts on the Survival and Histological Architecture of the Midgut Epithelial Tissue of Early Fourth Instars of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

Authors: Aarti Sharma, Pushplata Tripathi, Sarita Kumar


Aedes aegypti L. is one of the most important insect vectors in the world transmitting several diseases of concern; dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. Though since ages the control of dengue vector is primarily relied upon the use of synthetic chemical insecticides, the continued and indiscriminate use of insecticides for their control has received wide public apprehension because of multifarious problems including insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly and bio-degradable plant products. Bio-insecticides, despite being the focus of research nowadays, have not been investigated much regarding their physiological effects on the mosquitoes. Thus, the present studies were carried out to investigate the anti-mosquito potential of the leaf and stem hexane extracts of Achyranthes aspera against early fourth instars of Aedes aegypti L and their effects on the histological architecture of their midgut. The larvicidal bioassays conducted with the A. aspera leaf hexane extracts revealed the respective LC30, LC50 and LC90 values of 66.545 ppm, 82.555 ppm, 139.817 ppm while the assays with stem hexane extracts resulted in respective values of 54.982 ppm, 68.133 ppm, 115.075 ppm. The studies clearly indicate the efficacy of extracts as larvicidal agents against Ae. aegypti, the stem extracts being found more effective than the leaf extracts. When the larvae assayed with extracts were investigated for the modifications in the histo-architecture of the midgut, the studies showed significant damage, shrinkage, distortion and vacuolization of gut tissues and peritrophic membrane causing disintegration of epithelial cells and cytoplasmic organelles; extent of toxicity and damage varied depending upon the concentration and exposure time period. These changes revealed appreciable stomach poison potential of A. aspera extracts against Ae. aegypti larvae, which may have also caused adverse impact on the growth and development of larvae. These effects were also found to be more pronounced with the stem extract than the leaf extract. Our findings may prove significant suggesting the use of A. aspera extract as a bio-insecticide against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti. Further studies are needed to identify the bioactive component in the extracts and to ascertain the use of component in the fields as anti-mosquito control agent.

Keywords: aedes aegypti, larvicidal, Achyranthes aspera, histological architecture, midgut, stomach poison

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
115 Investigating the Feasibility of Berry Production in Central Oregon Under Protected and Unprotected Culture

Authors: Clare S. Sullivan


The high desert of central Oregon, USA is a challenging growing environment: short growing season (70-100 days); average annual precipitation of 280 mm; drastic swings in diurnal temperatures; possibility of frost any time of year; and sandy soils low in organic matter. Despite strong demand, there is almost no fruit grown in central Oregon due to potential yield loss caused by early and late frosts. Elsewhere in the USA, protected culture (i.e., high tunnels) has been used to extend fruit production seasons and improve yields. In central Oregon, high tunnels are used to grow multiple high-value vegetable crops, and farmers are unlikely to plant a perennial crop in a high tunnel unless proven profitable. In May 2019, two berry trials were established on a farm in Alfalfa, OR, to evaluate raspberry and strawberry yield, season length, and fruit quality in protected (high tunnels) vs. unprotected culture (open field). The main objective was to determine whether high tunnel berry production is a viable enterprise for the region. Each trial was arranged using a split-plot design. The main factor was the production system (high tunnel vs. open field), and the replicated, subplot factor was berry variety. Four day-neutral strawberry varieties and four primocane-bearing raspberry varieties were planted for the study and were managed using organic practices. Berries were harvested once a week early in the season, and twice a week as production increased. Harvested berries were separated into ‘marketable’ and ‘unmarketable’ in order to calculate percent cull. First-year results revealed berry yield and quality differences between varieties and production systems. Strawberry marketable yield and berry fruit size increased significantly in the high tunnel compared to the field; percent yield increase ranged from 7-46% by variety. Evie 2 was the highest yielding strawberry, although berry quality was lower than other berries. Raspberry marketable yield and berry fruit size tended to increase in the high tunnel compared to the field, although variety had a more significant effect. Joan J was the highest yielding raspberry and out-yielded the other varieties by 250% outdoor and 350% indoor. Overall, strawberry and raspberry yields tended to improve in high tunnels as compared to the field, but data from a second year will help determine whether high tunnel investment is worthwhile. It is expected that the production system will have more of an effect on berry yield and season length for second-year plants in 2020.

