Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Farag Ahwide

28 Estimation of Wind Characteristics and Energy Yield at Different Towns in Libya

Authors: Farag Ahwide, Souhel Bousheha

Abstract:

A technical assessment has been made of electricity generation, considering wind turbines ranging between Vestas (V80-2.0 MW and V112-3.0 MW) and the air density is equal to 1.225 Kg/m3, at different towns in Libya. Wind speed might have been measured each 3 hours during 10 m stature at a time for 10 quite sometime between 2000 Furthermore 2009, these towns which are spotted on the bank from claiming Mediterranean ocean also how in the desert, which need aid Derna 1, Derna 2, Shahat, Benghazi, Ajdabya, Sirte, Misurata, Tripoli-Airport, Al-Zawya, Al-Kofra, Sabha, Nalut. The work presented long term "wind data analysis in terms of annual, seasonal, monthly and diurnal variations at these sites. Wind power density with different heights has been studied. Excel sheet program was used to calculate the values of wind power density and the values of wind speed frequency for the stations; their seasonally values have been estimated. Limit variable with rated wind pace to 10 different wind turbines need to be been estimated, which is used to focus those required yearly vitality yield of a wind vitality change framework (WECS), acknowledging wind turbines extending between 600 kW and 3000 kW).

Keywords: energy yield, wind turbines, wind speed, wind power density

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27 Evaluation of a 50MW Two-Axis Tracking Photovoltaic Power Plant for Al-Jagbob, Libya: Energetic, Economic, and Environmental Impact Analysis

Authors: Yasser Aldali, Farag Ahwide

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This paper investigates the application of large scale (LS-PV) two-axis tracking photovoltaic power plant in Al-Jagbob, Libya. A 50MW PV-grid connected (two-axis tracking) power plant design in Al-Jagbob, Libya has been carried out presently. A hetero-junction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) type PV module has been selected and modeled. A Microsoft Excel-VBA program has been constructed to compute slope radiation, dew-point, sky temperature, and then cell temperature, maximum power output and module efficiency for this system, for tracking system. The results for energy production show that the total energy output is 128.5 GWh/year. The average module efficiency is 16.6%. The electricity generation capacity factor (CF) and solar capacity factor (SCF) were found to be 29.3% and 70.4% respectively. A 50MW two axis tracking power plant with a total energy output of 128.5 GWh/year would reduce CO2 pollution by 85,581 tonnes of each year. The payback time for the proposed LS-PV photovoltaic power plant was found to be 4 years.

Keywords: large PV power plant, solar energy, environmental impact, dual-axis tracking system

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26 Battery/Supercapacitor Emulator for Chargers Functionality Testing

Authors: S. Farag, A. Kuperman

Abstract:

In this paper, design of solid-state battery/super capacitor emulator based on dc-dc boost converter is described. The emulator mimics charging behavior of any storage device based on a predefined behavior set by the user. The device is operated by a two-level control structure: high-level emulating controller and low-level input voltage controller. Simulation and experimental results are shown to demonstrate the emulator operation.

Keywords: battery, charger, energy, storage, super capacitor

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25 The Grain Size Distribution of Sandy Soils in Libya

Authors: Massoud Farag Abouklaish

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The main aim of the present study is to investigate and classify the particle size distribution of sandy soils in Libya. More than fifty soil samples collected from many regions in North, West and South of Libya. Laboratory sieve analysis tests performed on disturbed soil samples to determine grain size distribution. As well as to provide an indicator of general engineering behavior and good understanding, test results are presented and analysed. In addition, conclusions, recommendations are made.

Keywords: Libya, grain size, sandy soils, sieve analysis tests

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24 Electrochemical Studies of Some Schiff Bases on the Corrosion of Steel in H2SO4 Solution

Authors: Ahmed A. Farag, M. A. Hgazy

Abstract:

The influence of three Schiff bases (SB-I, SB-II, and SB-III) on the corrosion of carbon steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution was studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The inhibition efficiency increases with the concentration of the Schiff bases and follow the trend: SB-III > SB-II > SB-I. Tafel polarization measurements revealed that the three tested inhibitors function as anodic inhibitors. The thermodynamic parameters Kads and ΔGºads are calculated and discussed. The Langmuir isotherm equation was found to provide an accurate description of the adsorption behaviour of the investigated Schiff bases. Depending on the results, the inhibitive mechanism was proposed.

