Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3330

Search results for: plant pathogenic fungi

3330 Molecular Profiling and Potential Bioactive Characteristics of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Leptadenia Pyrotechnica

Authors: Walaa Al-Maghraby

Abstract:

Endophytes are organisms that colonize internal plant tissues without causing apparent harm to their host. Almost all groups of microorganisms have been found in endophytic association with plants may be fungi. They stimulate the production of secondary metabolites with a diverse range of biological activities. Leptadenia pyrotechnica is a more or less leafless, erect shrub with straight stems which is highly distributed in Saudi Arabia. Four endophytes fungi were isolated from Leptadenia pyrotechnica and identified using 18S ribosomal RNA sequences, which revealed four fungi genuses, namely Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus welwitschiae; Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. In this present study, four endophytic fungi from Leptadenia pyrotechnica were used for obtaining crude aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts for antimicrobial screening against 6 human pathogens, the antibacterial tests presented satisfactory results, where the pathogenic bacteria were inhibited by the four extracts tested, except for Escherichia coli that was inhibited by all extracts except ethyl acetate extract of Aspergillus terreus. Analysis of variance showed that the extract produced by endophyte Leptadenia pyrotechnica was the most effective against all bacteria, either gram-negative or positive. However, the extract was not efficient against pathogenic fungi. Therefore, this study indicates that endophytes from medicinal plant Leptadenia pyrotechnica could be potential sources of antibacterial substances.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, Aspergillus sp, endophytes, Leptadenia pyrotechnica

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3329 Nanoderma: Ecofriendly Nano Biofungicides for Controlling Plant Pathogenic Fungi

Authors: Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam, Alexei R. Khokhlov

Abstract:

Studies on bioefficacy (in vitro and in vivo) and mode of action of the nanocides against the most important plant diseases in Egypt and Russia might assist in the goal of sustainable agriculture. To our knowledge, few researchers have evaluated the combined antimicrobial effect of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) with bioorganic pesticides for controlling plant pathogens in the greenhouse and open field, decontrol investigated synergistic effect. In the current project, we will develop eco-friendly alternative management strategies including the use of heavy nanometal-tolerant Trichoderma strains and the main effective material in conventional fungicides (curpic, sulfur, phosphorus and zinc) for controlling plant diseases. Studies on bioefficacy and the mechanism of the nanocides against the most important plant diseases in Egypt were evaluated. There is a growing need to establish mechanisms of action for nano bio and/or fungicides to assist the design of new compounds or combinations of compounds, in order to understand resistance mechanisms and to provide a focus for toxicological attention. Nanofungicides represent an emerging technological development that could offer a range of benefits including increased efficacy, durability, and a reduction in the amounts of active ingredients that need to be used.

Keywords: biohybrids, biocides, bioagent, plant pathogenic fungi

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3328 Effect of Biostimulants on Downstream Processing of Endophytic Fungi Hosted in Aromatic Plant, Ocimum basicilium

Authors: Kanika Chowdhary, Satyawati Sharma

Abstract:

Endophytic microbes are hosted inside plants in a symbiotic and hugely benefitting relationship. Exploring agriculturally beneficial endophytes is quite a prospective field of research. In the present work fungal endophytes associated with aromatic plant Ocimum basicilium L. were investigated for biocontrol potential. The anti-plant pathogenic activity of fungal endophytes was tested against causal agent of stem rot Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. 75 endophytic fungi were recovered through culture-dependent approach. Fungal identification was performed both microscopically and by rDNA ITS sequencing. Curvuaria lunata (Sb-6) and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sb-8) inhibited 86% and 72% mycelia growth of S. sclerotinia on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium at 7.4 pH. Small-scale fermentation was carried out on sterilised oatmeal grain medium. In another set of experiment, fungi were grown in oatmeal grain medium amended with certain biostimulants such as aqueous seaweed extract (10% v/w); methanolic seaweed extract (5% v/w); cow urine (20% v/w); biochar (10% w/w) in triplicate along with control of each to ascertain the degree of metabolic difference and anti-plant pathogenic activity induced. Phytochemically extracts of both the fungal isolates showed the presence of flavanoids, phenols, tannins, alkaloids and terpenoids. Ethylacetate extract of C. lunata and C. lindemuthianum suppressed S. sclerotinia conidial germination at IC50 values of 0.514± 0.02 and 0.913± 0.04 mg/ml. Therefore, fungal endophytes of O. basicilium are highly promising bio-resource agent, which can be developed further for sustainable agriculture.

Keywords: endophytic fungi, ocimum basicilium, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, biostimulants

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3327 Analysis of Pathogen Populations Occurring in Oilseed Rape Using DNA Sequencing Techniques

Authors: Elizabeth Starzycka-Korbas, Michal Starzycki, Wojciech Rybinski, Mirosława Dabert

Abstract:

For a few years, the populations of pathogenic fungi occurring in winter oilseed rape in Malyszyn were analyzed. Brassica napus L. in Poland and in the world is a source of energy for both the men (oil), and animals, as post-extraction middling, as well as a motor fuel (oil, biofuel) therefore studies of this type are very important. The species composition of pathogenic fungi can be an indicator of seed yield. The occurrence of oilseed rape pathogens during several years were analyzed using the sequencing method DNA ITS. The results were compared in the gene bank using the program NCBI / BLAST. In field conditions before harvest of oilseed rape presence of pathogens infesting B. napus has been assessed. For example, in 2015, 150 samples have been isolated and applied to PDA medium for the identification of belonging species. From all population has been selected mycelium of 83 isolates which were sequenced. Others (67 isolates) were pathogenic fungi of the genus Alternaria which are easily to recognize. The population of pathogenic species on oilseed rape have been identified after analyzing the DNA ITS and include: Leptosphaeria sp. 38 (L. maculans 25, L. biglobosa 13), Alternaria sp. 29, Fusarium sp. 3, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 7, heterogeneous 6, total of 83 isolates. The genus Alternaria sp. fungi wear the largest share of B. napus pathogens in particular years. Another dangerous species for oilseed rape was Leptosphaeria sp. Populations of pathogens in each year were different. The number of pathogens occurring in the field and their composition is very important for breeders and farmers because of the possible selection of the most resistant genotypes for sowing in the next growing season.