Keywords: Organic, Local food, berries, high tunnel

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114 Structure Conduct and Performance of Rice Milling Industry in Sri Lanka

Authors: W. A. Nalaka Wijesooriya


The increasing paddy production, stabilization of domestic rice consumption and the increasing dynamism of rice processing and domestic markets call for a rethinking of the general direction of the rice milling industry in Sri Lanka. The main purpose of the study was to explore levels of concentration in rice milling industry in Polonnaruwa and Hambanthota which are the major hubs of the country for rice milling. Concentration indices reveal that the rice milling industry in Polonnaruwa operates weak oligopsony and is highly competitive in Hambanthota. According to the actual quantity of paddy milling per day, 47 % is less than 8Mt/Day, while 34 % is 8-20 Mt/day, and the rest (19%) is greater than 20 Mt/day. In Hambanthota, nearly 50% of the mills belong to the range of 8-20 Mt/day. Lack of experience of the milling industry, poor knowledge on milling technology, lack of capital and finding an output market are the major entry barriers to the industry. Major problems faced by all the rice millers are the lack of a uniform electricity supply and low quality paddy. Many of the millers emphasized that the rice ceiling price is a constraint to produce quality rice. More than 80% of the millers in Polonnaruwa which is the major parboiling rice producing area have mechanical dryers. Nearly 22% millers have modern machineries like color sorters, water jet polishers. Major paddy purchasing method of large scale millers in Polonnaruwa is through brokers. In Hambanthota major channel is miller purchasing from paddy farmers. Millers in both districts have major rice selling markets in Colombo and suburbs. Huge variation can be observed in the amount of pledge (for paddy storage) loans. There is a strong relationship among the storage ability, credit affordability and the scale of operation of rice millers. The inter annual price fluctuation ranged 30%-35%. Analysis of market margins by using series of secondary data shows that farmers’ share on rice consumer price is stable or slightly increases in both districts. In Hambanthota a greater share goes to the farmer. Only four mills which have obtained the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) certification from Sri Lanka Standards Institution can be found. All those millers are small quantity rice exporters. Priority should be given for the Small and medium scale millers in distribution of storage paddy of PMB during the off season. The industry needs a proper rice grading system, and it is recommended to introduce a ceiling price based on graded rice according to the standards. Both husk and rice bran were underutilized. Encouraging investment for establishing rice oil manufacturing plant in Polonnaruwa area is highly recommended. The current taxation procedure needs to be restructured in order to ensure the sustainability of the industry.

Keywords: Performance, conduct, structure (SCP), rice millers

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113 Effect of Antimony on Microorganisms in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments

Authors: Barrera C. Monserrat, Sierra-Alvarez Reyes, Pat-Espadas Aurora, Moreno Andrade Ivan


Antimony is a toxic and carcinogenic metalloid considered a pollutant of priority interest by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. It is present in the environment in two oxidation states: antimonite (Sb (III)) and antimony (Sb (V)). Sb (III) is toxic to several aquatic organisms, but the potential inhibitory effect of Sb species for microorganisms has not been extensively evaluated. The fate and possible toxic impact of antimony on aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment systems are unknown. For this reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial toxicity of Sb (V) and Sb (III) in aerobic and anaerobic environments. Sb(V) and Sb(III) were used as potassium hexahydroxoantimonate (V) and potassium antimony tartrate, respectively (Sigma-Aldrich). The toxic effect of both Sb species in anaerobic environments was evaluated on methanogenic activity and the inhibition of hydrogen production of microorganisms from a wastewater treatment bioreactor. For the methanogenic activity, batch experiments were carried out in 160 mL serological bottles; each bottle contained basal mineral medium (100 mL), inoculum (1.5 g of VSS/L), acetate (2.56 g/L) as substrate, and variable concentrations of Sb (V) or Sb (III). Duplicate bioassays were incubated at 30 ± 2°C on an orbital shaker (105 rpm) in the dark. Methane production was monitored by gas chromatography. The hydrogen production inhibition tests were carried out in glass bottles with a working volume of 0.36 L. Glucose (50 g/L) was used as a substrate, pretreated inoculum (5 g VSS/L), mineral medium and varying concentrations of the two species of antimony. The bottles were kept under stirring and at a temperature of 35°C in an AMPTSII device that recorded hydrogen production. The toxicity of Sb on aerobic microorganisms (from a wastewater activated sludge treatment plant) was tested with a Microtox standardized toxicity test and respirometry. Results showed that Sb (III) is more toxic than Sb (V) for methanogenic microorganisms. Sb (V) caused a 50% decrease in methanogenic activity at 250 mg/L. In contrast, exposure to Sb (III) resulted in a 50% inhibition at a concentration of only 11 mg/L, and an almost complete inhibition (95%) at 25 mg/L. For hydrogen-producing microorganisms, Sb (III) and Sb (V) inhibited 50% of this production with 12.6 mg/L and 87.7 mg/L, respectively. The results for aerobic environments showed that 500 mg/L of Sb (V) do not inhibit the Allivibrio fischeri (Microtox) activity or specific oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge. In the case of Sb (III), this caused a loss of 50% of the respiration of the microorganisms at concentrations below 40 mg/L. The results obtained indicate that the toxicity of the antimony will depend on the speciation of this metalloid and that Sb (III) has a significantly higher inhibitory potential compared to Sb (V). It was shown that anaerobic microorganisms can reduce Sb (V) to Sb (III). Acknowledgments: This work was funded in part by grants from the UA-CONACYT Binational Consortium for the Regional Scientific Development and Innovation (CAZMEX), the National Institute of Health (NIH ES- 04940), and PAPIIT-DGAPA-UNAM (IN105220).