Keywords: Schiff bases, corrosion inhibitors, EIS, adsorption

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23 Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking Oil Using g-C3N4 Photocatalyst

Authors: A. Elgendi, H. Farag, M. E. Ossman, M. Abd-Elfatah

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This paper explores the using of waste cooking oil (WCO) as an attractive option to reduce the raw material cost for the biodiesel production. This can be achieved through two steps; esterification using g-C3N4photocatalyst and then alkali transesterification. Several parameters have been studied to determine the yield of the biodiesel produced such as: Reaction time (2-6 hrs), catalyst concentration (0.3-1.5 wt.%), number of UV lamps (1or 3 lamps) and methanol: oil ratio (6:1-12:1). From the obtained results, the highest percentage yield was obtained using methanol: Oil molar ratio of 12:1, catalyst dosage 0.3%, time of 4 hrs and using 1 lamp. From the results it was clear that the produced biodiesel from waste cooking oil can be used as fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, heterogeneous catalyst, photocatalytic esterification, waste cooking oil

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22 The Current Situation and Perspectives of Electricity Demand and Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Efficiency

Authors: F. Ahwide, Y. Aldali

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This article presents a current and future energy situation in Libya. The electric power efficiency and operating hours in power plants are evaluated from 2005 to 2010. Carbon dioxide emissions in most of power plants are estimated. In 2005, the efficiency of steam power plants achieved a range of 20% to 28%. While, the gas turbine power plants efficiency ranged between 9% and 25%, this can be considered as low efficiency. However, the efficiency improvement has clearly observed in some power plants from 2008 to 2010, especially in the power plant of North Benghazi and west Tripoli. In fact, these power plants have modified to combine cycle. The efficiency of North Benghazi power plant has increased from 25% to 46.6%, while in Tripoli it is increased from 22% to 34%. On the other hand, the efficiency improvement is not observed in the gas turbine power plants. When compared to the quantity of fuel used, the carbon dioxide emissions resulting from electricity generation plants were very high. Finally, an estimation of the energy demand has been done to the maximum load and the annual load factor (i.e., the ratio between the output power and installed power).

Keywords: power plant, efficiency improvement, carbon dioxide emissions, energy situation in Libya

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21 Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Farag, Mina Attari, S. Andrew Gadsden, Saeid R. Habibi

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Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is, therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation. One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF), the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the results are compared.

Keywords: state of charge estimation, battery modeling, one-state hysteresis, filtering and estimation

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20 Optimization of Hydrogel Conductive Nanocomposite as Solar Cell

Authors: Shimaa M. Elsaeed, Reem K. Farag, Ibrahim M. Nassar

Abstract:

Hydrogel conductive polymer nanocomposite fabricated via in-situ polymerization of polyaniline (PANI) inside thermosensitive hydrogels based on hydroxy ethyl meth acrylate (HEMA) copolymer with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS). SEM micrographs show the nanometric size of the conductive material (polyaniline, PANI) dispersed in the hydrogel matrix. The swelling parameters of hydrogel are measured. The incorporation of PANI improves the mechanical properties and swelling up to 30,000% without breaking. X-ray diffraction shows that typical polyaniline crystallization is formed in composite, which is advantageous to increase the electrical conductivity of the composite hydrogel. Open-circuit voltage (I-V) curve fill factor of the highest photo-conversion efficiency and enhanced to use in solar cell.

Keywords: hydrogel, solar cell, conductive polymer, nanocomposite

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19 Discrete Breeding Swarm for Cost Minimization of Parallel Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Tarek Aboueldahab, Hanan Farag

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Parallel Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSP) is a multi-objective and multi constrains NP- optimization problem. Traditional Artificial Intelligence techniques have been widely used; however, they could be trapped into the local minimum without reaching the optimum solution, so we propose a hybrid Artificial Intelligence model (AI) with Discrete Breeding Swarm (DBS) added to traditional Artificial Intelligence to avoid this trapping. This model is applied in the cost minimization of the Car Sequencing and Operator Allocation (CSOA) problem. The practical experiment shows that our model outperforms other techniques in cost minimization.