Keywords: B. napus, DNA ITS Sequencing, pathogenic fungi, population

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3326 Lifestyle Switching Phenomenon of Plant Associated Fungi

Authors: Gauravi Agarkar, Mahendra Rai

Abstract:

Fungi are closely associated with the plants in various types of interactions such as mycorrhizal, parasitic or endophytic. Some of these interactions are beneficial and a few are harmful to the host plants. It has been suggested that these plant-associated fungi are able to change their lifestyle abd this means endophyte may become parasite or vice versa. This phenomenon may have profound effect on plant-fungal interactions and various ecological niches. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the factors that trigger the change in fungal lifestyle and understand whether these different lifestyles are interconnected at some points either by physiological, biochemical or molecular routes. This review summarizes the factors affecting plant fungal interactions and discusses the possible mechanisms for lifestyles switching of fungi based on available experimental evidences. Research should be boosted in this direction to fetch more advantages in future and to avoid the severe consequences in agriculture and other related fields.

Keywords: endophytic, lifestyle switching, mycorrhizal, parasitic, plant-fungal interactions

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3325 In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil Artemisia Absinthium

Authors: Bouchenak Fatima, Lmegharbi Abdelbaki, Houssem Degaichia, Benrebiha Fatima

Abstract:

The essential oil composition of the leaf of Artemisia absinthium from region of Cherchell (The south of Algeria) was investigated by GC, GC-MS. 27 constituents were identified correspond to 84, 63% of the total oil. The major components are Thujone (60, 82%), Chamazulènel (16, 62%), ρ-cymène (4, 29%) and 2-carène (4.25%). The antimicrobial activity of oil was tested in vitro by two methods (agar diffusion and microdilution) on three plant pathogenic fungi. This oil has been tested for antimicrobial activity against three pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum and Helminthosporium Sp.).The study of activity was evaluated by two methods: Method of diffusion in gelose and the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC. This oil exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity. A preliminary study showed that this oil presented high toxicity against this fungus. These results, although preliminary show a good antifungal activity, to limit and inhibit stop the development of those pathogen agent.

Keywords: artemisia absinthian, extraction process, chemical study, antifungal activity

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3324 Media Manipulations and the Culture of Beneficial Endophytic Fungi in the Leaves and Stem Bark of Grewia lasiocarpa E. Mey. Ex Harv

Authors: Akwu A. Nneka, Naidoo, Yougasphree

Abstract:

A significantly high number of microbes exist in higher plants; these microbes include bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. There are reports on the benefits of endophytic fungi and their products of metabolism to the host plant and man, consequently, it is expedient to explore the changes that could arise as a result of manipulating their growth media. Grewia lasiocarpa E. Mey. ex Harv. (Malvaceae) is an indigenous Southern African plant, that belongs to a genus with known medicinal properties. Three media were used to culture the endophytic fungi viz., Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Malt Extract Agar (MEA), and Bacteriological Agar (BA) were used singly, and supplemented with three dilutions of the leaves and stem bark extracts. The manipulated growth media composition had a significant effect on the diversity of the isolated fungal populations. Several endophytic fungi were isolated; their distribution and diversity revealed a significant relatedness with the manipulated media. The media supplemented with the plant extracts was observed to give a significant increase in the growth rate and yield of the endophytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing the endophytic fungi present in the leaves and stem bark of G. lasiocarpa E. Mey. ex Harv.

Keywords: Grewia lasiocarpa, plant-based extracts, endophytic fungi, Malvaceae

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3323 Growth of Albizia in vitro: Endophytic Fungi as Plant Growth Promote of Albizia

Authors: Reine Suci Wulandari, Rosa Suryantini

Abstract:

Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) is a woody plant species that has a high economic value and multifunctional. Albizia is important timber, medicinal plants and can also be used as a plant to rehabilitate critical lands. The demand value of Albizia is increased so that the large quantities and high quality of seeds are required. In vitro propagation techniques are seed propagation that can produce more seeds and quality in a short time. In vitro cultures require growth regulators that can be obtained from biological agents such as endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi are micro fungi that colonize live plant tissue without producing symptoms or other negative effects on host plants and increase plant growth. The purposes of this research were to isolate and identify endophytic fungi isolated from the root of Albizia and to study the effect of endophytic fungus on the growth of Albizia in vitro. The methods were root isolation, endophytic fungal identification, and inoculation of endophytic fungi to Albizia plants in vitro. Endophytic fungus isolates were grown on PDA media before being inoculated with Albizia sprouts. Incubation is done for 4 (four) weeks. The observed growth parameters were live explant percentage, percentage of explant shoot, and percentage of explant rooted. The results of the research showed that 6 (six) endophytic fungal isolates obtained from the root of Albizia, namely Aspergillus sp., Verticillium sp, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., and Acremonium sp. Statistical analysis found that Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium sp. affect in vitro growth of Albizia. Endophytic fungi from the results of this research were potential as plant growth promoting. It can be applied to increase productivity either through increased plant growth and increased endurance of Albizia seedlings to pests and diseases.