Keywords: aerobic inhibition, antimony reduction, hydrogen inhibition, methanogenic toxicity

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112 Oxidative Stability of Corn Oil Supplemented with Natural Antioxidants from Cypriot Salvia fruticosa Extracts

Authors: Zoi Konsoula


Vegetable oils, which are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, are susceptible to oxidative deterioration. The lipid oxidation of oils results in the production of rancid odors and unpleasant flavors as well as the reduction of their nutritional quality and safety. Traditionally, synthetic antioxidants are employed for their retardation or prevention of oxidative deterioration of oils. However, these compounds are suspected to pose health hazards. Consequently, recently there has been a growing interest in the use of natural antioxidants of plant origin for improving the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. The genus Salvia (sage) is well known for its antioxidant activity. In the Cypriot flora Salvia fruticosa is the most distributed indigenous Salvia species. In the present study, extracts were prepared from S. fruticosa aerial parts using various solvents and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method. Moreover, the antioxidant efficacy of all extracts was assessed using corn oil as the oxidation substrate, which was subjected to accelerated aging (60 °C, 30 days). The progress of lipid oxidation was monitored by the determination of the peroxide, p-aniside, conjugated dienes and trienes value according to the official AOCS methods. Synthetic antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene-BHT and butylated hydroxyanisole-BHA) were employed at their legal limit (200 ppm) as reference. Finally, the total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) of the prepared extracts was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum-flavonoid complex method, respectively. The results of the present study revealed that although all sage extracts prepared from S. fruticosa exhibited antioxidant activity, the highest antioxidant capacity was recorded in the methanolic extract, followed by the non-toxic, food grade ethanol. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the antioxidant potency and the TPC of extracts was observed in all cases. Interestingly, sage extracts prevented lipid oxidation in corn oil at all concentrations tested, however, the magnitude of stabilization was dose dependent. More specifically, results from the different oxidation parameters were in agreement with each other and indicated that the protection offered by the various extracts depended on their TPC. Among the extracts, the methanolic extract was more potent in inhibiting oxidative deterioration. Finally, both methanolic and ethanolic sage extracts at a concentration of 1000 ppm exerted a stabilizing effect comparable to that of the reference synthetic antioxidants. Based on the results of the present study, sage extracts could be used for minimizing or preventing lipid oxidation in oils and, thus, prolonging their shelf-life. In particular, given that the use of dietary alcohol, such as ethanol, is preferable than methanol in food applications, the ethanolic extract prepared from S. fruticosa could be used as an alternative natural antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, SAGE, corn oil, oxidative deterioration

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111 Spray Nebulisation Drying: Alternative Method to Produce Microparticulated Proteins

Authors: Josef Drahorad, Milos Beran, Ondrej Vltavsky, Marian Urban, Martin Fronek, Jiri Sova


