Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Gayatri Nahak

17 A Comparative Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of in vivo and in vitro Raised Holarrhena antidysenterica Linn.

Authors: Gayatri Nahak, Satyajit Kanungo, Rajani Kanta Sahu

Abstract:

Holarrhena antidysenterica Linn. (Apocynaceae) is a typical Indian medicinal plant popularly known as “Indrajav”. Traditionally the plant has been considered a popular remedy for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea, intestinal worms and the seeds of this plant are also used as an anti-diabetic remedy. In the present study axillary shoot multiplication, callus induction and shoot regeneration from callus culture were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. Then in vivo and in vitro grown healthy plants were selected for study of antioxidant activity through DPPH and OH methods. Significantly higher antioxidant activity and phenol contents were observed in vitro raised plant in comparison to in vivo plants. The findings indicated the greater amount of phenolic compounds leads to more potent radical scavenging effect as shown in in vitro raised plant in comparison to in vivo plants which showed the ability to utilize tissue culture techniques towards development of desired bioactive metabolites from in vitro culture as an alternative way to avoid using endangered plants in pharmaceutical purposes.

Keywords: Holarrhena antidysenterica, in vitro, in vivo, antioxidant activity

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16 Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for Optimization of Fluoride Removal by Using Banana Peel

Authors: Pallavi N., Gayatri Jadhav

Abstract:

Good quality water is of prime importance for a healthy living. Fluoride is one such mineral present in water which causes many health problems in humans and specially children. Fluoride is said to be a double edge sword because lesser and higher concentration of fluoride in drinking water can cause both dental and skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride is one of the important mineral usually present at a higher concentration in ground water. There are many researches being carried out for defluoridation method. In the present research, fluoride removal is demonstrated using banana peel which is a biowaste as a biocoagulant. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is a statistical design tool which is used to design the experiment. Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to determine the influence of the pH and dosage of the coagulant on the optimal removal of fluoride from a simulated water sample. 895 of fluoride removal were obtained in a acidic pH range of 4 – 9 and bio coagulant dosage of dosage of 18 – 20mg/L.

Keywords: Fluoride, Response Surface Methodology, Dosage, banana peel

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15 Evaluation of Two DNA Vaccine Constructs in Labeo rohita against Edwardsiella tarda

Authors: Ranjeeta Kumari, Makesh M, Gayatri Tripathi, K V Rajendran, Megha Bedekar

Abstract:

A comparative study on DNA immunization with recombinant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) construct of Edwardsiella tarda (pGPD group) and a bicistronic construct expressing GAPDH plus IFN-γ of Labeo rohita as adjuvant (pGPD+IFN group) was undertaken in Labeo rohita along with the control animals. Successful co-expression of two genes that is GAPDH and IFN-γ was confirmed in SSN-1 cells line by RT-qPCR and western blot. The protective immune response of host to DNA vaccine construct was determined by RPS and specific antibody production. Fishes immunized with plasmids via intramuscular injection (I/M) exhibited a considerable relative percentage survivability of 66.66% in pGPD+IFN immunized group and 53.34% in pGPD immunized group after challenge with E. tarda. Antibody response was also significantly high in pGPD+IFN group at all time points under study. This was analysed by competitive ELISA, using anti GAPDH monoclonal antibodies. The experiment revealed that the GAPDH gene of E. tarda is one of the ideal candidates for generating protective immune response in L. rohita. Further addition of Interferon gamma to DNA vaccine construct can enhance the immune response in host.