Keywords: Albizia, endophytic fungi, propagation, in vitro

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3322 Investigating the Potential Use of Unsaturated Fatty Acids as Antifungal Crop Protective Agents

Authors: Azadeh Yasari, Michael Ganzle, Stephen Strelkov, Nuanyi Liang, Jonathan Curtis, Nat N. V. Kav

Abstract:

Pathogenic fungi cause significant yield losses and quality reductions to major crops including wheat, canola, and barley. Toxic metabolites produced by phytopathogenic fungi also pose significant risks to animal and human health. Extensive application of synthetic fungicides is not a sustainable solution since it poses risks to human, animal and environmental health. Unsaturated fatty acids may provide an environmentally friendly alternative because of their direct antifungal activity against phytopathogens as well as through the stimulation of plant defense pathways. The present study assessed the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of two hydroxy fatty acids, coriolic acid and ricinoleic acid, against the phytopathogens Fusarium graminearum, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Pyrenophora teres f. teres, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Leptosphaeria maculans. Antifungal activity of coriolic acid and ricinoleic acid was evaluated using broth micro-dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results indicated that both ricinoleic acid and coriolic acid showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens, with the strongest inhibitory activity against L. maculans, but the MIC varied greatly between species. An antifungal effect was observed for coriolic acid in vivo against pathogenic fungi of wheat and barley. This effect was not correlated to the in vitro activity because ricinoleic acid with equivalent in vitro antifungal activity showed no protective effect in vivo. Moreover, neither coriolic acid nor ricinoleic acid controlled fungal pathogens of canola. In conclusion, coriolic acid inhibits some phytopathogens in vivo and may have the potential to be an effective crop protection agent.

Keywords: coriolic acid, minimum inhibitory concentration, pathogenic fungi, ricinoleic acid

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3321 Comparision of Neutrophil Response to Curvularia, Bipolaris and Aspergillus Species

Authors: Eszter J. Tóth, Alexandra Hoffmann, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Tamás Papp

Abstract:

Members of the genera Curvularia and Bipolaris are closely related melanin producing filamentous fungi; both of them have the teleomorph states in genus Cochliobolus. While Bipolaris species infect only plants and may cause serious agriculture damages, some Curvularia species was recovered from opportunistic human infections. The human pathogenic species typically cause phaeohyphomycoses, i.e. mould infections caused by melanised fungi, which can manifest as invasive mycoses with frequent involvement of the central nervous system in immunocompromised patients or as local infections (e.g. keratitis, sinusitis, and cutaneous lesions) in immunocompetent people. Although their plant-fungal interactions have been intensively studied, there is only little information available about the human pathogenic feature of these fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the neutrophil granulocytes’ response to hyphal forms of Curvularia and Bipolaris in comparison with the response to Aspergillus. In the present study Curvularia lunata SZMC 23759 and Aspergillus fumigatus SZMC 23245 both isolated from human eye infection, and Bipolaris zeicola BRIP 19582b isolated from plant leaf were examined. Neutrophils were isolated from heparinised venous blood of healthy donors with dextran sedimentation followed by centrifugation over Ficoll and hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Viability and purity of the cells were checked with trypan blue and Wright staining, respectively. Infection of neutrophils was carried out with germinated conidia in a ratio of 5:1. Production of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, and nitrogen monoxide was measured both intracellularly and extracellularly in response to the germinated spores with or without the supernatant and after serum treatment. ROS and NOS production of neutrophils in interaction with the three fungi were compared. It is already known that Aspergillus species induce ROS production of neutrophils only after serum treatment. Although, in case of C. lunata, serum opsonisation also induced an intensive production of reactive species, lower level of production was measured in the lack of serum as well. After interaction with the plant pathogenic B. zeicola, amount of reactive species found to be similar with and without serum treatment. The presence of germination supernatant decreased the reactive species production in case of each fungus. Interaction with Curvularia, Bipolaris and Aspergillus species induced different response of neutrophils. It seems that recognition of C. lunata and B. zeicola is independent of serum opsonisation, albeit it increases the level of the produced reactive species in response for C. lunata. The study was supported by the grant LP2016-8/2016.

Keywords: Curvularia, neutrophils, NOS, ROS, serum opsonisation

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3320 Reducing the Impact of Pathogenic Fungi on Barley Using Bacteria: Bacterial Biocontrol in the Barley-Malt-Beer Industry

Authors: Eusèbe Gnonlonfoun, Xavier Framboisier, Michel Fick, Emmanuel Rondags

Abstract:

