Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2561

Search results for: plant hormones

2441 Plant Growth and Yield Enhancement of Soybean by Inoculation with Symbiotic and Nonsymbiotic Bacteria

Authors: Timea I. Hajnal-Jafari, Simonida S. Đurić, Dragana R. Stamenov

Abstract:

Microbial inoculants from the group of symbiotic-nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are well known and widely used in production of legumes. On the other hand, nonsymbiotic plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are not commonly used in practice. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of soybean inoculation with symbiotic and nonsymbiotic bacteria on plant growth and seed yield of soybean. Microbiological activity in rhizospheric soil was also determined. The experiment was set up using a randomized block system in filed conditions with the following treatments: control-no inoculation; treatment 1-Bradyrhizobium japonicum; treatment 2-Azotobacter sp.; treatment 3-Bacillus sp..In the flowering stage of growth (FS) the number of nodules per plant (NPP), root length (RL), plant height (PH) and weight (PW) were measured. The number of pod per plant (PPP), number of seeds per pod (SPP) and seed weight per plant (SWP) were recorded at the end of vegetation period (EV). Microbiological analyses of soil included the determination of total number of bacteria (TNB), number of fungi (FNG), actinomycetes (ACT) and azotobacters (AZB) as well as the activity of the dehydrogenase enzyme (DHA). The results showed that bacterial inoculation led to the formation of root nodules regardless of the treatments with statistically no significant difference. Strong nodulation was also present in control treatment. RL and PH were positively influenced by inoculation with Azotobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively. Statistical analyses of the number of PPP, SPP, and SWP showed no significant differences among investigated treatments. High average number of microorganisms were determined in all treatments. Most abundant were TNB (log No 8,010) and ACT (log No 6,055) than FNG and AZB with log No 4,867 and log No 4,025, respectively. The highest DHA activity was measured in the FS of soybean in treatment 3. The application of nonsymbiotic bacteria in soybean production can alleviate initial plant growth and help the plant to better overcome different stress conditions caused by abiotic and biotic factors.

Keywords: Bacteria, soybean, inoculation, microbial activity

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2440 Selection of Landscape Plant Species: A Experiment of Noise Reduction by Vibration of Plant Leaves

Authors: Li Mengmeng, Kang Jian

Abstract:

With the rapid development of the city, the noise pollution becomes more and more serious. Noise has seriously affected people's normal life, study and work. In addition, noise has seriously affected the city's ecological environment and the migration of birds. Therefore, it is urgent to control the noise. As one of natural noise-reducing materials, plants have been paid more and more attention. In urban landscape design, it is very important to choose plant species with good noise reduction effect to the sustainable development of urban ecology. The aim of this paper is to find out the characteristics of the plant with good noise reduction effect and apply it in urban landscape design. This study investigated the vibration of leaves of six plant species in a sound field using a Keyence (IG-1000/CCD) Laser Micrometer. The results of the experiments showed that the vibration speed of plant leaves increased obviously after being stimulated by sound source, about 5-10 times. In addition, when driven by the same sound, the speed of all leaves varied with the difference of leaf thickness, leaf size and leaf mass. The speed of all leaves would increase with the increase of leaf size and leaf mass, while those would decrease with the increase of leaf thickness.

Keywords: Landscape design, leaf vibration, noise attenuation, plants configuration

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2439 Influence of Agricultural Utilization of Sewage Sludge Vermicompost on Plant Growth

Authors: Meiyan Xing, Cenran Li, Liang Xiang

Abstract:

Impacts of excess sludge vermicompost on the germination and early growth of plant were tested. The better effect of cow dung vermicompost (CV) on seed germination and seedling growth proved that cow dung was indeed the preferred additive in sludge vermicomposting as reported by plentiful researchers worldwide. The effects and the best amount of application of CV were further discussed. Results demonstrated that seed germination and seedling growth (seedlings number, plant height, stem diameter) were the best and heavy metal (Zn, Pb, Cr and As) contents of plant were the lowest when soil amended with CV by 15%. Additionally, CV fostered higher contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b compared to the control when concentration ranged from 5 to 15%, thereafter a slight increase in chlorophyll content was observed form 15% to 25%. Thus, CV at the optimum proportion of 15% could serve as a feasible and satisfactory way of sludge agricultural utilization of sewage sludge. In summary, sewage sludge can be gainfully utilized in producing organic fertilizer via vermicomposting, thereby not only providing a means of sewage sludge treatment and disposal, but also stimulating the growth of plant and the ability to resist disease.

Keywords: seed germination, seedling growth, cow dung vermicompost, sludge utilization

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2438 Ethno-Medical Potentials of Tacazzea apiculata Oliv. (Periplocaceae)

Authors: Abubakar Ahmed, Zainab Mohammed, Hadiza D. Nuhu, Hamisu Ibrahim

Abstract:

Introduction: The plant Tacazzea apiculata Oliv (Periplocaceae) is widely distributed in tropical West Africa. It is claimed to have multiple uses in traditional medicine among which are its use to treat hemorrhoids, inflammations and cancers. Methods: Ethno-botanical survey through interview and using show-and-tell method of data collection were conducted among Hausa and Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria with the view to document useful information on the numerous claims by the local people on the plant. Results: The results revealed that the plant T. apiculata has relative popularity among the herbalist (38.2 %), nomads (14.8 %) and fishermen (16.0%). The most important uses of the plant in traditional medicine are inflammation (Fedelity level: 25.7 %) and Haemorrhoids (Fedelity level: 17.1 %) Conclusion: These results suggest the relevance of T. apiculata in traditional medicine and as a good candidate for drug Development.