Keywords: DNA vaccine, Edwardsiella tarda, Labeo rohita, zoonosis, immune response

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14 Sustainable Approach for Strategic Planning of Construction of Buildings using Multi-Criteria Decision Making Tools

Authors: Kishor Bhagwat, Gayatri Vyas

Abstract:

Construction industry is earmarked with complex processes depending on the nature and scope of the project. In recent years, developments in this sector are remarkable and have resulted in both positive and negative impacts on the environment and human being. Sustainable construction can be looked upon as one of the solution to overcome the negative impacts since sustainable construction is a vast concept, which includes many parameters, and sometimes the use of multi-criteria decision making [MCDM] tools becomes necessary. The main objective of this study is to determine the weightage of sustainable building parameters with the help of MCDM tools. Questionnaire survey was conducted to examine the perspective of respondents on the importance of weights of the criterion, and the respondents were architects, green building consultants, and civil engineers. This paper presents an overview of research related to Indian and international green building rating systems and MCDM. The results depict that economy, environmental health, and safety, site selection, climatic condition, etc., are important parameters in sustainable construction.

Keywords: green building, sustainability, multi-criteria decision making method [MCDM], analytical hierarchy process [AHP], technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution [TOPSIS], entropy

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13 Peer Group Approach: An Oral Health Intervention from Children for Children at Primary School in Klungkung, Bali, Indonesia

Authors: Regina Tedjasulaksana, Maria Martina Nahak, A. A. Gede Agung, Ni Made Widhiasti

Abstract:

Strategic effort to realize the empowerment of community in school is through the peer group approach so that it needs to choose the students who are trained as the’ little dentist’ in order to have the cognitive and skills to participate in the school dental health effort (UKGS) program, such as providing oral health education to the other students. Aim: To assessed the effectiveness of peer group approach to enhance the oral health knowledge level of schoolchildren at primary school in Klungkung, Bali. Methods: Experimental study using the pre-post test without control group design. The differences of knowledge levels, tooth brushing behavior and oral hygiene status (using PHP-M index) of 10 students before and after trained as the little dentists were analyzed using paired t-test. The correlations between knowledge level and tooth brushing behavior and correlations between tooth brushing behavior and oral hygiene before and after trained as the little dentists were analyzed using Spearman. Furthermore, the trained little dentists provide oral health education to 102 students of grade 1 to 5 at their school once a week for 3 months. The students’ knowledge level scores of each grade were taken every 21 days as many as three times The difference of it was analyzed using Repeated Measured. Result: The mean scores among all little dentists before and after training for each of knowledge level were each 63.05 + 5.62 and 85.00 + 7.81, tooth brushing behavior were each 31.00 + 14.49 and 100.00 + 0.00 and oral hygiene status using PHP-M index were each 32.80 + 10.17 and 11.40 + 8.01. The knowledge level, tooth brushing behavior and oral hygiene status of 10 students before and after trained as the little dentists were different significantly (p<0.05). Before and after trained as the little dentists it showed that significant correlations between knowledge level with tooth brushing behavior (p<0.05) and significant correlations between tooth brushing behavior and oral hygiene (p<0.05). The mean scores of knowledge level among all students before (pre-test) and after (post-test (1),(2),(3)) getting oral health education from little dentists for each, of grade 1 were 40.00 + 17.97; 67.85 + 18.88; 81.72 +26.48 and 70.00 + 22.87, grade 2 were 40.00 + 17.97; 67.85 + 18.88; 81.72 + 26.48 and 70.00 + 22.87, grade 3 were 65.83 + 23.94; 72.50 + 26.08; 80.41 + 24.93 and 83.75 + 19.74, grade 4 were 88.57 + 12.92; 90.71 + 9.97; 92.85 + 10.69 and 93.57 + 6.33 and grade 5 were 86.66 + 13.40; 93.33 + 9.16; 94.16 + 10.17 and 98.33 + 4.81. The students’ knowledge level of grade 1,2 and 3 before and after getting oral health education from little dentists showed significant different (p<0.05), meanwhile there was no significant different on grade 4 and 5 (p<0.05) although mean scores showed an increase. Conclusion: Peer group approach can be used to enhance the oral health knowledge level of schoolchildren at primary school in Klungkung, Bali.