Pathogenic fungi represent a generic problem for cereals, including barley, as they can produce a number of thermostable toxic metabolites such as mycotoxins that contaminate plants and food products, leading to serious health issues for humans and animals and causing significant losses in global food production. In addition, mycotoxins represent a significant technological concern for the malting and brewing industries, as they may affect the quality and safety of raw materials (barley and malt) and final products (beer). Moreover, this situation is worsening due to the highly variable climatic conditions that favor microbial development and the societal desire to reduce the use of phytosanitary products, including fungicides. In this complex environmental, regulatory and economic context for the French barley-malt-beer industry, this project aims to develop an innovative biocontrol process by using technological bacteria, isolated from infection-resistant barley cultures, that are able to reduce the development of spoilage fungi and the associated mycotoxin production. The experimental approach consists of i) coculturing bacterial and pathogenic fungal strains in solid and liquid media to access the growth kinetics of these microorganisms and to evaluate the impact of these bacteria on fungal growth and mycotoxin production; then ii) the results will be used to carry out a micro-malting process in order to develop the aforementioned process, and iii) the technological and sanitary properties of the generated barley malts will finally be evaluated in order to validate the biocontrol process developed. The process is expected to make it possible to guarantee, with controlled costs, an irreproachable hygienic and technological quality of the malt, despite the increasingly complex and variable conditions for barley production. Thus, the results will not only make it possible to maintain the dominant world position of the French barley-malt chain but will also allow it to conquer emerging markets, mainly in Africa and Asia. The use of this process will also contribute to the reduction of the use of phytosanitary products in the field for barley production while reducing the level of contamination of malting plant effluents. Its environmental impact would therefore be significant, especially considering that barley is the fourth most-produced cereal in the world.

Keywords: barley, pathogenic fungi, mycotoxins, malting, bacterial biocontrol

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3319 Extract and Naphthoquinone Derivatives from in vitro Culture of an Ascomycetous Marine Fungus with Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Uftah Ali M. Shushni, Viola Stuppec, Ulrike Lindequist

Abstract:

Because of the evolving resistance of microorganisms to existing antibiotics, there is an increasing need for new antibiotics not only in human but also in veterinary medicine. As part of our ongoing work on the secondary metabolites produced by marine fungi, the organic extract of the culture filtrate of an Ascomycetous fungus, which was found on driftwood collected from the coast of the Greifswalder Bodden, Baltic Sea, Germany displayed antimicrobial activity against some fish and human pathogenic bacteria. Bioactivity-guided column chromatographic separation led to the isolation of 6-Deoxybostrycoidin. The structure was determined from the interpretation of spectroscopic data (UV, MS, and NMR). 6-Deoxybostrycoidin exhibited in vitro activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Flexibacter maritimus with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 25, 12.5 and 12.5 μg/ml respectively.

Keywords: marine fungi, fish pathogenic bacteria, microorganism, medicine

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3318 Evaluating Antifungal Potential of Respiratory Inhibitors against Phyto-Pathogenic Fungi

Authors: Sehrish Iftikhar, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Kiran Nawaz, Waheed Anwar

Abstract:

Discovery and development of new compounds require intense studies in chemistry, biochemistry. Numerous experiments under laboratory-, greenhouse- and field conditions can be performed to select suitable candidates and to understand their full potential. Novel fungicides are fundamental to combat plant diseases. Fusarium solani is important plant pathogen. New broad spectrum foliar fungicides against complex II were designed in this study. Complex II, namely succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), or succinate quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a multi-subunit enzyme at the crossroads of TCA and ETC at the inner mitochondrial membrane. The need for new and innovative fungicides is driven by resistance management, regulatory hurdles and increasing customer expectations amongst others. Fungicidal activity was assessed for the effect on mycelial growth and spore germination of the fungi using fungicide amended media assay. In mycelial growth assay compounds C10 and C6 were highly active against all the isolates. The compounds C1 and C10 were found most potent in spore germination test. It fully proved that the SDHIs designed in this paper displayed as good inhibitory effects against Fusarium solani.

Keywords: Wilt, Fusarium, SDH, antifungal

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3317 Corresponding Effect of Mycorhizal fungi and Pistachio on Absorption of Nutrition and Resistance on Salinity in Pistacia vera, L.

Authors: Hamid Mohammadi, S. H. Eftekhar Afzali

Abstract:

The irregular usage of chemical fertilizer cause different types of water and soil pollution and problems in health of human in past decades and organic fertilizer has been considered more and more. Mycorrhizal fungi have symbiosis with plant families and significantly effect on plant growth. Proper management of these symbiosis causes to reduce the usage of chemical fertilizers and absorb nutrition especially phosphor. Pistacia vera is endemic in Iran and is one of the most important products for this country. Considering special circumstances of pistachio orchards according to increasing salinity of water and soil and mismanagement of fertilizer reveals the necessity of the usage of Mycorrhizal fungi in these orchards.

Keywords: pistachio, mycorhiza, nutrition, salinity

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3316 Antifungal Activity of Commiphora myrrha L. against Some Air Fungi

Authors: Ahmed E. Al-Sabri, Mohamed A. Moslem, Sarfaraz Hadi

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To avoid the harmful effects of the chemical fungicides on the human and minimize the environmental pollution, an alternative eco-friendly control strategies should be developed. The extract of Commiphora myhrra L. was tested against twenty fungal genera isolated from the indoor air collected from different rooms in King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Disc diffusion test was modified for use in this study and the collected data was statistically analyzed. Variable antifungal efficacy of different myrrh extract was recorded against the investigated fungal genera. The efficacy of the extract was increased as the concentration increased. The highest growth inhibition (74.6%) was against Acremonium strictum followed by Trichoderma psuedokoningii (70.6%). On contrast, the lowest efficacy (12.7%) was against Ulocladium consortiale. It could be concluded that myrrh extract is promised as a source of substances from which of safer and eco-friendly could be used as antimicrobial agents against a number of pathogenic fungi.