Keywords: Traditional Medicine, ethno-botany, periplocaceae, Tacazzea apiculata

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2437 Development of a Model for the Redesign of Plant Structures

Authors: L. Richter, J. Lübkemann, P. Nyhuis

Abstract:

In order to remain competitive in what is a turbulent environment; businesses must be able to react rapidly to change. The past response to volatile market conditions was to introduce an element of flexibility to production. Nowadays, what is often required is a redesign of factory structures in order to cope with the state of constant flux. The Institute of Production Systems and Logistics is currently developing a descriptive and causal model for the redesign of plant structures as part of an ongoing research project. This article presents the first research findings attained in devising this model.

Keywords: Factory Planning, Flexibility, change driven factory redesign, plant structure

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2436 Seasonal Stirred Variations in Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants Turraea holstii and Clausena anisata

Authors: Francis Machumi, Ester Innocent, Pius Yanda, Philip C. Stevenson

Abstract:

Curative dependence of traditionally used medicinal plants on season of harvest is an alleged claim by traditional health practitioners. This study intended to verify these claims by investigating antifungal activity and chemical composition of traditionally used medicinal plants Turraea holstii and Clausena anisata harvested in rainy season and dry season. The antifungal activities were determined by broth microdilution method whereas chemical profiling of the extracts from the plant materials was done by gas chromatography (GC). Results indicated that extracts of plant materials harvested in dry season showed enhanced antifungal activity as compared to extracts of plant materials harvested in rainy season. GC chromatograms showed overalls increase in number and amount of chemical species for extracts of plant materials harvested in dry season as compared to extracts of plant materials harvested in rainy season.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Chemical Composition, antifungal activity, seasonal dependence

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2435 OBD-Biofertilizer Impact on Crop Yield and Soil Quality in Lowland Rice Production, Badeggi, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Ayodele A. Otaiku

Abstract:

Purpose: Nigeria has become the largest importer of rice in Africa and second in the world, 2015. Investigate interactions of organic rice farming on soil quality and health from bio-waste converted to biofertilizer and its environmental impact on rice crop. Methodology: Bio-wastes, poultry waste, organic agriculture wastes, wood ash mixed with microbial inoculant organisms called OBD-Plus microbes (broad spectrum) composted in anaerobic digester to OBD-biofertilizer (2010 - 2012) uses microbes to build humus and other stable carbons. Two field experiments were carried out at Badeggi, Niger state in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the response of lowland rice production using biofertilizer. The experimental field was laid out in a strip-plot design with five treatments and three replications and at twenty-one day old seedlings of FARO 44 and FARO 52 rice varieties were transplanted. Plots without fertiliser application served as control. Findings: The highest rice grain yield increase of 4.4 t/ha over the control in 2012 against the Nigeria average of lowland rice grain yields of 1.5 t/ha. The utilization of OBD-Biofertilizer can decrease the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizer, prevent the depletion of soil organic matter and reduce environmental pollution. Increasing the floodwater productivity and optimizing the recycling of nutrients cum grazer populations and disease by biocontrols microbes present in the OBD-Biofertilizer. Organic matter in the soil improves by 58% and C/N 15 (2011) and 13.35 (2012). Implications: OBD- Biofertilizer produce plant growth hormones such as indole acetic acid (IAA), glomalin related soil protein and extracellular enzymes as phosphatases that promote soil health and quality. Conclusion: Microorganisms can enhance nutrients use efficiency by increasing root surface area e.g., mycorrhizal, fungi, promoting other beneficial symbioses of the host plant and microbial interactions resulting to increase in soil organic matter. By 2030, climate change is projected to depress cereal production in Africa by 2 to 3 percent. Improved seeds and increased fertilizer use should more than compensate, but this factor will still weigh heavily on efforts to make progress.

Keywords: Sustainable Agriculture, Soil Quality, OBD-plus microbial consortia, OBD-biofertilizer, rice production

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2434 Phytotreatment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contaminated Soil by Chromolaena odorata L. King and Robinson

Authors: H. I. Atagana, R. O. Anyasi

Abstract:

In this study, phytoextraction ability of a weed on Aroclor 1254 was studied under greenhouse conditions. Chromolaena odorata plants were transplanted into soil containing 100, 200, and 500 ppm of Aroclor in 1L pots. The experiments were watered daily at 70 % moisture field capacity. Parameters such as fully expanded leaves per plant, shoot length, leaf chlorophyll content as well as root length at harvest were measured. PCB was not phytotoxic to C. odorata growth but plants in the 500 ppm treatment only showed diminished growth at the sixth week. Percentage increases in height of plant were 45.9, 39.4 and 40.0 for 100, 200 and 500 ppm treatments respectively. Such decreases were observed in the leaf numbers, root length and leaf chlorophyll concentration. The control sample showed 48.3 % increase in plant height which was not significant from the treated samples, an indication that C. odorata could survive such PCB concentration and could be used to remediate contaminated soil. Mean total PCB absorbed by C. odorata plant was between 6.40 and 64.60 ppm per kilogram of soil, leading to percentage PCB absorption of 0.03 and 17.03 % per kilogram of contaminated soil. PCBs were found mostly in the root tissues of the plants, and the Bioaccumulation factor were between 0.006-0.38. Total PCB absorbed by the plant increases as the concentration of the compound is increased. With these high BAF ensured, C. odorata could serve as a promising candidate plant in phytoextraction of PCB from a PCB-contaminated soil.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Biological treatment, Phytoremediation, Soil restoration, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aroclor

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2433 Indirect Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Leaf and Stem Explants of Crassula ovata 42-45 (Mill.) Druce: An Ornamental Medicinal Plant

Authors: A. B. A. Ahmed, R. M. Taha, D. I. Amar

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and indirect plant regeneration of Crassula ovata (Mill.) Druce – the famous ornamental plant. Experiment no.1: Callus induction was obtained from leaf and stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various plant growth regulators (PGRs). Effects of different PGRs, plant regeneration and subsequent plantlet conversion were also assessed. Indirect plant regeneration was achieved from the callus of stem explants by the addition of 1.5 mg/L Kinetin (KN) alone. Best shoot induction was achieved (6.5 shoots/per explant) after 60 days. For successful rooting, regenerated plantlets were sub-cultured on the same MS media supplemented with 1.5 mg/L KN alone. The rooted plantlets were acclimatized and the survival rate was 90%. Experiment no.2: Results revealed that 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D alone and in combination with 1.0 mg/L 6-Benzyladenine (BA) gave 89.8% callus from the stem explants as compared to leaf explants. Callus proliferation and somatic embryo formation were also evaluated by ‘Double Staining Method’ and different stages of somatic embryogenesis were revealed by scanning electron microscope. Full Strength MS medium produced the highest number (49.6%) of cotyledonary stage somatic embryos (SEs). Mature cotyledonary stage SEs developed into plantlets after 12 weeks of culture. Well-rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized at the survival rate of 85%. Indirectly regenerated plants did not show any detectable variation in morphological and growth characteristics when compared with the donor plant.

Keywords: Somatic Embryogenesis, callus induction, indirect plant regeneration, double staining, Crassula ovata

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2432 Design and Control of an Integrated Plant for Simultaneous Production of γ-Butyrolactone and 2-Methyl Furan

Authors: Ahtesham Javaid, Costin S. Bildea

Abstract:

The design and plantwide control of an integrated plant where the endothermic 1,4-butanediol dehydrogenation and the exothermic furfural hydrogenation is simultaneously performed in a single reactor is studied. The reactions can be carried out in an adiabatic reactor using small hydrogen excess and with reduced parameter sensitivity. The plant is robust and flexible enough to allow different production rates of γ-butyrolactone and 2-methyl furan, keeping high product purities. Rigorous steady state and dynamic simulations performed in AspenPlus and AspenDynamics to support the conclusions.

Keywords: Process integration, dehydrogenation and hydrogenation, reaction coupling, design and control

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2431 Bio Energy from Metabolic Activity of Bacteria in Plant and Soil Using Novel Microbial Fuel Cells

Authors: B. Samuel Raj, Solomon R. D. Jebakumar

Abstract:

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an emerging and promising method for achieving sustainable energy since they can remove contaminated organic matter and simultaneously generate electricity. Our approach was driven in three different ways like Bacterial fuel cell, Soil Microbial fuel cell (Soil MFC) and Plant Microbial fuel cell (Plant MFC). Bacterial MFC: Sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) were isolated and identified as the efficient electricigens which is able to produce ±2.5V (689mW/m2) and it has sustainable activity for 120 days. Experimental data with different MFC revealed that high electricity production harvested continuously for 90 days 1.45V (381mW/m2), 1.98V (456mW/m2) respectively. Biofilm formation was confirmed on the surface of the anode by high content screening (HCS) and scanning electron Microscopic analysis (SEM). Soil MFC: Soil MFC was constructed with low cost and standard Mudwatt soil MFC was purchased from keegotech (USA). Vermicompost soil (V1) produce high energy (± 3.5V for ± 400 days) compared to Agricultural soil (A1) (± 2V for ± 150 days). Biofilm formation was confirmed by HCS and SEM analysis. This finding provides a method for extracting energy from organic matter, but also suggests a strategy for promoting the bioremediation of organic contaminants in subsurface environments. Our Soil MFC were able to run successfully a 3.5V fan and three LED continuously for 150 days. Plant MFC: Amaranthus candatus (P1) and Triticum aestivium (P2) were used in Plant MFC to confirm the electricity production from plant associated microbes, four uniform size of Plant MFC were constructed and checked for energy production. P2 produce high energy (± 3.2V for 40 days) with harvesting interval of two times and P1 produces moderate energy without harvesting interval (±1.5V for 24 days). P2 is able run 3.5V fan continuously for 10days whereas P1 needs optimization of growth conditions to produce high energy.