Keywords: small dentists, oral health, peer group approach, school children

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12 The Symbiotic Relation of Mythical Stories in Transforming Human Lives

Authors: Gayatri Kanwar

Abstract:

The purpose of this research paper is to explore the power of myth in changing human lives; it establishes patterns in the human psyche, affects the way of thinking, as myths unveil various subjects, ideas, and challenges. Through mythological stories one comes to understand the images behind the emotions and feelings, they influence him as it changes his thought patterns, their therapeutic sets the individual on the path of healing and transforms human lives. Every civilization in the olden times had a vast source of myths which they lived by. They were not ordinary stories of everyday life, but exemplary cases narrated through oral traditions in a sacred manner revealed the 'way to live life'. The mythical stories have a spiritual touch which brought him to the acceptance of suffering or finding a solution to his life problems. In modern times, the significance of the age old myth has lost their touch. Each one of us bears countless stories inside ourselves of our own lives and all its happenings. Therefore, each being is a natural narrator. Everybody tells stories about their lives; hence, one tends to know oneself as well as seeks understanding of others through them. When one remembers their stories they speak in narratives. As stated by Jung, these narratives grow into a personal mythology one lives by. Nonetheless, there are times when one becomes stuck in their own stories or myths. Hence, mythology can change one’s perception and can open pathways to other ways of discovering, feeling and experiencing one’s lives.

Keywords: Power of Myths, Significance of myths in modern times, Transforming human lives, Benefits to Society

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11 A Loop between Victimhood and Women with Choice: Case of Trafficked North Korean Women in China

Authors: Jinah Kwon

Abstract:

Why are there North Korean women who prefer their life in China, living as an undocumented migrant, to legal residence in South Korea? What is the line between choice and coercion in trafficking and how does it relate to family, especially in Asian culture? Is family function as a haven in the unsecured world or a fetter against the better world? Are the current international mechanisms on trafficked victims fully reflecting the voices of the victims? This study is about the paradoxical conditions of North Korean women situated in China as the trafficked victim and as members of their Chinese family. In order to answer the questions above, this study explored the case of trafficked North Korean women in China. This mixed-methods study employed in-depth interviews of 18 trafficked women living in China and a survey of 98 North Korean origin women residing in South Korea. From the survey, 40 out of 98 women from the survey indicated an unexpected function of trafficking, which was used as a channel of supporting the subjectivity of women in the North Korean context. Such results supported the actual observation and narratives of North Korean women who experienced trafficking from the author’s two visits to the Northeastern area of China in 2012 and 2018, respectively. Based on the findings, the last part of the study makes policy implications on international trafficking mechanisms—theories by Gayatri Spivak and Herbert A. Simon was employed to approach the relatively less dealt aspect of trafficking.

Keywords: China, North Korean women, trafficking, victimhood

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10 Redefining Urban Landfills – Transformation of a Sanitary Landfill in Indian Cities

Authors: N. L. Divya Gayatri

Abstract:

In India, over 377 million urban people generate 62 million tons of municipal solid waste per annum. Forty-three million tons are collected, 11.9 million are treated and 31 million tons is dumped in landfill sites. The study aims to have an overall understanding of the working and functioning of a sanitary landfill from the siting to the closure stage and identifying various landscape design techniques that can be implemented in a landfill site and come up with a set of guidelines by analyzing the existing policies and guidelines pertaining to landfills. Constituents of municipal solid waste, methods of landfilling, issues, impacts, Mitigation strategies, Landscape design strategies, design approaches towards a landfill, infrastructure requirements, end-use opportunities have been discussed. The objective is to study the ecological and environmental degradation prevention methods, compare various techniques in remediation, study issues in landfill sites in India, analyze scope and opportunities and explore various landscape design strategies. The understanding of the function of landfills with respect to Municipal solid waste and landscaping is conveyed through this study. The study is limited to Landscape design factors in landfill design guidelines and policies mentioned with regard to the issues and impacts specific to the Indian context.