Keywords: parallel job shop scheduling problem, artificial intelligence, discrete breeding swarm, car sequencing and operator allocation, cost minimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
18 Integrated Model for Enhancing Data Security Performance in Cloud Computing

Authors: Amani A. Saad, Ahmed A. El-Farag, El-Sayed A. Helali

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Cloud computing is an important and promising field in the recent decade. Cloud computing allows sharing resources, services and information among the people of the whole world. Although the advantages of using clouds are great, but there are many risks in a cloud. The data security is the most important and critical problem of cloud computing. In this research a new security model for cloud computing is proposed for ensuring secure communication system, hiding information from other users and saving the user's times. In this proposed model Blowfish encryption algorithm is used for exchanging information or data, and SHA-2 cryptographic hash algorithm is used for data integrity. For user authentication process a user-name and password is used, the password uses SHA-2 for one way encryption. The proposed system shows an improvement of the processing time of uploading and downloading files on the cloud in secure form.

Keywords: cloud Ccomputing, data security, SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, Blowfish

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17 Integrated Model for Enhancing Data Security Processing Time in Cloud Computing

Authors: Amani A. Saad, Ahmed A. El-Farag, El-Sayed A. Helali

Abstract:

Cloud computing is an important and promising field in the recent decade. Cloud computing allows sharing resources, services and information among the people of the whole world. Although the advantages of using clouds are great, but there are many risks in a cloud. The data security is the most important and critical problem of cloud computing. In this research a new security model for cloud computing is proposed for ensuring secure communication system, hiding information from other users and saving the user's times. In this proposed model Blowfish encryption algorithm is used for exchanging information or data, and SHA-2 cryptographic hash algorithm is used for data integrity. For user authentication process a simple user-name and password is used, the password uses SHA-2 for one way encryption. The proposed system shows an improvement of the processing time of uploading and downloading files on the cloud in secure form.

Keywords: cloud computing, data security, SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, Blowfish

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
16 Experimental Investigation of Air Gap Membrane Distillation System with Heat Recovery

Authors: Yasser Elhenaw, A. Farag, Mohamed El-Ghandour, M. Shatat, G. H. Moustafa

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This study investigates the performance of two spiral-wound Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) units. These units are connected in two different configurations in order to be tested and compared experimentally. In AGMD, the coolant water is used to condensate water vapor leaving membrane via condensing plate. The rejected cooling water has a relativity high temperature which can be used, depending on operation parameters, to increase the thermal efficiency and water productivity. In the first configuration, the seawater feed flows parallel and equally through both units then rejected. The coolant water is divided into the two units, and the heat source is divided into the two heat exchangers. In the second one, only the feed of the first unit is heated while the cooling rejected from the unit is used in heating the feed to the second. The performance of the system, estimated by the water productivity as well as the Gain Output Ratio (GOR), is measured for the two configurations at different feed flow rates, temperatures and salinities. The results show that at steady state condition, the heat recovery configurations lead to an increase in water productivity by 25%.

Keywords: membrane distillation, heat transfer, heat recovery, desalination

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15 Improve Safety Performance of Un-Signalized Intersections in Oman

Authors: Siham G. Farag

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to provide a new methodology for road safety assessment in Oman through the development of suitable accident prediction models. GLM technique with Poisson or NBR using SAS package was carried out to develop these models. The paper utilized the accidents data of 31 un-signalized T-intersections during three years. Five goodness-of-fit measures were used to assess the overall quality of the developed models. Two types of models were developed separately; the flow-based models including only traffic exposure functions, and the full models containing both exposure functions and other significant geometry and traffic variables. The results show that, traffic exposure functions produced much better fit to the accident data. The most effective geometric variables were major-road mean speed, minor-road 85th percentile speed, major-road lane width, distance to the nearest junction, and right-turn curb radius. The developed models can be used for intersection treatment or upgrading and specify the appropriate design parameters of T- intersections. Finally, the models presented in this thesis reflect the intersection conditions in Oman and could represent the typical conditions in several countries in the middle east area, especially gulf countries.