Keywords: Biofilm, microbial fuel cell, soil microbial fuel cell, plant microbial fuel cell

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2430 Effect in Animal Nutrition of Genetical Modified Plant(GM)

Authors: Mustafa Selcuk Alatas, Abdullah Özbilgin, Oguzhan Kahraman

Abstract:

Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The land area devoted to the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) plants has increased in recent years: in 2012 such plants were grown on over 170 million hectares globally, in 28 different countries, and are at resent used by 17.3 million farmers worldwide. The majority of GM plants are used as feed material for food-producing farm animals. Despite the facts that GM plants have been used as feed for years and a number of feeding studies have proved their safety for animals, they still give rise to emotional public discussion.

Keywords: Safety, Plant, Crops, genetical modified plant(GM)

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2429 Studies on Tolerance of Chickpea to Some Pre and Post Emergence Herbicides

Authors: Rahamdad Khan, Ijaz Ahmad Khan

Abstract:

In modern agriculture the herbicides application are considered the most effective and fast in action against all types of weeds. But it’s a fact that the herbicide applicator cannot totally secure the crop plants from the possible herbicide injuries that further leads to several destructive changes in plant biochemistry. For the purpose pots studies were undertaken to test the tolerance order of chickpea against pre- emergence herbicides (Stomp 330 EC- Dual Gold 960 EC) and post- emergence herbicides (Topik 15 WP- Puma Super 75 EW- Isoproturon 500 EW) during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The experimental design was CRD with three replications. Plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of seeds plant-1, nodulation, seed protein contents and other growth related parameters in chickpea were examined during the investigations. The results indicate that all the enquire herbicides gave a significant variation to all recorded parameter of chick pea except nodule fresh and dray weight. Moreover the toxic effect of pre-emergence herbicide on chickpea was found higher as compared to post-emergence herbicides. Minimum chickpea plant height (50.50 cm), number of nodule plant-1 (17.83) and lowest seed protein (14.13 %) was recorded in Stomp 330 EC. Similarly the outmost seeds plant-1 (29.66) and number of nodule plant-1 (21) were found for Puma Super 75 EW. The results further showed that the highest seed protein content (21.75 and 21.15 %) was recorded for control/ untreated and Puma Super 75EW. Taking under concentration the possible negative impact of the herbicides the chemical application must be minimized up to certain extent at which the crop is mostly secure. However chemical weed control has many advantages so we should train our farmer regarding the proper use of agro chemical to minimize the loses in crops while using herbicides.

Keywords: Protein, Herbicides, chickpea, weed, stomp 330 EC

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2428 Antioxidant Capacity of Maize Corn under Drought Stress from the Different Zones of Growing

Authors: Astghik R. Sukiasyan

Abstract:

The semidental sweet maize of Armenian population under drought stress and pollution by some heavy metals (HMs) in sites along the river Debet was studied. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to investigate the antioxidant status of maize plant in order to identify simple and reliable criteria for assessing the degree of adaptation of plants to abiotic stress of drought and HMs. It was found that in the case of removal from the mainstream of the river, the antioxidant status of the plant varies. As parameters, the antioxidant status of the plant has been determined by the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), taking into account the characteristics of natural drought of this region. The possibility of using some indicators which characterized the antioxidant status of the plant was concluded. The criteria for assessing the extent of environmental pollution could be HMs. This fact can be used for the early diagnosis of diseases in the population who lives in these areas and uses corn as the main food.

Keywords: heavy metal, drought stress, antioxidant status, maize corn

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2427 Investigation of an Alkanethiol Modified Au Electrode as Sensor for the Antioxidant Activity of Plant Compounds

Authors: Dana A. Thal, Heike Kahlert, Fritz Scholz

Abstract:

Thiol molecules are known to easily form self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on Au surfaces. Depending on the thiol’s structure, surface modifications via SAM can be used for electrode sensor development. In the presented work, 1-decanethiol coated polycrystalline Au electrodes were applied to indirectly assess the radical scavenging potential of plant compounds and extracts. Different plant compounds with reported antioxidant properties as well as an extract from the plant Gynostemma pentaphyllum were tested for their effectiveness to prevent SAM degradation on the sensor electrodes via photolytically generated radicals in aqueous media. The SAM degradation was monitored over time by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurements. The results were compared to established antioxidant assays. The obtained data showed an exposure time and concentration dependent degradation process of the SAM at the electrode’s surfaces. The tested substances differed in their capacity to prevent SAM degradation. Calculated radical scavenging activities of the tested plant compounds were different for different assays. The presented method poses a simple system for radical scavenging evaluation and, considering the importance of the test system in antioxidant activity evaluation, might be taken as a bridging tool between in-vivo and in-vitro antioxidant assay in order to obtain more biologically relevant results in antioxidant research.