Engineering efforts of researchers of the Food research institute Prague and the Czech Technical University in spray drying technologies led to the introduction of a demonstrator ATOMIZER and a new technology of Carbon Dioxide-Assisted Spray Nebulization Drying (CASND). The equipment combines the spray drying technology, when the liquid to be dried is atomized by a rotary atomizer, with Carbon Dioxide Assisted Nebulization - Bubble Dryer (CAN-BD) process in an original way. A solution, emulsion or suspension is saturated by carbon dioxide at pressure up to 80 bar before the drying process. The atomization process takes place in two steps. In the first step, primary droplets are produced at the outlet of the rotary atomizer of special construction. In the second step, the primary droplets are divided in secondary droplets by the CO2 expansion from the inside of primary droplets. The secondary droplets, usually in the form of microbubbles, are rapidly dried by warm air stream at temperatures up to 60ºC and solid particles are formed in a drying chamber. Powder particles are separated from the drying air stream in a high efficiency fine powder separator. The product is frequently in the form of submicron hollow spheres. The CASND technology has been used to produce microparticulated protein concentrates for human nutrition from alternative plant sources - hemp and canola seed filtration cakes. Alkali extraction was used to extract the proteins from the filtration cakes. The protein solutions after the alkali extractions were dried with the demonstrator ATOMIZER. Aerosol particle size distribution and concentration in the draying chamber were determined by two different on-line aerosol spectrometers SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) and APS (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer). The protein powders were in form of hollow spheres with average particle diameter about 600 nm. The particles were characterized by the SEM method. The functional properties of the microparticulated protein concentrates were compared with the same protein concentrates dried by the conventional spray drying process. Microparticulated protein has been proven to have improved foaming and emulsifying properties, water and oil absorption capacities and formed long-term stable water dispersions. This work was supported by the research grants TH03010019 of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: canola seed, carbon dioxide-assisted spray nebulization drying, hemp seed, microparticulated proteins

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110 Biodegradable Self-Supporting Nanofiber Membranes Prepared by Centrifugal Spinning

Authors: Josef Drahorad, Milos Beran, Ondrej Vltavsky, Martin Fronek, Jiri Sova


While most nanofibers are produced using electrospinning, this technique suffers from several drawbacks, such as the requirement for specialized equipment, high electrical potential, and electrically conductive targets. Consequently, recent years have seen the increasing emergence of novel strategies in generating nanofibers in a larger scale and higher throughput manner. The centrifugal spinning is simple, cheap and highly productive technology for nanofiber production. In principle, the drawing of solution filament into nanofibers using centrifugal spinning is achieved through the controlled manipulation of centrifugal force, viscoelasticity, and mass transfer characteristics of the spinning solutions. Engineering efforts of researches of the Food research institute Prague and the Czech Technical University in the field the centrifugal nozzleless spinning led to introduction of a pilot plant demonstrator NANOCENT. The main advantages of the demonstrator are lower investment cost - thanks to simpler construction compared to widely used electrospinning equipments, higher production speed, new application possibilities and easy maintenance. The centrifugal nozzleless spinning is especially suitable to produce submicron fibers from polymeric solutions in highly volatile solvents, such as chloroform, DCM, THF, or acetone. To date, submicron fibers have been prepared from PS, PUR and biodegradable polyesters, such as PHB, PLA, PCL, or PBS. The products are in form of 3D structures or nanofiber membranes. Unique self-supporting nanofiber membranes were prepared from the biodegradable polyesters in different mixtures. The nanofiber membranes have been tested for different applications. Filtration efficiencies for water solutions and aerosols in air were evaluated. Different active inserts were added to the solutions before the spinning process, such as inorganic nanoparticles, organic precursors of metal oxides, antimicrobial and wound healing compounds or photocatalytic phthalocyanines. Sintering can be subsequently carried out to remove the polymeric material and transfer the organic precursors to metal oxides, such as Si02, or photocatalytic Zn02 and Ti02, to obtain inorganic nanofibers. Electrospinning is more suitable technology to produce membranes for the filtration applications than the centrifugal nozzleless spinning, because of the formation of more homogenous nanofiber layers and fibers with smaller diameters. The self-supporting nanofiber membranes prepared from the biodegradable polyesters are especially suitable for medical applications, such as wound or burn healing dressings or tissue engineering scaffolds. This work was supported by the research grants TH03020466 of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: biodegradable polyesters, polymeric nanofibers, self-supporting nanofiber membranes, active inserts

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109 Optimization of Operational Water Quality Parameters in a Drinking Water Distribution System Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Sina Moradi, Christopher W. K. Chow, John Van Leeuwen, David Cook, Mary Drikas, Rose Amal, Patrick Hayde