Keywords: accidents prediction models (APMs), generalized linear model (GLM), T-intersections, Oman

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14 Experimental Study of LPG Diffusion Flame at Elevated Preheated Air Temperatures

Authors: Ahmed A. El-Kafy Amer, H. M. Gad, A. I. Ibrahim, S. I. Abdel-Mageed, T. M. Farag

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This paper represents an experimental study of LPG diffusion flame at elevated air preheated temperatures. The flame is stabilized in a vertical water-cooled combustor by using air swirler. An experimental test rig was designed to investigate the different operating conditions. The burner head is designed so that the LPG fuel issued centrally and surrounded by the swirling air issues from an air swirler. There are three air swirlers having the same dimensions but having different blade angles to give different swirl numbers of 0.5, 0.87 and 1.5. The combustion air was heated electrically before entering the combustor up to a temperature about 500 K. Three air to fuel mass ratios of 30, 40 and 50 were also studied. The effect of air preheated temperature, swirl number and air to fuel mass ratios on the temperature maps, visible flame length, high temperature region (size) and exhaust species concentrations are studied. Some results show that as the air preheated temperature increases, the volume of high temperature region also increased but the flame length decreased. Increasing the air preheated temperature, EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 increased, while EICO decreased. Increasing the air preheated temperature from 300 to 500 K, for all air swirl numbers used, the highest increase in EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 are 141, 4 and 65%, respectively.

Keywords: air preheated temperature, air swirler, flame length, emission index

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13 CAG Repeat Polymorphism of Androgen Receptor and Female Sexual Functions in Egyptian Female Population

Authors: Azza Gaber Farag, Yasser Atta Shehata, Sara Elsayed Elghazouly, Mustafa Elsayed Elshaib, Nesreen Gamal Elden Elhelbawy

Abstract:

Background: Androgen receptor (AR) polymorphism in cytosine adenineguanine (CAG) repeat has an effect on the functional capacity of AR in males. However, little researches in this field are available regarding female sexual function. Aim: To investigate the possible link between polymorphism in the CAG repeat of AR gene and female sexual function in a sample of the Egyptian population. Materials and methods: 500 Egyptian married females completed a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic, reproductive, and sexual data. AR CAG repeat length was analyzed for those having female sexual dysfunctions (FSD) using real-time PCR. Results: The most sensitive domain to AR CAG repeat length was the orgasm domain that showed significant positive correlations with short allele (p=0.001), long allele (p=.015), biallellic mean (p=.000), and X weighted biallelic mean (p=.000). The satisfaction domain had significant positive correlations with the biallelic mean (p=.035), and the X weighted biallelic mean (p=. 032). However, the pain domain was of significant negative correlations with AR polymorphism of short allele (p=.002), biallelic mean (p=.013), and X weighted biallelic mean (p = . 011). Conclusions: AR polymorphism could represent a non-negligible aspect in female sexual function. The lower AR CAG repeat polymorphism was of significant impact on FSD, affecting mainly female orgasm followed by pain disorders that finally reflected On her sexual satisfaction.

Keywords: female sexual dysfunction, androgen receptor, CAG repeat polymorphism, androgen

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12 In vitro And in vivo Anticholinesterase Activity of the Volatile Oil of the Aerial Parts of Ocimum Basilicum L. and O. africanum Lour. Growing in Egypt

Authors: Mariane G. Tadros, Shahira M. Ezzat, Maha M. Salama, Mohamed A. Farag

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In this study, the in vitro anticholinesterase activity of the volatile oils of both O. basilicum and O. africanum was investigated and both samples showed significant activity. As a result, the major constituents of the two oils were isolated using several column chromatography. Linalool, 1,8-cineol and eugenol were isolated from the volatile oil of O. basilicum and camphor was isolated from the volatile oil of O. africanum. The anticholinesterase activity of the isolated compounds were also evaluated where 1,8-cineol showed the highest inhibitory activity followed by camphor. To confirm these activities, learning and memory enhancing effects were tested in mice. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anti-amnesic effects of both volatile oils and their terpenoids were investigated by the passive avoidance task in mice. We also examined their effects on brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Results showed that scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction was significantly attenuated by administration of the volatile oils and their terpenoids, eugenol and camphor, in the passive avoidance task and inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that O. basilicum and O. africanum volatile oils can be good candidates for further studies on Alzheimer’s disease via their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions.