Keywords: alkanethiol SAM, plant antioxidant, polycrystalline Au, radical scavenger

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2426 The Overexpression of Horsegram MURLK Improves Regulation of Cell Death and Defense Responses to Microbial Pathogens

Authors: Shikha Masand, Sudesh Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

Certain protein kinases have been shown to be crucial for plant cell signaling pathways associated with plant immune responses. Here we identified a horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] malectin-like leucine rich receptor-like protein kinase (RLK) gene MuRLK. The functional MuRLK protein preferentially binds to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine residues. MuRLK exists in the cytoplasm and also localizes to the plasma membrane of plant cells via its N-terminus. Over-expression of MuRLK in Arabidopsis enhances the basal resistance to infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Alternaria brassicicola and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, are associated with elevated ROS bursts, MAPK activation, thus ultimately leading to hypersensitive cell death. Moreover, salicylic acid-dependent and jasmonic acid-dependent defense responses are also enhanced in the MuRLK-overexpressed plants that lead to HR-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that MuRLK plays a key role in the regulation of plant cell death, early and late defense responses after the recognition of microbial pathogens.

Keywords: cell death, Plant Defense, horsegram, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, MuRLK, ROS burst

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2425 Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally for the Treatment of Fungal Infections and Related Ailments in South Africa

Authors: T. C. Machaba, S. M. Mahlo

Abstract:

The current study investigates the antifungal properties of crude plant extracts from selected medicinal plant species. Eight plant species used by the traditional healers and local people to treat fungal infections were selected for further phytochemical analysis and biological assay. The selected plant species were extracted with solvent of various polarities such as acetone, methanol, ethanol, hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and water. Leaf, roots and bark extracts of Maerua juncea Pax, Albuca seineri (Engl & K. Krause) J.C Manning & Goldblatt, Senna italica Mill., Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels, Indigofera circinata Benth., Schinus molle L., Asparagus buchananii Bak., were screened for antifungal activity against three animal fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans). All plant extracts were active against the tested microorganisms. Acetone, dichloromethane, hexane and ethanol extracts of Senna italica and Elephantorrhiza elephantine had excellent activity against Candida albicans and A. fumigatus with the lowest MIC value of 0.02 mg/ml. Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds presence in the plant extracts. No active compounds were observed in plant extracts of Indigofera circinnata, Schinus molle and Pentarrhinum insipidum with good antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. fumigatus indicating possible synergism between separated metabolites.

Keywords: antifungal activity, ethnobotanical survey, minimum inhibitory concentration, bioautography

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2424 Quantitative Elemental Analysis of Cyperus rotundus Medicinal Plant by Particle Induced X-Ray Emission and ICP-MS Techniques

Authors: J. Chandrasekhar Rao, B. G. Naidu, G. J. Naga Raju, P. Sarita

Abstract:

Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques have been employed in this work to determine the elements present in the root of Cyperus rotundus medicinal plant used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr were commonly identified and quantified by both PIXE and ICP-MS whereas the elements Li, Be, Al, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb and U were determined by ICP-MS and Cl, K, Ca, Ti and Br were determined by PIXE. The regional variation of elemental content has also been studied by analyzing the same plant collected from different geographical locations. Information on the elemental content of the medicinal plant would be helpful in correlating its ability in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and also in deciding the dosage of this herbal medicine from the metal toxicity point of view. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were also applied to the data matrix to understand the correlation among the elements.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, elements, cyperus rotundus, PIXE, CP-MS

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2423 Benzpyrimoxan: An Insecticide for the Control of Rice Plant Hoppers

Authors: E. Satoh, R. Kasahara, T. Aoki, K. Fukatsu, D. Venkata Ramanarao, H. Harayama, T. Murata, A. Suwa

Abstract:

Rice plant hoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) have been causing extensive economic damage in rice and are considered as serious threat in rice producing countries of Asia. They have developed resistance to major groups of chemical insecticide, and severe outbreaks occur commonly throughout Asia. To control these nuisance pests, Nihon Nohyaku Co., Ltd., recently discovered an insecticide, benzpyrimoxan (proposed ISO name), which is under development as NNI-1501 (development code). Benzpyrimoxan has a unique chemical structure which contains benzyloxy and cyclic acetal groups on pyrimidine moiety (5-(1,3-dioxan-2-yl)-4-[4- (trifluoromethyl)benzyloxy]pyrimidine). In order to clarify the biological properties of benzpyrimoxan, we conducted several experiments and found the following results. Benzpyrimoxan has high activity against nymphal stages of rice plant hoppers without any adulticidal activity. It provides excellent and long lasting control against rice plant hoppers, including populations that have developed resistance to several other chemical groups of insecticide. The study on its mode of action is undergoing. These features highlight the versatility of this insecticide as an effective and valuable tool from the viewpoints of insecticide resistance management and integrated pest management program. With the use of benzpyrimoxan, farmers shall be able to lead the best yield potential by keeping the population density of rice plant hoppers and associated virus diseases under control.

Keywords: insecticide, pyrimidine, acetal, benzpyrimoxan, NNI-1501, rice plant hoppers

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
2422 Heart Rate Variability as a Measure of Dairy Calf Welfare

Authors: J. B. Clapp, S. Croarkin, C. Dolphin, S. K. Lyons

Abstract:

Chronic pain or stress in farm animals impacts both on their welfare and productivity. Measuring chronic pain or stress can be problematic using hormonal or behavioural changes because hormones are modulated by homeostatic mechanisms and observed behaviour can be highly subjective. We propose that heart rate variability (HRV) can quantify chronic pain or stress in farmed animal and represents a more robust and objective measure of their welfare.