Keywords: sanitary landfill landscaping, environmental impact, municipal solid waste, guidelines, landscape design strategies, landscape design approaches

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9 Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Observations of Anthelminthic Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum on Paramphistomum cervi in Buffalo

Authors: Kiran Roat, Bhanupriya Sanger, Gayatri Swarnakar

Abstract:

Amphistomiasis disease is the main health problem throughout of the world and responsible for great economic losses to cattle industries, mostly to poor cattle farmers in developing countries. Among the rumen parasites, the Paramphistomum cervi were collected from the rumen of freshly slaughtered buffalo for the further treatment process. Trigonella foenum-graecum is commonly known as methi and fenugreek and their seeds are known for their therapeutic value. The present study was considered to evaluate in vitro efficacy of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum on P. cervi. 130 mg/ml concentration of aqueous extract shows total mortality of P. cervi at 5 hours. The ultrastructural surface topography of untreated animal was compared with a treated animal by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The body of untreated P. cervi in conical shape, tegumental surface is highly ridged with transverse folds and present abundance number of papillaes. Observations demonstrated that the body of treated P. cervi become shrunken & elongated. Treated parasite shows the deep breakage in tegument and the disappearance of tegumental folds & papillae. Severe blebs formations have been found. Above findings, it can be concluded that the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum can be used as an anthelminthic agent to eliminate P. cervi from the body of buffalo.

Keywords: Paramphistomum cervi, Trigonella foenum-graecum, scanning electron microscope, buffalo

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8 Study and Analysis of Permeable Articulated Concrete Blocks Pavement: With Reference to Indian Context

Authors: Shrikant Charhate, Gayatri Deshpande

Abstract:

Permeable pavements have significant benefits like managing runoff, infiltration, and carrying traffic over conventional pavements in terms of sustainability and environmental impact. Some of the countries are using this technique, especially at locations where durability and other parameters are of importance in nature; however, sparse work has been done on this concept. In India, this is yet to be adopted. In this work, the progress in the characterization and development of Permeable Articulated Concrete Blocks (PACB) pavement design is described and discussed with reference to Indian conditions. The experimentation and in-depth analysis was carried out considering conditions like soil erosion, water logging, and dust which are significant challenges caused due to impermeability of pavement. Concrete blocks with size 16.5’’x 6.5’’x 7’’ consisting of arch shape (4’’) at beneath and ½” PVC holes for articulation were casted. These blocks were tested for flexural strength. The articulation process was done with nylon ropes forming series of concrete block system. The total spacing between the blocks was kept about 8 to 10% of total area. The hydraulic testing was carried out by placing the articulated blocks with the combination of layers of soil, geotextile, clean angular aggregate. This was done to see the percentage of seepage through the entire system. The experimental results showed that with the shape of concrete block the flexural strength achieved was beyond the permissible limit. Such blocks with the combination could be very useful innovation in Indian conditions and useful at various locations compared to the traditional blocks as an alternative for long term sustainability.

Keywords: connections, geotextile, permeable ACB, pavements, stone base

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7 In Vitro Anthelmintic Effects of Citrullus colocynthis Fruit Extract on Fasciola gigantica of Domestic Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Udaipur, India

Authors: Rajnarayan Damor, Gayatri Swarnakar

Abstract:

Fasciola gigantica are present in the biliary ducts of liver and gall bladder of domestic buffaloes. They are very harmful and causes significant lose to live stock owners, on account of poor growth and lower productivity of domestic buffaloes. Synthetic veterinary drugs have been used to eliminate parasites from cattle but these drugs are unaffordable and inaccessible for poor cattle farmers. The in vitro anthelmintic effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruit extract against Fasciola gigantica parasites were observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. Fruit extracts of C. colocynthis exhibit highest mortality 100% at 50 mg/ml in 15th hour of exposure. The oral and ventral sucker appeared to be slightly more swollen than control and synthetic drug albendazole. The tegument showed submerged spines by the swollen tegument around them. The tegument of the middle region showed deep furrows, folding and submerged spines which either lied very flat against the surface or had become submerged in the tegument by the swollen tegument around them leaving deep furrows. Posterior region showed with deep folding in the tegument, completely disappearance of spines and swelling of the tegument led to completely submerged spines leaving spine socket. The present study revealed that fruit extracts of Citrullus colocynthis found to be potential sources for novel anthelmintic and justify their ethno-veterinary use.