Keywords: Ocimum baselicum, Ocimum africanum, GC/MS analysis, anticholinesterase

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11 Dopamine and Female Sexual Function: A Clinical and Biochemical Study

Authors: Azza Gaber Antar Farag, Eman Abd El Fatah Badr, Wesam Ahmed Tawfik Hasssan Abdel Aal, Mustafa Elsayed Elshaib

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Background: Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) represents recurrent and persistent problems that distress women and/or strain their relationships with their partners. Dopamine can affect sexual function and interacts with ovarian hormones in the ventromedial area in the hypothalamus. Objective: To investigate the possible role of dopamine in FSD. Method: This prospective case-control study was carried on 100 women having FSD and 100 healthy volunteer females. They were recruited from the Al-Menoufia governorate. All included women were subjected to the questionnaire to assess their demographic and gynecological data as well as sexual function. They were investigated for serum levels of dopamine, estradiol, progesterone and DHEA hormones. Results: Dopamine serum levels were significantly lower in females having sexual dysfunction (6.68±4.14) than controls (57.97±26.26) (P>0.001). This decreased dopamine level was of a significant positive correlation with the arousal domain and significant negative correlation regarding the pain domain (r=-0.19, p=0.01). Also, estradiol serum levels were significantly lower (P>0.001), but progesterone and DHEA serum levels were significantly higher in the FSD group than controls (P>0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between dopamine and DHEA serum levels (r= -0.45, p <0.001). Conclusions: Decreased dopamine serum levels may have an active role in the pathophysiology of FSD, impacting mainly arousal and pain domains, and its targeting should be considered during FSD management.

Keywords: dopamine, estradiol, progesterone, DHEA, females sexual dysfunction

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10 Metabolome-based Profiling of African Baobab Fruit (Adansonia Digitata L.) Using a Multiplex Approach of MS and NMR Techniques in Relation to Its Biological Activity

Authors: Marwa T. Badawy, Alaa F. Bakr, Nesrine Hegazi, Mohamed A. Farag, Ahmed Abdellatif

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Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease affecting a large population worldwide. Africa is rich in native medicinal plants with myriad health benefits, though less explored towards the development of specific drug therapy as in diabetes. This study aims to determine the in vivo antidiabetic potential of the well-reported and traditionally used fruits of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) using STZ induced diabetic model. The in-vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant properties were examined using MTT assay on L-929 fibroblast cells and DPPH antioxidant assays, respectively. The extract showed minimal cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 105.7 µg/mL. Histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations showed the hepatoprotective and the renoprotective effects of A. digitata fruits’ extract, implying its protective effects against diabetes complications. These findings were further supported by biochemical assays, which showed that i.p., injection of a low dose (150 mg/kg) of A. digitata twice a week lowered the fasting blood glucose levels, lipid profile, hepatic and renal markers. For a comprehensive overview of extract metabolites composition, ultrahigh performance (UHPLC) analysis coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS) in synchronization with molecular networks led to the annotation of 77 metabolites, among which 50% are reported for the first time in A. digitata fruits.