Keywords: antifungal, myrrh, antimicrobial, medicinal plant

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3315 Secondary Metabolite Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extract of Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem

Authors: Richa Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem is a monotypic genus belonging to family Bignoniaceae. The plant holds tremendous potential of medicinal value and has been traditionally used in various ailments like syphilis, leukoderma, blood disorders to name a few. The plant has gained prominence due to the presence of some prominent secondary metabolites. The present study focuses on the GC-MS analysis of leaf extracts of T. undulata which revealed the presence of certain bioactive compounds like stigmasterol, sitosterol, thiazoline, phytol, pthalic acid, methyl alpha ketopalmitate and so forth. A total of about 20 bioactive compounds were identified from the leaf extract spectra. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract was assayed against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The alkaloids from leaf extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E.coli and B.subtilis. The flavonoids from leaves showed positive activity against Penicillium species and Candida albicans. The study thus infers that the presence of bioactive components may be the principle behind the antimicrobial property of different plant parts and therefore Tecomella forms a potential plant for herbal drug formulation.

Keywords: Tecomella undulata, bioactive compounds, GC-MS, antimicrobial activity

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3314 Antifungal Potential of Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms

Authors: Tamar Khardziani, Violeta Berikashvili, Mariam Rusitashvili, Eva Kachlishvili, Vladimir Elisashvili, Mikheil Asatiani

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Last years, the search for natural sources of novel and effective antifungal substances became a scientific and technological challenge. In the present research, thirty basidiomycetes isolated from various ecological niches of Georgia and belonging to different taxonomic groups were screened for their antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Guignardia bidwellii. Among mushroom tested, several potential producers of antifungal substances have been revealed, such as Schizophyllum commune, Lentinula edodes, Ganoderma abietinum, Fomes fomentarius, Hericium erinaceus, and Trametes versicolor. For mushroom cultivation and expression of antifungal potential, submerged and solid-state fermentations of different plant raw materials were performed and various approaches and strategies have been exploited. Sch. commune appeared as a most promising producer of antifungal compounds. It was established that among different agro-industrial wastes, the presence of mandarin juice production waste in a nutrient medium, causing the significant increase of antifungal activity Sch. commune (growth inhibition: Aspergillus – 59 %, Fusarium – 55 %, G. bidwellii – 78 %, after 3, 2 and 4 days of cultivation, respectively). Besides this, Sch. commune demonstrate similar antifungal activities in the presence of glucose, glycerol, maltose, mannitol, and xylose, and growth inhibition of Fusarium ranged in 41 % - 49 % during 6 days of cultivation. Inhibition of Aspergillus growth inhibition varied in 27 % - 36 %, and inhibition of G. bidwellii was in the range 49 % - 61 %, respectively. Sch. commune under solid-state fermentation of mandarin peels at 13 days of cultivation demonstrates powerful growth inhibition of pathogenic fungi (growth inhibition: Aspergillus – 50 %, Fusarium – 61 %, G. bidwellii – 68 %, after 3, 4, and 4 days of cultivation, respectively) as well as at 20 days old mushroom (growth inhibition: Aspergillus – 41 %, Fusarium – 54 %, G. bidwellii – 66 %, after 3 days of cultivation). It was established that Sch. commune was effective as a producer of antifungal compounds in submerged as well as in solid-state fermentation. Finally, performed study confirms that the higher basidiomycetes possess antifungal potential, which strongly depends on the physiological factors of growth. Acknowledgments: The work was implemented with the financial support of fundamental science project FR-19-3719 by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia.

Keywords: antifungal potential, higher basidiomycetes, pathogenic fungi, submerged and solid-state fermentation

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3313 Antimicrobial Effect of Natamycin against Food Spoilage Fungi and Yeast Contaminated Fermented Foods

Authors: Pervin Basaran Akocak

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Food antimicrobials are compounds that are incorporated into food matrixes in order to cause death or delay the growth of spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms. As a result, microbiological deterioration is prevented throughout storage and food distribution. In this study, the effect of natural antimycotic natamycin (C33H47NO13, with a molecular mass of 665.725), a GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) commercial compound produced by different strains of Streptomyces sp., was tested against various fermented food contamination fungi and yeast species. At the concentration of 100 µg/ml, natamycin exhibited stronger antifungal activity against fungi than yeast species tested. The exposure time of natamycin for complete inhibition of the species tested were found to be between 100-180 min at 300-750 µg/ml concentration. SEM observations of fungal species demonstrated that natamycin distorted and damaged the conidia and hyphae by inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth. Natamycin can be considered as a potential candidate in hurdle food treatments for preventing fungal and yeast invasion and resulting deterioration of fermented products.

Keywords: natamycin, antifungal, fermented food, food spoilage fungi

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3312 Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Microbes and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Wheat Growth in the Saline Soil

Authors: Ahmed Elgharably, Nivien Nafady

Abstract:

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth promoting microbes (PGPM) can promote plant growth under saline conditions. This study investigated how AMF and PGPM affected the growth and grain yield of wheat at different soil salinity levels (0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl). AMF colonization percentage, grain yield and dry weights and lengths of shoot and root, N, P K, Na, malondialdehyde, chlorophyll and proline contents and shoot relative permeability were determined. Salinity reduced NPK uptake and malondialdehyde and chlorophyll contents, and increased shoot Na concentration, relative permeability, and proline content, and thus declined plant growth. PGPM inoculation enhanced AMF colonization, P uptake, and K/Na ratio, but alone had no significant effect on plant growth and grain yield. AMF inoculation significantly enhanced NPK uptake, increased chlorophyll content and decreased shoot relative permeability, proline and Na contents, and thus promoted the plant growth. The inoculation of PGPM significantly enhanced the positive effects of AMF in controlling Na uptake and in increasing chlorophyll and NPK contents. Compared to AMF inoculation alone, dual inoculation with AMF and PGPM resulted in approximately 10, 25 and 25% higher grain yield at 0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl, respectively. The results provide that PGPM inoculation can maximize the effects of AMF inoculation in alleviating the deleterious effects of NaCl salts on wheat growth.