Chloramine is commonly used as a disinfectant in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), particularly in Australia and the USA. Maintaining a chloramine residual throughout the DWDS is important in ensuring microbiologically safe water is supplied at the customer’s tap. In order to simulate how chloramine behaves when it moves through the distribution system, a water quality network model (WQNM) can be applied. In this work, the WQNM was based on mono-chloramine decomposition reactions, which enabled prediction of mono-chloramine residual at different locations through a DWDS in Australia, using the Bentley commercial hydraulic package (Water GEMS). The accuracy of WQNM predictions is influenced by a number of water quality parameters. Optimization of these parameters in order to obtain the closest results in comparison with actual measured data in a real DWDS would result in both cost reduction as well as reduction in consumption of valuable resources such as energy and materials. In this work, the optimum operating conditions of water quality parameters (i.e. temperature, pH, and initial mono-chloramine concentration) to maximize the accuracy of mono-chloramine residual predictions for two water supply scenarios in an entire network were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). To obtain feasible and economical water quality parameters for highest model predictability, Design Expert 8.0 software (Stat-Ease, Inc.) was applied to conduct the optimization of three independent water quality parameters. High and low levels of the water quality parameters were considered, inevitably, as explicit constraints, in order to avoid extrapolation. The independent variables were pH, temperature and initial mono-chloramine concentration. The lower and upper limits of each variable for two water supply scenarios were defined and the experimental levels for each variable were selected based on the actual conditions in studied DWDS. It was found that at pH of 7.75, temperature of 34.16 ºC, and initial mono-chloramine concentration of 3.89 (mg/L) during peak water supply patterns, root mean square error (RMSE) of WQNM for the whole network would be minimized to 0.189, and the optimum conditions for averaged water supply occurred at pH of 7.71, temperature of 18.12 ºC, and initial mono-chloramine concentration of 4.60 (mg/L). The proposed methodology to predict mono-chloramine residual can have a great potential for water treatment plant operators in accurately estimating the mono-chloramine residual through a water distribution network. Additional studies from other water distribution systems are warranted to confirm the applicability of the proposed methodology for other water samples.

Keywords: Modelling, Water Quality Parameters, response surface methodology, chloramine decay

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108 Assessing Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation and Natural Sediment Recovery in Nova Scotia, Canada

Authors: Tony R. Walker, N. Devin MacAskill, Andrew Thalhiemer


Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia has long been subject to effluent and atmospheric inputs of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from a large coking operation and steel plant that operated in Sydney for nearly a century until closure in 1988. Contaminated effluents from the industrial site resulted in the creation of the Sydney Tar Ponds, one of Canada’s largest contaminated sites. Since its closure, there have been several attempts to remediate this former industrial site and finally, in 2004, the governments of Canada and Nova Scotia committed to remediate the site to reduce potential ecological and human health risks to the environment. The Sydney Tar Ponds and Coke Ovens cleanup project has become the most prominent remediation project in Canada today. As an integral part of remediation of the site (i.e., which consisted of solidification/stabilization and associated capping of the Tar Ponds), an extensive multiple media environmental effects program was implemented to assess what effects remediation had on the surrounding environment, and, in particular, harbour sediments. Additionally, longer-term natural sediment recovery rates of select contaminants predicted for the harbour sediments were compared to current conditions. During remediation, potential contributions to sediment quality, in addition to remedial efforts, were evaluated which included a significant harbour dredging project, propeller wash from harbour traffic, storm events, adjacent loading/unloading of coal and municipal wastewater treatment discharges. Two sediment sampling methodologies, sediment grab and gravity corer, were also compared to evaluate the detection of subtle changes in sediment quality. Results indicated that overall spatial distribution pattern of historical contaminants remains unchanged, although at much lower concentrations than previously reported, due to natural recovery. Measurements of sediment indicator parameter concentrations confirmed that natural recovery rates of Sydney Harbour sediments were in broad agreement with predicted concentrations, in spite of ongoing remediation activities. Overall, most measured parameters in sediments showed little temporal variability even when using different sampling methodologies, during three years of remediation compared to baseline, except for the detection of significant increases in total PAH concentrations noted during one year of remediation monitoring. The data confirmed the effectiveness of mitigation measures implemented during construction relative to harbour sediment quality, despite other anthropogenic activities and the dynamic nature of the harbour.

Keywords: Remediation, monitoring, Recovery, contaminated sediment

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107 Awareness and Perception of Food Safety, Nutrition and Food Security among Omani Women