Keywords: adansonia digital, diabetes mellitus, metabolomics, streptozotocin, Sprague, dawley rats

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
9 Wind Energy Resources Assessment and Micrositting on Different Areas of Libya: The Case Study in Darnah

Authors: F. Ahwide, Y. Bouker, K. Hatem

Abstract:

This paper presents long term wind data analysis in terms of annual and diurnal variations at different areas of Libya. The data of the wind speed and direction are taken each ten minutes for a period, at least two years, are used in the analysis. ‘WindPRO’ software and Excel workbook were used for the wind statistics and energy calculations. As for Derna, average speeds are 10 m, 20 m, and 40 m, and respectively 6.57 m/s, 7.18 m/s, and 8.09 m/s. Highest wind speeds are observed at SSW, followed by S, WNW and NW sectors. Lowest wind speeds are observed between N and E sectors. Most frequent wind directions are NW and NNW. Hence, wind turbines can be installed against these directions. The most powerful sector is NW (29.4 % of total expected wind energy), followed by 19.9 % SSW, 11.9% NNW, 8.6% WNW and 8.2% S. Furthermore in Al-Maqrun: the most powerful sector is W (26.8 % of total expected wind energy), followed by 12.3 % WSW and 9.5% WNW. While in Goterria: the most powerful sector is S (14.8 % of total expected wind energy), followed by SSE, SE, and WSW. And Misalatha: the most powerful sector is S, by far represents 28.5% of the expected power, followed by SSE and SE. As for Tarhuna, it is by far SSE and SE, representing each one two times the expected energy of the third powerful sector (NW). In Al-Asaaba: it is SSE by far represents 50% of the expected power, followed by S. It can to be noted that the high frequency of the south direction winds, that come from the desert could cause a high frequency of dust episodes. This fact then, should be taken into account in order to take appropriate measures to prevent wind turbine deterioration. In Excel workbook, an estimation of annual energy yield at position of Derna, Al-Maqrun, Tarhuna, and Al-Asaaba meteorological mast has been done, considering a generic wind turbine of 1.65 MW. (mtORRES, TWT 82-1.65MW) in position of meteorological mast. Three other turbines have been tested. At 80 m, the estimation of energy yield for Derna, Al-Maqrun, Tarhuna, and Asaaba is 6.78 GWh or 3390 equivalent hours, 5.80 GWh or 2900 equivalent hours, 4.91 GWh or 2454 equivalent hours and 5.08 GWh or 2541 equivalent hours respectively. It seems a fair value in the context of a possible development of a wind energy project in the areas, considering a value of 2400 equivalent hours as an approximate limit to consider a wind warm economically profitable. Furthermore, an estimation of annual energy yield at positions of Misalatha, Azizyah and Goterria meteorological mast has been done, considering a generic wind turbine of 2 MW. We found that, at 80 m, the estimation of energy yield is 3.12 GWh or 1557 equivalent hours, 4.47 GWh or 2235 equivalent hours and 4.07GWh or 2033 respectively . It seems a very poor value in the context of possible development of a wind energy project in the areas, considering a value of 2400 equivalent hours as an approximate limit to consider a wind warm economically profitable. Anyway, more data and a detailed wind farm study would be necessary to draw conclusions.

Keywords: wind turbines, wind data, energy yield, micrositting

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8 Fuzzy Control of Thermally Isolated Greenhouse Building by Utilizing Underground Heat Exchanger and Outside Weather Conditions

Authors: Raghad Alhusari, Farag Omar, Moustafa Fadel

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A traditional greenhouse is a metal frame agricultural building used for cultivation plants in a controlled environment isolated from external climatic changes. Using greenhouses in agriculture is an efficient way to reduce the water consumption, where agriculture field is considered the biggest water consumer world widely. Controlling greenhouse environment yields better productivity of plants but demands an increase of electric power. Although various control approaches have been used towards greenhouse automation, most of them are applied to traditional greenhouses with ventilation fans and/or evaporation cooling system. Such approaches are still demanding high energy and water consumption. The aim of this research is to develop a fuzzy control system that minimizes water and energy consumption by utilizing outside weather conditions and underground heat exchanger to maintain the optimum climate of the greenhouse. The proposed control system is implemented on an experimental model of thermally isolated greenhouse structure with dimensions of 6x5x2.8 meters. It uses fans for extracting heat from the ground heat exchanger system, motors for automatic open/close of the greenhouse windows and LED as lighting system. The controller is integrated also with environmental condition sensors. It was found that using the air-to-air horizontal ground heat exchanger with 90 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness placed 2.5 m below the ground surface results in decreasing the greenhouse temperature of 3.28 ˚C which saves around 3 kW of consumed energy. It also eliminated the water consumption needed in evaporation cooling systems which are traditionally used for cooling the greenhouse environment.