Keywords: mycorrhizal fungi, salinity, sodium, wheat

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3311 Isolation and Identification of Fungi from Different Types of Medicinal Plants Cultivated in Ecuador

Authors: Ana Paola Echavarria, Mariuxi Medina, Haydelba D'Armas, Carmita Jaramillo, Diana San Martin

Abstract:

The use of medicinal plants is one of the oldest and most extended medical therapies that goes back to prehistoric times, and nowadays, they are also used in the preparation of phytopharmaceuticals with options to cure diseases. The test for the determination of fungi was carried out in the Pharmacy Pilot Plant (treatment of the leaves of the plant species) and the Microbiology Laboratory (determination of fungi of the plant species, using growth medium called Sabouraud agar plus the vegetal sample), of the Academic Unit of Chemical Sciences and Health, of the Universidad Tecnica de Machala. Subsequently, colony counting was performed, both macroscopic, which is determined in the growth medium of the seeding, and microscopic, to identify the germinative forms using blue lactophenol. The procedure was repeated in duplicate to replicate the results data. The determination of the total fungal content of the following plant species was evaluated: Cymbopogon citratus (lemon verbena), Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), Artemisia absinthium (absinthe), Piper carpunya (guaviduca), Moringa oleifera (moringa), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Momordica charantia (achochilla), Borago officinalis (borage), Aloysia citriodora (cedron), Ambrosia artemisifolia (altamisa) and Ageratum conyzoides (mastrante). The results obtained showed that all the samples of the twelve plant species studied developed filamentous fungi, with great variability of them, within the permissible limits and contemplated by the Ecuadorian Institute of Normalization (INEN), being suitable as raw material for its use in the preparation of nutraceuticals and medicinal products or phytodrugs; with the exception of A. conyzoides (mastranto) which is the only species that exceeds the regulation in the average of dilutions.

Keywords: colonies, fungi, medicinal plants, microbiological quality, Sabouraud agar

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3310 Characterization of Common Maize Ear Rot Pathogens in Ilesa Nigeria and Their Potential Control Using Selected Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

Authors: Olumayowa M. Olowe, Michael D. Asemoloye Odunayo J. Olawuyi, Hilda Vasanthakaalam

Abstract:

Poor management of maize ear rot caused by fungal infection in Nigeria affected the quantity and quality of maize. This study, therefore, aims at characterizing and controlling Fusarium strains using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Maize ear showing rot symptoms were obtained from some selected farms located at Ilesa East and West using random sampling technique. Isolation of Fusarium pathogen from infected maize grain was done using direct pour plate method on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and was characterized based on morphological and molecular ITS-amplification methods. The reaction of PVASYN8F2, T2LCOMP1STR SYN-W-1, and T2LCOMP4 maize varieties, to the Fusarium ear rot pathogens and biocontrol efficacy of the mycorrhizal fungi were assessed on growth, yield, agronomic parameters and symptoms observed. The strains; olowILH1 and olowILH2 identified as Fusarium napiforme were the most dominant and virulent pathogens associated with the maize. They showed genetic similarity with documented ear rot pathogens on NCBI with accession numbers Fusarium proliferatum KT224027, KT224023, and Fusarium sp AY237110. They both exhibited varying inhibitory effects on the three maize varieties compare to control (uninfected plant) which had better growth characteristics. It was also observed that strain olowILH1 was more virulent than olowILH2. T2LCOMP4 was generally more susceptible to both fungal strains compared to the other two maize (T2LCOMP1STR SYN-W-1 and T2LCOMP4 ). In all, strain olowILH1 was more virulent than olowILH2, and Glomus clarum had higher inhibitory pathogenic effect against Fusarium strains compared to G. deserticola.

Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, disease management, Fusarium strains, identification

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3309 Inhibitory Effect of Potential Bacillus Probiotic Strains against Pathogenic Bacteria and Yeast Isolated from Oral Cavity

Authors: Fdhila Walid, Bayar Sihem, Khouidi Bochra, Maâtouk Fethi, Ben Amor Feten, Hajer Hentati, Mahdhi Abdelkarim

Abstract:

The presence of resistant bacteria in the oral cavity can be the major cause of dental antibiotic prophylaxis failure. Multidrug efflux has been described for many organisms, including bacteria and fungi as part of their drugs resistance strategy. The potential use of probiotic bacteria can be considered as a new alternative in the prevention or cure of oral cavity diseases. In this study, different Bacillus strains isolated from the environment were isolated and characterized using biochemical and molecular procedures. The inhibitory activity against different pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains was tested using diffusion agar assay method. Our data revealed that the tested strains have an antimicrobial effect against the pathogenic strains such as Streptococcus mutants. The inhibitory effect was variable depending from the probiotic and pathogenic strains. The obtained result demonstrated that Bacillus can be used as a potential candidates probiotic and help in the prevention and treatment of oral infections, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. Our data, partly encourage the use of probiotic strains because they do not produce acid which can contribute to faster installation decay and these are spore-forming bacteria that can withstand the stress of the oral cavity (acids, alkalis, and salty foods).