Keywords: anthelmintic, buffalo, Citrullus colocynthis, Fasciola gigantica, mortality, tegument

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6 Anthelminthic Effect of Clitoria Ternatea on Paramphistomum Cervi in Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

Authors: Bhanupriya Sanger, Kiran Roat, Gayatri Swarnakar

Abstract:

Helminths including Paramphistomum Cervi (P. cervi) are a major cause of reduced production in livestock or domestic ruminant. Rajasthan is the largest state of India having a maximum number of livestock. The economy of rural people largely depends on livestock such as cow, buffalo, goat and sheep. The prevalence of P. cervi helminth parasite is extremely high in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) of Udaipur, which causes the disease paramphistomiasis. This disease mainly affects milk, meat, wool production and loss of life of buffalo. Chemotherapy is the only efficient and effective tool to cure and control the helminth P. cervi infection, as efficacious vaccines against helminth have not been developed so far. Various veterinary drugs like Albendazole have been used as the standard drug for eliminating P. cervi from buffalo, but these drugs are unaffordable and inaccessible for poor livestock farmers. The fruits, leaves and seeds of Clitoria ternatea Linn. are known for their ethno-medicinal value and commonly known as “Aprajita” in India. Seed extract of Clitoria ternatea found to have a significant anthelmintic action against Paramphistomum cervi at the dose of 35 mg/ml. The tegument of treated P. cervi was compared with controlled parasites by light microscopy. Treated P. cervi showed extensive distortion and destruction of the tegument including ruptured parenchymal cells, disruption of musculature cells, swelling and vacuolization in tegumental and sub tegumental cells. As a result, it can be concluded that the seeds of Clitoria ternatea can be used as the anthelmintic agent. Key words: Paramphistomiasis, Buffalo, Alcoholic extract, Paramphistomum cervi, Clitoria ternatea.

Keywords: buffalo, Clitoria ternatea, Paramphistomiasis, Paramphistomum cervi

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5 Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Isolates from Mastitis Milk of Cow and Buffalo in Udaipur, India

Authors: Hardik Goswami, Gayatri Swarnakar

Abstract:

-Mastitis disease has been known as one of the most costly diseases of dairy cattle and observed as an inflammatory disease of cow and buffalo udder. Mastitis badly affected animal health, quality of milk and economics of milk production along with cause’s great economic loss. Bacteria have been representing the most common etiological agents of mastitis. The antibiotic sensitivity test was important to attain accurate treatment of mastitis. The aim of present research work was to explore prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates recovered from cow and buffalo clinical mastitis milk sample. During the period of April 2010 to April 2014, total 1487 clinical mastitis milk samples of cow and buffalo were tested to check the prevalence of mastitis causing bacterial isolates. Milk samples were collected aseptically from the udder at the time of morning milking. The most prevalent bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (24.34%) followed by coliform bacteria (15.87%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus (13.85%), non-coliform bacteria (13.05%), mixed infection (12.51%), Streptococcus spp. (10.96%). Out of 1487, 140 (9.42%) mastitis milk samples showed no growth on culture media. Identification of bacteria made on the basis of Standard Microbial features and procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates was investigated by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. In vitro Antibiotic susceptibility test of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity to Gentamicin (74.6%), Ciprofloxacin (62.1%) and Amikacin (59.4%). The lower susceptibility was shown to Amoxicillin (21.6%), Erythromycin (26.4%) and Ceftizoxime (29.9%). Antibiotic sensitivity pattern revealed Gentamicin are the possible effective antibiotic against the major prevalent mastitis pathogens. Present research work would be helpful in increase production, quality and quantity of milk, increase annual income of dairy owners and improve health of cow and buffaloes.