Keywords: welfare, heart rate variability, dairy calf, non-invasive, biomonitor

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2421 Functional Relevance of Flavanones and Other Plant Products in the Remedy of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Himanshi Allahabadi

Abstract:

Plants have found a widespread use in medicine traditionally, including the treatment of cognitive disorders, especially, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In terms of indigenous medicine, it has been found that many potential drugs can be isolated from plant products, including those for dementia. Plant product is widely distributed in plant kingdom and forms a major antioxidant source in the human diet, is Polyphenols. There are four important groups of polyphenols: phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes, and lignans. Due to their high antioxidant capacity, interest in their study has greatly increased. There are several methods for discovering and characterizing active compounds isolated from plant sources, now available. The results obtained so far seem fulfilling, but additionally, mechanism of functioning of polyphenols at the molecular level, as well as their application in human health need to be researched upon. Also, even though the neuroprotective effects of flavonoids have been much talked about, much of the data in support of this statement has come from animal studies rather than human studies. This review is based on a multi-faceted study of medicinal plants, i.e. phytochemicals, with special focus on flavanones and their relevance in remedy of Parkinson's disease.

Keywords: Dementia, parkinson's disease, polyphenols, flavanones, substantia nigra

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
2420 Extraction and Characterization of Ethiopian Hibiscus macranthus Bast Fiber

Authors: Solomon Tilahun Desisa, Muktar Seid Hussen

Abstract:

Hibiscus macranthus is one of family Malvaceae and genus Hibiscus plant which grows mainly in western part of Ethiopia. Hibiscus macranthus is the most adaptable and abundant plant in the nation, which are used as an ornamental plant often a hedge or fence plant, and used as a firewood after harvesting the stem together with the bark, and used also as a fiber for trying different kinds of things by forming the rope. However, Hibiscus macranthus plant fibre has not been commercially exploited and extracted properly. This study of work describes the possibility of mechanical and retting methods of Hibiscus macranthus fibre extraction and characterization. Hibiscus macranthus fibre is a bast fibre which obtained naturally from the stem or stalks of the dicotyledonous plant since it is a natural cellulose plant fiber. And the fibre characterized by studying its physical and chemical properties. The physical characteristics were investigated as follows, including the length of 100-190mm, fineness of 1.0-1.2Tex, diameter under X100 microscopic view 16-21 microns, the moisture content of 12.46% and dry tenacity of 48-57cN/Tex along with breaking extension of 0.9-1.6%. Hibiscus macranthus fiber productivity was observed that 12-18% of the stem out of which more than 65% is primary long fibers. The fiber separation methods prove to decrease of non-cellulose ingredients in the order of mechanical, water and chemical methods. The color measurement also shows the raw Hibiscus macranthus fiber has a natural golden color according to YID1925 and paler look under both retting methods than mechanical separation. Finally, it is suggested that Hibiscus macranthus fibre can be used for manufacturing of natural and organic crop and coffee packages as well as super absorbent, fine and high tenacity textile products.

Keywords: Characterization, Extraction, Hibiscus macranthus, bast fiber

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2419 The Impact of Different Rhizobium leguminosarum Strains on the Protein Content of Peas and Broad Beans

Authors: Liene Strauta, Ina Alsina, Alise Senberga, Laila Dubova, Ieva Erdberga

Abstract:

Legume symbiotic relationship with nitrogen fixating bacteria Rhizobim leguminosarum is an important factor used to improve the productivity of legumes, due to the fact that rhizobia can supply plant with the necessary amount of nitrogen. R. leguminosarum strains have shown different activity in fixing nitrogen. Depending on the chosen R. leguminosarum strain, host plant biochemical content can be altered. In this study we focused particularly on the changes in protein content in beans (using two different varieties) and peas (five different varieties) due to the use of several different R. leguminosarum strains (four strains for both beans and peas). Overall, the protein content increase was observed after seed inoculation with R. leguminosarum. Strain and plant cultivar interaction specification was observed. The effect of R. leguminosarum inoculation on the content of protein was dependent on the R. leguminosarum strain used. Plant cultivar also appeared to have a decisive role in protein content formation with the help of R. leguminosaru.

Keywords: Soil, protein content, legumes, rhizobia strains

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
2418 Modulation of Alternative Respiration Pathyway under Salt Stress in Exogenous Estrogen-Treated Maize Seedlings

Authors: Mucip Genisel, Serkan Erdal, Farideh K. Khosroushahi

Abstract:

Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stress factors that restricts arable land and reduces crop productivity worldwide. High salt concentration adversely affects plant growth and development inducing water deficit, ionic toxicity, nutrient imbalance, and lead to oxidative stress. Although the stimulating role of mammalian sex hormones on various biological and biochemical processes under normal and stress condition have been proven, there is no study regarding with these hormone's effect on modulation of the alternative respiration pathway and AOX gene expression. In this study, changes in alternative respiration pathway in leaves of maize seedlings under salinity and the possible modulating effect of estrogen on these changes were investigated. Maize seedlings were grown in a hydroponic media for 11 days and then were exposed to salt stress for 3 days after being sprayed estrogen. The data obtained from oxygen consumption revealed that salt stress elevated cellular respiration value in the leaves. In addition, a marked increase was observed at alternative respiration level in salt-stressed seedlings. Compared to salt application alone, supplementation with estrogen resulted in a significant rise in alternative oxidase (AOX) activities. Similarly, while salt stress caused to rise in expressions of AOX gene compared to control seedlings, estrogen application resulted in further activation of these genes’ expression compared to stressed-seedlings alone. These data revealed that mitigating role of estrogen against the detrimental effects of salt stress is linked to modulation of alternative respiration pathway.