Keywords: probiotic, pathogenic bacteria, yeast, oral cavity

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3308 Biotransformation of Monoterpenes by Whole Cells of Eleven Praxelis clematidea-Derived Endophytic Fungi

Authors: Daomao Yang, Qizhi Wang

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Monoterpenoids are mainly found in plant essential oils and they are ideal substrates for biotransformation into oxygen-containing derivatives with important commercial value due to their low price and simple structure. In this paper, eleven strains of endophytic fungi from Praxelis clematidea were used as test strains to conduct the whole cell biotransformation of the monoterpenoids: (+)-limonene, (-)-limonene and myrcene. The fungi were inoculated in 50 ml Sabouraud medium and incubated at 30 ℃ with the agitation of 150 r/min for 6 d, and then 0.5% (v/v) substrates were added into the medium and biotransformed for further 3 d. Afterwards the cultures were filtered, and extracted using equal volume of ethyl acetate. The metabolites were analyzed by GC-MS technique with NIST database. The Total Ion Chromatogram of the extractions from the eleven strains showed that the main product of (+)- and (-)-limonene biotransformation was limonene-1,2-diol, while it is limonene and linalool oxide for biotransformation of myrcene. This work will help screen the microorganisms to biotransform the monoterpenes.

Keywords: endophytic fungi, (+)–limonene, (-)–limonene, myrcene

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3307 Synergistic Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Enhance Wheat Grain Yield, Biofortification and Soil Health: A Field Study

Authors: Radheshyam Yadav, Ramakrishna Wusirika

Abstract:

Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi are ubiquitous in soil and often very critical for crop yield and agriculture sustainability, and this has motivated the agricultural practices to support and promote PGPB and AM Fungi in agriculture. PGPB can be involved in a range of processes that affect Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) transformations in soil and thus influence nutrient availability and uptake to the plants. A field study with two wheat cultivars, HD-3086, and HD-2967 was performed in Malwa region, Bathinda of Punjab, India, to evaluate the effect of native and non-native PGPB alone and in combination with AM fungi as an inoculant on wheat grain yield, nutrient uptake and soil health parameters (dehydrogenase, urease, β‐glucosidase). Our results showed that despite an early insignificant increase in shoot length, plants treated with PGPB (Bacillus sp.) and AM Fungi led to a significant increase in shoot growth at maturity, aboveground biomass, nitrogen (45% - 40%) and phosphorus (40% - 34%) content in wheat grains relative to untreated control plants. Similarly, enhanced grain yield and nutrients uptake i.e. copper (27.15% - 36.25%) iron (43% - 53%) and zinc (44% - 47%) was recorded in PGPB and AM Fungi treated plants relative to untreated control. Overall, inoculation with native PGPB alone and in combination with AM Fungi provided benefits to enhance grain yield, wheat biofortification, and improved soil fertility, despite this effect varied depending on different PGPB isolates and wheat cultivars. These field study results provide evidence of the benefits of agricultural practices involving native PGPB and AM Fungi to the plants. These native strains and AM Fungi increased accumulations of copper, iron, and zinc in wheat grains, enhanced grain yield, and soil fertility.

Keywords: AM Fungi, biofortification, PGPB, soil microbial enzymes

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3306 Chemotrophic Signal Exchange between the Host Plant Helianthemum sessiliflorum and Terfezia boudieri

Authors: S. Ben-Shabat, T. Turgeman, O. Leubinski, N. Roth-Bejerano, V. Kagan-Zur, Y. Sitrit

Abstract:

The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) desert truffle Terfezia boudieri produces edible fruit bodies and forms symbiosis with its host plant Helianthemum sessiliflorum (Cistaceae) in the Negev desert of Israel. The symbiosis is vital for both partners' survival under desert conditions. Under desert habitat conditions, ECMs must form symbiosis before entering the dry season. To secure a successful encounter, in the course of evolution, both partners have responded by evolving special signals exchange that facilitates recognition. Members of the Cistaceae family serve as host plants for many important truffles. Conceivably, during evolution a common molecule present in Cistaceae plants was recruited to facilitate successful encounter with ectomycorrhizas. Arbuscular vesicular fungi (AM) are promiscuous in host preferences, in contrast, ECM fungi show specificity to host plants. Accordingly, we hypothesize that H. sessiliflorum secretes a chemotrophic-signaling, which is common to plants hosting ECM fungi belonging to the Pezizales. However, thus far no signaling molecules have been identified in ECM fungi. We developed a bioassay for chemotrophic activity. Fractionation of root exudates revealed a substance with chemotrophic activity and molecular mass of 534. Following the above concept, screening the transcriptome of Terfezia, grown under chemoattraction, discovered genes showing high homology to G proteins-coupled receptors of plant pathogens involved in positive chemotaxis and chemotaxis suppression. This study aimed to identify the active molecule using analytical methods (LC-MS, NMR etc.). This should contribute to our understanding of how ECM fungi communicate with their hosts in the rhizosphere. In line with the ability of Terfezia to form also endomycorrhizal symbiosis like AM fungi, analysis of the mechanisms may likewise be applicable to AM fungi. Developing methods to manipulate fungal growth by the chemoattractant can open new ways to improve inoculation of plants.