Authors: Abeer Al Kalbani


Oman is a sub-tropical country with limited water resources, harsh weather and limited soil fertility, constraining food production. Therefore, it largely depends on international markets to assure supply of food. In the light of these circumstances, food security in Oman is defined as the ability of the country to grant the staple food needs of people (e.g. rice, wheat, lentil, sugar, dates, dairy products, fish and plant or vegetable oils). It also involves exporting local goods with high production rates to exchange them with required food products. This concept of food security includes the availability of food through production and/or importing, stability of the market prices during all circumstances, and the ability of people to meet their needs within their income capabilities. As a result, most of the food security work is focused on availability and access dimensions of the issue. Not much research is focused on the utilization aspect of food security in Oman. Although women play a vital role in food security, there is limited research on women’s role in food security neither in Oman nor in neighboring Gulf countries. Women play an important role not only by carrying the responsibility of feeding their families but also by setting the consumption model for the household. Therefore, the research aims to contribute to the work done on food security in Oman and similar regions of the world by studying the role women play at the utilization level. Methods used in this research include Qualitative unstructured interviews, focus groups, survey questionnaire and an experimental study. Based on the FAO definition of food security, it consists of availability, access, utilization and sustainability. Results from a pilot study conducted for this research on two groups of women in Oman; urban and rural women, showed that women in Oman are responsible for achieving these four pillars at the household level. Moreover, awareness of women increased as their educational level increased. Urban women showed more awareness and openness to adopt healthier and proper food related choices than rural women. Urban women seem also more open than rural women to new ideas and concepts and ways to healthier food. However, both urban and rural women claim that no training and educational programs are available for them and awareness of food security in general remains relatively low in both groups. In the light of these findings, this research attempts to further investigate the social beliefs, practices and attitudes women adopt in relation to food purchase, storage, preparation and consumption as considered as important parts of the food system. It also seeks to examine the effect of educational training programs and media on the level of women awareness on the issue.

Keywords: Food Security, Utilization, household food security, role of women

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106 The Genus Bacillus, Effect on Commercial Crops of Colombia

Authors: L. C. Sánchez, L. C. Corrales, A. G. Lancheros, E. Castañeda, Y. Ariza, L. S. Fuentes, L. Sierra, J. L. Cuervo


The importance of environment friendly alternatives in agricultural processes is the reason why the research group Ceparium, the Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca University, Colombia, investigated the genus Bacillus and its applicability for improving crops of economic importance in Colombia. In this investigation, we presented a study in which the genus Bacillus plays a leading role as beneficial microorganism. The objective was to identify the biochemical potential of three indigenous species of Bacillus, which were able to carry out actions for biological control against pathogens and pests or promoted growth to improve productivity of crops in Colombia. The procedures were performed in three phases: first, the production of biomass of an indigenous strain and a reference strain starting from culture media for production of spores and toxins were made. Spore count was done in a Neubauer chamber, concentrations of spores of Bacillus sphaericus were prepared and a bioassay was done at the Laboratory of Entomology at the University Jorge Tadeo Lozano of Plutella xylostella larvae, insect pest of crucifers in several Colombian regions. The second phase included the extraction in the liquid state fermentation, a secondary metabolite that has antibiosis action against fungi, call iturin B, and was obtained from strains of Bacillus subtilis. The molecule was identified using High Resolution Chromatography (HPLC) and its biocontrol effect on Fusarium sp fungus causes vascular wilt in economically important plant varieties, was confirmed using testing of antagonism in Petri dish. In the third phase, an initial procedure in that let recover and identify microorganisms of the genus Bacillus from the rhizosphere in two aromatic herbs, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris L. was used. Subsequently, testing of antagonism against Fusarium sp were made and an assay was done under greenhouse conditions to observe biocontrol and growth promoting action by comparing growth in length and dry weight. In the first experiment, native Bacillus sphaericus was lethal to 92% Plutella xylostella larvae in 10 DDA. In the second experiment, iturin B was identified and biological control of Fusarium sp was demonstrated. In the third study, all strains demonstrated biological control and the B14 strain identified as Bacillus megaterium increased root length and productivity of the two plants in terms of weight. It was concluded that the native microorganisms of the genus Bacillus has a great biochemical potential that provides a beneficial interactions with plants, improve their growth and development and therefore a greater impact on production.

Keywords: Biological Control, genus bacillus, PGPRs, biochemical potential

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105 Development of the Integrated Quality Management System of Cooked Sausage Products