Keywords: Estrogen, maize, alternative oxidase, Ssalt stress, AOX

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
2417 Ramadan as a Model of Intermittent Fasting: Effects on Gut Hormones, Appetite and Body Composition in Diabetes vs. Controls

Authors: Turki J. Alharbi, Jencia Wong, Dennis Yue, Tania P. Markovic, Julie Hetherington, Ted Wu, Belinda Brooks, Radhika Seimon, Alice Gibson, Stephanie L. Silviera, Amanda Sainsbury, Tanya J. Little

Abstract:

Fasting has been practiced for centuries and is incorporated into the practices of different religions including Islam, whose followers intermittently fast throughout the month of Ramadan. Thus, Ramadan presents a unique model of prolonged intermittent fasting (IF). Despite a growing body of evidence for a cardio-metabolic and endocrine benefit of IF, detailed studies of the effects of IF on these indices in type 2 diabetes are scarce. We studied 5 subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 7 healthy controls (C) at baseline (pre), and in the last week of Ramadan (post). Fasting circulating levels of glucose, HbA1c and lipids, as well as body composition (with DXA) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured. Plasma gut hormone levels and appetite responses to a mixed meal were also studied. Data are means±SEM. Ramadan decreased total fat mass (-907±92 g, p=0.001) and trunk fat (-778±190 g, p=0.014) in T2DM but not in controls, without any reductions in lean mass or REE. There was a trend towards a decline in plasma FFA in both groups. Ramadan had no effect on body weight, glycemia, blood pressure, or plasma lipids in either group. In T2DM only, the area under the curve for post-meal plasma ghrelin concentrations increased after Ramadan (pre:6632±1737 vs. post:9025±2518 pg/ml.min-1, p=0.045). Despite this increase in orexigenic ghrelin, subjective appetite scores were not altered by Ramadan. Meal-induced plasma concentrations of the satiety hormone pancreatic polypeptide did not change during Ramadan, but were higher in T2DM compared to controls (post: C: 23486±6677 vs. T2DM: 62193±6880 pg/ml.min-1, p=0.003. In conclusion, Ramadan, as a model for IF appears to have more favourable effects on body composition in T2DM, without adverse effects on metabolic control or subjective appetite. These data suggest that IF may be particularly beneficial in T2DM as a nutritional intervention. Larger studies are warranted.

Keywords: Obesity, Type 2 diabetes, intermittent fasting, appetite regulating hormones

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
2416 Effect of Nitrogen and Gibberellic Acid at Different Level and their Interaction on Calendula

Authors: Pragnyashree Mishra, Shradhanjali Mohapatra

Abstract:

The present investigation is carried out to know the effect of foliar feeding of nitrogen and gibberellic acid on vegetative growth, flowering behaviour and yield of calendula variety ‘Golden Emporer’. The experiment was laid out in RBD in rabi season of 2013-14. There are 16 treatments are taken at different level such as nitrogen (at 0%,1%,2%,3%) and GA3 (at 50 ppm,100ppm,150 ppm). Among them maximum height at bud initiation stage was obtained at 3% nitrogen (27.00 cm) and at 150 ppm GA3 (26.5 cm), fist flowering was obtained at 3% nitrogen(60.00 days) and at 150 ppm GA3 (63.75 days), maximum flower stalk length was obtained at 3% nitrogen(3.50 cm) and at 150 ppm GA3 (5.42 cm),maximum duration of flowering was obtained at 3% nitrogen(46.00 days) and at 150 ppm GA3 (46.50days), maximum number of flower was obtained at 3% nitrogen (89.00per plant) and at 150 ppm GA3 (83.50 per plant), maximum flower weight was obtained at 3% nitrogen(1.25 gm per flower) and at 150 ppm GA3 (1.50 gm per flower), maximum yield was was obtained at 3% nitrogen (110.00 gm per plant) and at 150 ppm GA3 (105.00gm per plant) and minimum of all character was obtained when 0% nitrogen0 ppm GA3. All interaction between nitrogen and GA3 was found in significant except the yield .