Keywords: antibiotic, buffalo, cow, mastitis, prevalence

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4 The Family, Tradition and Change in Africa: The Perspective of Postcolonial African Fiction

Authors: Ayobami Kehinde

Abstract:

The literary representations of the family, tradition and change in African literature offer an immense, and as yet little theorised area of literary scholarship. Therefore, this paper explores the nexus among the family, tradition and change in five purposively selected post-colonial African fiction: Chimamanda Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus, Wale Okediran’s Tenants of the House, J. M. Coetzee’s In the Heart of the Country, Tsitsi Dangrembga’s Nervous Condition and Meja Mwangi’s Striving for the Wind. The methodology centres on analysing, questioning, undermining and celebrating the family and its contemporary vicissitudes as depicted in the texts. This is with a view to exploring the postcolonial novel with references to concepts developed by major theorists in the field of postcolonial studies, including Frantz Fanon, Edward Said, Gayatri Spivak, Homi Bhabha, Kwame Appiah and Achille Mbembe. It is revealed that in spite of the fact that the family is a vital institution, the primary social unit in any community, an agent of acculturation and the first focus of development, independence and growth, the texts reflect a diversity of problems confronting the family unit in Africa. These include the multiple problems of disrupted family lives, enforced family separation, political and personal violence with the domestic environment. It is concluded that the post-colonial African novel is a quintessential weapon to analyse the continent, opening up to the reader the specific expressions and experiences of human lives and their wider contexts. Therefore, the post-colonial African novel is a primary socio-cultural indicator representing an immense variety of lived realities in the continent. The study, therefore, suggests a concerted concern with the preservation of traditional family structures and other related aspects, such as cultural values, spirituality, gender roles and mutual trust.

Keywords: family, African fiction, postcolonialism, African tradition, domestic dissonance

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3 Developing Environmental Engineering Alternatives for Deep Desulphurization of Transportation Fuels

Authors: Nalinee B. Suryawanshi, Vinay M. Bhandari, Laxmi Gayatri Sorokhaibam, Vivek V. Ranade

Abstract:

Deep desulphurization of transportation fuels is a major environmental concern all over the world and recently prescribed norms for the sulphur content require below 10 ppm sulphur concentrations in fuels such as diesel and gasoline. The existing technologies largely based on catalytic processes such as hydrodesulphurization, oxidation require newer catalysts and demand high cost of deep desulphurization whereas adsorption based processes have limitations due to lower capacity of sulphur removal. The present work is an attempt to provide alternatives for the existing methodologies using a newer non-catalytic process based on hydrodynamic cavitation. The developed process requires appropriate combining of organic and aqueous phases under ambient conditions and passing through a cavitating device such as orifice, venturi or vortex diode. The implosion of vapour cavities formed in the cavitating device generates (in-situ) oxidizing species which react with the sulphur moiety resulting in the removal of sulphur from the organic phase. In this work, orifice was used as a cavitating device and deep desulphurization was demonstrated for removal of thiophene as a model sulphur compound from synthetic fuel of n-octane, toluene and n-octanol. The effect of concentration of sulphur (up to 300 ppm), nature of organic phase and effect of pressure drop (0.5 to 10 bar) was discussed. A very high removal of sulphur content of more than 90% was demonstrated. The process is easy to operate, essentially works at ambient conditions and the ratio of aqueous to organic phase can be easily adjusted to maximise sulphur removal. Experimental studies were also carried out using commercial diesel as a solvent and the results substantiate similar high sulphur removal. A comparison of the two cavitating devices- one with a linear flow and one using vortex flow for effecting pressure drop and cavitation indicates similar trends in terms of sulphur removal behaviour. The developed process is expected to provide an attractive environmental engineering alternative for deep desulphurization of transportation fuels.