Authors: Liubov Lutsyshyn, Yaroslava Zhukova


Over the past twenty years, there has been a drastic change in the mode of nutrition in many countries which has been reflected in the development of new products, production techniques, and has also led to the expansion of sales markets for food products. Studies have shown that solution of the food safety problems is almost impossible without the active and systematic activity of organizations directly involved in the production, storage and sale of food products, as well as without management of end-to-end traceability and exchange of information. The aim of this research is development of the integrated system of the quality management and safety assurance based on the principles of HACCP, traceability and system approach with creation of an algorithm for the identification and monitoring of parameters of technological process of manufacture of cooked sausage products. Methodology of implementation of the integrated system based on the principles of HACCP, traceability and system approach during the manufacturing of cooked sausage products for effective provision for the defined properties of the finished product has been developed. As a result of the research evaluation technique and criteria of performance of the implementation and operation of the system of the quality management and safety assurance based on the principles of HACCP have been developed and substantiated. In the paper regularities of influence of the application of HACCP principles, traceability and system approach on parameters of quality and safety of the finished product have been revealed. In the study regularities in identification of critical control points have been determined. The algorithm of functioning of the integrated system of the quality management and safety assurance has also been described and key requirements for the development of software allowing the prediction of properties of finished product, as well as the timely correction of the technological process and traceability of manufacturing flows have been defined. Based on the obtained results typical scheme of the integrated system of the quality management and safety assurance based on HACCP principles with the elements of end-to-end traceability and system approach for manufacture of cooked sausage products has been developed. As a result of the studies quantitative criteria for evaluation of performance of the system of the quality management and safety assurance have been developed. A set of guidance documents for the implementation and evaluation of the integrated system based on the HACCP principles in meat processing plants have also been developed. On the basis of the research the effectiveness of application of continuous monitoring of the manufacturing process during the control on the identified critical control points have been revealed. The optimal number of critical control points in relation to the manufacture of cooked sausage products has been substantiated. The main results of the research have been appraised during 2013-2014 under the conditions of seven enterprises of the meat processing industry and have been implemented at JSC «Kyiv meat processing plant».

Keywords: Quality management, HACCP, cooked sausage products, safety assurance

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104 Investigation of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Filter Cake as Minor Additional Constituent in Cement Production

Authors: Veronica Caprai, Katrin Schollbach, Miruna V. A. Florea, H. J. H. Brouwers


Nowadays MSWI (Municipal Solid Waste Incineration) bottom ash (BA) produced by Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants represents the majority of the solid residues derived from MSW incineration. Once processed, the BA is often landfilled resulting in possible environmental problems, additional costs for the plant and increasing occupation of public land. In order to limit this phenomenon, European countries such as the Netherlands aid the utilization of MSWI BA in the construction field, by providing standards about the leaching of contaminants into the environment (Dutch Soil Quality Decree). Commonly, BA has a particle size below 32 mm and a heterogeneous chemical composition, depending on its source. By washing coarser BA, an MSWI sludge is obtained. It is characterized by a high content of heavy metals, chlorides, and sulfates as well as a reduced particle size (below 0.25 mm). To lower its environmental impact, MSWI sludge is filtered or centrifuged for removing easily soluble contaminants, such as chlorides. However, the presence of heavy metals is not easily reduced, compromising its possible application. For lowering the leaching of those contaminants, the use of MSWI residues in combination with cement represents a precious option, due to the known retention of those ions into the hydrated cement matrix. Among the applications, the European standard for common cement EN 197-1:1992 allows the incorporation of up to 5% by mass of a minor additional constituent (MAC), such as fly ash or blast furnace slag but also an unspecified filler into cement. To the best of the author's knowledge, although it is widely available, it has the appropriate particle size and a chemical composition similar to cement, FC has not been investigated as possible MAC in cement production. Therefore, this paper will address the suitability of MSWI FC as MAC for CEM I 52.5 R, within a 5% maximum replacement by mass. After physical and chemical characterization of the raw materials, the crystal phases of the pastes are determined by XRD for 3 replacement levels (1%, 3%, and 5%) at different ages. Thereafter, the impact of FC on mechanical and environmental performances of cement is assessed according to EN 196-1 and the Dutch Soil Quality Decree, respectively. The investigation of the reaction products evidences the formation of layered double hydroxides (LDH), in the early stage of the reaction. Mechanically the presence of FC results in a reduction of 28 days compressive strength by 8% for a replacement of 5% wt., compared with the pure CEM I 52.5 R without any MAC. In contrast, the flexural strength is not affected by the presence of FC. Environmentally, the Dutch legislation for the leaching of contaminants for unshaped (granular) material is satisfied. Based on the collected results, FC represents a suitable candidate as MAC in cement production.