Keywords: chemotrophic signal, Helianthemum sessiliflorum, Terfezia boudieri, ECM

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3305 Diversity of Dermatophytes and Keratinophilic Fungi from Inernational Tourist Spots, City of Taj Mahal

Authors: Harison Masih, Jyotsna Kiran Peter, Sundara Singh, Geetha Singh

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The present investigation deals with diversity of dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi from different tourist spots such as Agra Fort, Akbar tomb, It-Mat-Ud-Daulah, Mariam tomb, Radha Swami Bagh, and Taj Mahal of Agra City. These fungi are medically important which causes various infections and diseases in humans and animals. The main reservoir of these pathogens are the keratinous substances that increases due to birds and animal activities in the vicinity of monuments, where thousands (5413266) annual visitors from all over the world are visiting. The soil samples were subjected to isolate the pathogenic fungi through bait technique (buffalo skin, chicken feathers, human hair and goat tail hair). Baits were spread over the soil samples and incubated at room temperature for 30-35 days and pure culture isolates were maintained in SDA medium, stored at 4°C. Highest number of visitors were (3906453) from Taj Mahal, minimum 10785 at Mariam tomb annually, the total 271 isolates were encountered from soil samples out of these 18 genera and 38 species were found in different season. Highest incidence was 4.79% frequency shown by Chrysosporium keratinophilum while least 738% frequency occurrence by Trichophyton simii in soil samples. From the present study it was concluded that the incidence of pathogenic fungal isolates were the common in tourists soil that are etiological agents of superficial mycosis. Thus, both human and animal activity seemed to play an important role in occurrence and distribution of keratinophilic and related dermatophytes at various tourist places of Agra city.

Keywords: dermatophytic fungal diversity, bait technique, visitors at tourist spots, human and animal activities, soil samples

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3304 Morphological and Molecular Identification of Endophytic Colletotrichum Species from Medicinal Plants and Their Antimicrobial Potential

Authors: Gauravi Agarkar, Mahendra Rai

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Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants are important source of numerous pharmacologically important compounds. In the present investigation, the endophytic fungi were isolated from three medicinal plants; Andrographis paniculata, Rauwolfia serpentina and Tridax procumbens. Endophytic Colletotrichum sp. were identified on the basis of cultural and morphological characteristics as well as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate and methanol extract of endophytic Colletotrichum sp. was evaluated against seven different human pathogenic bacteria and six Candida sp. The extracts were effective and showed significant activity against all the test pathogens. In case of yeast Candida, the combined effect of extracts and standard antibiotic was enhanced greatly showing synergistic activity. Further, the extracts were assayed for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC) where, MIC values were in the range of 100-250 μg/ml. These results suggest that the endophytic Colletotrichum sp. isolated from the medicinal plants are capable of producing promising antimicrobial metabolites.

Keywords: antimicrobial, colletotrichum, endophytic fungi, medicinal plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 475
3303 Selection of Endophytcs Fungi Isolated from Date Palm, Halotolerants and Productors of Secondary Metabolite

Authors: Fadila Mohamed Mahmoud., Derkaoui I., Krimi Z.

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Date palm is a plant which presents a very good adaptation to the difficult conditions of the environment in particular to the drought and saline stress even at high temperatures. This adaptation is related on the biology of the plant and to the presence of a microflora endophyte which live inside its tissues. Fifteen endophytics fungi isolated from date palm were tested in vitro in the presence of various NaCl concentrations to select halotolerantes isolates. These same endophytes were tested for their colonizing capacity by the description of the production of secondary metabolites more particularly the enzymes (pectinases, proteases, and phosphorylases), and the production of antibiotics and growth hormones. Significant difference was observed between the isolates with respect to the tests carried out.

Keywords: Date palm, Halotolerantes, endophyte, Secondary metabolites.

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3302 Seedling Emergence and Initial Growth of Different Plants after Trichoderma sp. Inoculation

Authors: Simonida S. Djuric, Timea I. Hajnal Jafari, Dragana R. Stamenov

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The use of plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) has significantly increased in the last decade mostly due to their multi-level properties, and their expected success as biofertilizers in agriculture. Beneficial fungi with broad-host range undergo long-term interactions with a large variety of plants thereby playing a significant role in managed ecosystems and in the adaptation of crops to global climate changes. Trichoderma spp. are promising fungi toward the development of sustainable agriculture. The aim of our experiment was to investigate the effect of seed inoculation of sunflower, maize, soybean, paprika, melon, and watermelon seeds with Trichoderma sp. on early seed germination energy and initial growth of the plant. The seed inoculation with Trichoderma sp. increased the seedling emergence from 7, 85% in melon to 156,70% in watermelon. The inoculation had the best effect on initial growth of maize shoot (+23,80%) and soybean root (+106,30%). The different response of seed and young plants on Trichoderma sp. inoculation implicate the need for future investigations of successful inoculation systems and modes of their integration in sustainable agriculture production systems.

Keywords: initial growth, inoculation, seedling, Trichoderma sp.

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
3301 Biodiversity of Pathogenic and Toxigenic Fungi Associated with Maize Grains Sampled across Egypt

Authors: Yasser Shabana, Khaled Ghoneem, Nehal Arafat, Younes Rashad, Dalia Aseel, Bruce Fitt, Aiming Qi, Benjamine Richard

Abstract:

Providing food for more than 100 million people is one of Egypt's main challenges facing development. The overall goal is to formulate strategies to enhance food security in light of population growth. Two hundred samples of maize grains from 25 governates were collected. For the detection of seed-borne fungi, the deep-freezing blotter method (DFB) and washing method (ISTA 1999) were used. A total of 41 fungal species was recovered from maize seed samples. Weather data from 30 stations scattered all over Egypt and covering the major maize growing areas were obtained. Canonical correspondence analysis of data for the obtained fungal genera with temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, or solar radiation revealed that relative humidity, temperature and wind speed were the most influential weather variables.

Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, maize, seed-borne fungi

Procedia PDF Downloads 70