Keywords: cavitation, petroleum, separation, sulphur removal

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2 Ultrastructural Study of Surface Topography of Trematode Parasites of Domestic Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Udaipur, India

Authors: Gayatri Swarnakar

Abstract:

Paramphistomiasis and fascioliasis diseases have been prevalent due to presence of trematode parasites in the rumen and liver of domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Udaipur, India. The trematode parasites such as Paramphistomum cervi, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Orthocoelium scoliocoelium, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were collected from infected rumen and liver of the freshly slaughtered buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at local zoo abattoir in Udaipur. Live trematodes were washed in normal saline, fixed in 0.2M cacodylate fixative, post fixed in osmium tetraoxide, dehydrated, dried, coated with gold sputter and observed under scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The surface tegument of Paramphistomum cervi was spineless with transverse folds, discontinuous with ridges and grooves. Two types of sensory papillae such as knob like and button shaped were also observed. The oral opening of Cotylophoron cotylophorum was surrounded by wrinkled and ridged tegument which formed concentric elevated rings. Tegument of Cotylophoron cotylophorum in acetabulum region was observed to be rough and bee-comb like structure. Genital sucker of this worm was surrounded by a tyre- shaped elevation of the tegument. Orthocoelium scoliocoelium showed circular and concentric rings of tegumental folds around the oral sucker. Genital pore had knob like papillae with radial tegumental folds. Surface topography of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were found to be rough due to occurrence of different types of spines, three types of sensory papillae, transverse folds and grooves. Oral and ventral suckers were spineless and covered with thick rims of transverse folds. Genital pore showed small scattered spines. Present research work would provide knowledge for ultrastructural characteristics of trematode parasites for chemotherapeutic measures and help us to evolve suitable strategy for the eradication of trematode parasites from the domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

Keywords: Domestic buffalo, tegument, trematode parasites, ultrastructure

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1 Integrated Geophysical Approach for Subsurface Delineation in Srinagar, Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Pradeep Kumar Singh Chauhan, Gayatri Devi, Zamir Ahmad, Komal Chauhan, Abha Mittal

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The application of geophysical methods to study the subsurface profile for site investigation is becoming popular globally. These methods are non-destructive and provide the image of subsurface at shallow depths. Seismic refraction method is one of the most common and efficient method being used for civil engineering site investigations particularly for knowing the seismic velocity of the subsurface layers. Resistivity imaging technique is a geo-electrical method used to image the subsurface, water bearing zone, bedrock and layer thickness. Integrated approach combining seismic refraction and 2-D resistivity imaging will provide a better and reliable picture of the subsurface. These are economical and less time-consuming field survey which provide high resolution image of the subsurface. Geophysical surveys carried out in this study include seismic refraction and 2D resistivity imaging method for delineation of sub-surface strata in different parts of Srinagar, Garhwal Himalaya, India. The aim of this survey was to map the shallow subsurface in terms of geological and geophysical properties mainly P-wave velocity, resistivity, layer thickness, and lithology of the area. Both sides of the river, Alaknanda which flows through the centre of the city, have been covered by taking two profiles on each side using both methods. Seismic and electrical surveys were carried out at the same locations to complement the results of each other. The seismic refraction survey was carried out using ABEM TeraLoc 24 channel Seismograph and 2D resistivity imaging was performed using ABEM Terrameter LS equipment. The results show three distinct layers on both sides of the river up to the depth of 20 m. The subsurface is divided into three distinct layers namely, alluvium extending up to, 3 m depth, conglomerate zone lying between the depth of 3 m to 15 m, and compacted pebbles and cobbles beyond 15 m. P-wave velocity in top layer is found in the range of 400 – 600 m/s, in second layer it varies from 700 – 1100 m/s and in the third layer it is 1500 – 3300 m/s. The resistivity results also show similar pattern and were in good agreement with seismic refraction results. The results obtained in this study were validated with an available exposed river scar at one site. The study established the efficacy of geophysical methods for subsurface investigations.

Keywords: 2D resistivity imaging, P-wave velocity, seismic refraction survey, subsurface

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