Keywords: environmental impact evaluation, Minor additional constituent, MSWI residues, X-ray diffraction crystallography

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103 Fields of Power, Visual Culture, and the Artistic Practice of Two 'Unseen' Women of Central Brazil

Authors: Carolina Brandão Piva


In our visual culture, images play a newly significant role in the basis of a complex dialogue between imagination, creativity, and social practice. Insofar as imagination has broken out of the 'special expressive space of art' to become a part of the quotidian mental work of ordinary people, it is pertinent to recognize that visual representation can no longer be assumed as if in a domain detached from everyday life or exclusively 'centered' within the limited frame of 'art history.' The approach of Visual Culture as a field of study is, in this sense, indispensable to comprehend that not only 'the image,' but also 'the imagined' and 'the imaginary' are produced in the plurality of social interactions; crucial enough, this assertion directs us to something new in contemporary cultural processes, namely both imagination and image production constitute a social practice. This paper starts off with this approach and seeks to examine the artistic practice of two women from the State of Goiás, Brazil, who are ordinary citizens with their daily activities and narratives but also dedicated to visuality production. With no formal training from art schools, branded or otherwise, Maria Aparecida de Souza Pires deploys 'waste disposal' of daily life—from car tires to old work clothes—as a trampoline for art; also adept at sourcing raw materials collected from her surroundings, she manipulates raw hewn wood, tree trunks, plant life, and various other pieces she collects from nature giving them new meaning and possibility. Hilda Freire works with sculptures in clay using different scales and styles; her art focuses on representations of women and pays homage to unprivileged groups such as the practitioners of African-Brazilian religions, blue-collar workers, poor live-in housekeepers, and so forth. Although they have never been acknowledged by any mainstream art institution in Brazil, whose 'criterion of value' still favors formally trained artists, Maria Aparecida de Souza Pires, and Hilda Freire have produced visualities that instigate 'new ways of seeing,' meriting cultural significance in many ways. Their artworks neither descend from a 'traditional' medium nor depend on 'canonical viewing settings' of visual representation; rather, they consist in producing relationships with the world which do not result in 'seeing more,' but 'at least differently.' From this perspective, the paper finally demonstrates that grouping this kind of artistic production under the label of 'mere craft' has much more to do with who is privileged within the fields of power in art system, who we see and who we do not see, and whose imagination of what is fed by which visual images in Brazilian contemporary society.

Keywords: Visual Culture, artistic practice, women's art in the Brazilian State of Goiás, Maria Aparecida de Souza Pires, Hilda Freire

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102 Diagnosis of Intermittent High Vibration Peaks in Industrial Gas Turbine Using Advanced Vibrations Analysis

Authors: Faheem Ahmed, Abubakar Rashid, Muhammad Saad


This paper provides a comprehensive study pertaining to diagnosis of intermittent high vibrations on an industrial gas turbine using detailed vibrations analysis, followed by its rectification. Engro Polymer & Chemicals Limited, a Chlor-Vinyl complex located in Pakistan has a captive combined cycle power plant having two 28 MW gas turbines (make Hitachi) & one 15 MW steam turbine. In 2018, the organization faced an issue of high vibrations on one of the gas turbines. These high vibration peaks appeared intermittently on both compressor’s drive end (DE) & turbine’s non-drive end (NDE) bearing. The amplitude of high vibration peaks was between 150-170% on the DE bearing & 200-300% on the NDE bearing from baseline values. In one of these episodes, the gas turbine got tripped on “High Vibrations Trip” logic actuated at 155µm. Limited instrumentation is available on the machine, which is monitored with GE Bently Nevada 3300 system having two proximity probes installed at Turbine NDE, Compressor DE &at Generator DE & NDE bearings. Machine’s transient ramp-up & steady state data was collected using ADRE SXP & DSPI 408. Since only 01 key phasor is installed at Turbine high speed shaft, a derived drive key phasor was configured in ADRE to obtain low speed shaft rpm required for data analysis. By analyzing the Bode plots, Shaft center line plot, Polar plot & orbit plots; rubbing was evident on Turbine’s NDE along with increased bearing clearance of Turbine’s NDE radial bearing. The subject bearing was then inspected & heavy deposition of carbonized coke was found on the labyrinth seals of bearing housing with clear rubbing marks on shaft & housing covering at 20-25 degrees on the inner radius of labyrinth seals. The collected coke sample was tested in laboratory & found to be the residue of lube oil in the bearing housing. After detailed inspection & cleaning of shaft journal area & bearing housing, new radial bearing was installed. Before assembling the bearing housing, cleaning of bearing cooling & sealing air lines was also carried out as inadequate flow of cooling & sealing air can accelerate coke formation in bearing housing. The machine was then taken back online & data was collected again using ADRE SXP & DSPI 408 for health analysis. The vibrations were found in acceptable zone as per ISO standard 7919-3 while all other parameters were also within vendor defined range. As a learning from subject case, revised operating & maintenance regime has also been proposed to enhance machine’s reliability.

Keywords: Vibration, Gas Turbine, bearing, ADRE, GE Bently Nevada, Hitachi

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