Keywords: calendula, golden emporer, GA3, nitrogen and gibberellic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
2415 Reclamation of Fly Ash Dykes Using Naturally Growing Plant Species

Authors: Neelima Meravi, Santosh Prajapati

Abstract:

The present study was conducted over a period of three years on fly ash dyke. The physicochemical analysis of fly ash (pH, WHC, BD, porosity, EC% OC & available P, heavy metal content etc.) was performed before and after the growth of plant species. Fly ash was analyzed after concentrated nitric acid digestion by atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-7000b(Shimadzu) for heavy metals. The dyke was colonized by the propagules of native species over a period of time, and it was observed that fly ash was contaminated by heavy metals and plants were able to ameliorate the metal concentration of dyke. The growth of plant species also improved the condition of fly ash so that it can be used for agricultural purposes. Phytosociological studies of the fly ash dyke were performed so that these plants may be used for reclamation of fly ash for subsequent use in agriculture.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, fly ash, reclamation, IVI, phytosociology

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
2414 Determination of Morphological Characteristics of Brassica napus, Sinapis arvensis, Sinapis alba and Camelina sativa

Authors: Betül Gıdık, Fadul Önemli

Abstract:

The Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) is an important family of plants that include many economically important vegetable production, industrial oilseed, spice, fodder crop species and energy production. Canola and mustard species that are in Brassicaceae family have too high contribution to world herbal production. In this study, genotypes of two kinds of (Caravel and Excalibul) canola (Brassica napus), wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis), white mustard (Sinapis alba) and Camelina (Camelina sativa) were grown in the experimental field, and their morphological characteristics were determined. According to the results of the research; plant length was varied between 76.75 cm and 151.50 cm, and the longest plant was belonging to species of Sinapis arvensis. The number of branches varied from 3.75 piece/plant to 17.75 piece/plant and the most numerous branch was counted in species of Sinapis alba. It was determined that the number of grains in one capsule was between 3.75 piece/capsule and 35.75 piece/capsule and the largest amount of grains in the one capsule was in the Excalibul variety of species of Brassica napus. In our research, it has been determined that the plant of Sinapis arvensis is a potential plant for industrial of oil production; such as Brassica napus, Sinapis alba and Camelina (Camelina sativa).

Keywords: Brassica napus, Canola, Camelina sativa, Sinapis alba, Sinapis arvensis, wild mustard

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
2413 Nucleotide Based Validation of the Endangered Plant Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae) by Evaluating Short Sequence Region of Plastid rbcL Gene

Authors: Abdullah Alaklabi, Ibrahim A. Arif, Sameera O. Bafeel, Ahmad H. Alfarhan, Anis Ahamed, Jacob Thomas, Mohammad A. Bakir

Abstract:

Diospyros mespiliformis (Hochst. ex A.DC.; Ebenaceae) is a large deciduous medicinal plant. This plant species is currently listed as endangered in Saudi Arabia. Molecular identification of this plant species based on short sequence regions (571 and 664 bp) of plastid rbcL (ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase) gene was investigated in this study. The endangered plant specimens were collected from Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia (GPS coordinate: 19.8543987, 41.3059349). Phylogenetic tree inferred from the rbcL gene sequences showed that this species is very closely related with D. brandisiana. The close relationship was also observed among D. bejaudii, D. Philippinensis and D. releyi (≥99.7% sequence homology). The partial rbcL gene sequence region (571 bp) that was amplified by rbcL primer-pair rbcLaF-rbcLaR failed to discriminate D. mespiliformis from the closely related plant species, D. brandisiana. In contrast, primer-pair rbcL1F-rbcL724R yielded longer amplicon, discriminated the species from D. brandisiana and demonstrated nucleotide variations in 3 different sites (645G>T; 663A>C; 710C>G). Although D. mespiliformis (EU980712) and D. brandisiana (EU980656) are very closely related species (99.4%); however, studied specimen showed 100% sequence homology with D. mespiliformis and 99.6% with D. brandisiana. The present findings showed that rbcL short sequence region (664 bp) of plastid rbcL gene, amplified by primer-pair rbcL1F-rbcL724R, can be used for authenticating samples of D. mespiliforformis and may provide help in authentic identification and management process of this medicinally valuable endangered plant species.

Keywords: Diospyros mespiliformis, endangered plant, identification partial rbcL

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
2412 Exergetic Analysis of Steam Turbine Power Plant Operated in Chemical Industry

Authors: F. Hafdhi, T. Khir, A. Ben Yahia, A. Ben Brahim

Abstract:

An Energetic and exergetic analysis is conducted on a Steam Turbine Power Plant of an existing Phosphoric Acid Factory. The heat recovery systems used in different parts of the plant are also considered in the analysis. Mass, thermal and exergy balances are established on the main compounds of the factory. A numerical code is established using EES software to perform the calculations required for the thermal and exergy plant analysis. The effects of the key operating parameters such as steam pressure and temperature, mass flow rate as well as seawater temperature, on the cycle performances are investigated. A maximum Exergy Loss Rate of about 72% is obtained for the melters, followed by the condensers, heat exchangers and the pumps. The heat exchangers used in the phosphoric acid unit present exergetic efficiencies around 33% while 60% to 72% are obtained for steam turbines and blower. For the explored ranges of HP steam temperature and pressure, the exergy efficiencies of steam turbine generators STGI and STGII increase of about 2.5% and 5.4% respectively. In the same way, optimum HP steam flow rate values, leading to the maximum exergy efficiencies are defined.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, steam turbine generator, exergy efficiency, phosphoric acid plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 173