Keywords: automation, earth-to-air heat exchangers, fuzzy control, greenhouse, sustainable buildings

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7 The Predictive Value of Micro Rna 451 on the Outcome of Imatinib Treatment in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients

Authors: Nehal Adel Khalil, Amel Foad Ketat, Fairouz Elsayed Mohamed Ali, Nahla Abdelmoneim Hamid, Hazem Farag Manaa

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Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) represents 15% of adult leukemias. Imatinib Mesylate (IM) is the gold standard treatment for new cases of CML. Treatment with IM results in improvement of the majority of cases. However, about 25% of cases may develop resistance. Sensitive and specific early predictors of IM resistance in CML patients have not been established to date. Aim: To investigate the value of miR-451 in CML as an early predictor for IM resistance in Egyptian CML patients. Methods: The study employed Real time Polymerase Reaction (qPCR) technique to investigate the leucocytic expression of miR-451 in fifteen newly diagnosed CML patients (group I), fifteen IM responder CML patients (group II), fifteen IM resistant CML patients (group III) and fifteen healthy subjects of matched age and sex as a control group (group IV). The response to IM was defined as < 10% BCR-ABL transcript level after 3 months of therapy. The following parameters were assessed in subjects of all the studied groups: 1- Complete blood count (CBC). 2- Measurement of plasma level of miRNA 451 using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). 3- Detection of BCR-ABL gene mutation in CML using qPCR. Results: The present study revealed that miR-451 was significantly down-regulated in leucocytes of newly diagnosed CML patients as compared to healthy subjects. IM responder CML patients showed an up-regulation of miR- 451 compared with IM resistant CML patients. Conclusion: According to the data from the present study, it can be concluded that leucocytic miR- 451 expression is a useful additional follow-up marker for the response to IM and a promising prognostic biomarker for CML.

Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia, imatinib resistance, microRNA 451, Polymerase Chain Reaction

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6 Al-Azhar’s Ideological Capacity to Counter Extremism

Authors: Dina Tawfic, Robert Hassan

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The current chapter addresses Al-Azhar's strategy to counter extremism in tandem with reflecting on the ideology of the Islamic establishment itself. The topic is motivated by the fact that some of the Western governments have been relying on Al-Azhar to counter the ideology of Islamist radicalism and violent extremism, in particular during the rise of the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq (known as ISIS/ ISIL/ Daesh) in 2014/2015. In his visit to Egypt in June 2016, Brett McGurk, the then U.S. envoy for the global coalition to counter ISIS, commended Al-Azhar’s “intellectual and reforming role” in refuting the ideology of extremism. On the other hand, Egyptian liberal intellectuals, such as Farag Fouda (1945- 1992) and Nasr Hamed Abu Zeid (1943-2010), had always questioned the ideological capability of Al-Azhar to counter extremism, citing the rigidity and resistance of the Islamic establishment to carry out genuine reformation. This chapter aims to discuss the following research questions: what is the strategy of Al-Azhar to counter extremism? Does Al-Azhar have a solid strategy to combat online propaganda produced by violent extremist groups? Is it applicable to identify Al-Azhar ideological identity? and is it capable of countering extremism? To answer these questions, I conducted intensive interviews with seven senior scholars and officials at Al-Azhar and the Endowments ministry from September to December 2020. Using a qualitative approach as a backdrop, this project uses semi-structured interviews to collect data. Participants were briefed on the purpose of the study and consented to be interviewed and to record their interviews. Some of the participants chose to conceal their names. All the interviews were conducted in Arabic via Zoom. The researcher then transcribed and translated the interviews into English. A purposive sample is used to select the seven interviewees, based on their prominence and experience in the field of counter-extremism and Al-Azhar affairs. The researcher uses a snowball sample to select the sample, in which a personal contact recommends other officials within the establishment.

Keywords: Al-Azhar, Egypt, Counter-Extremism, Political Islam, Ideology

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5 Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasomes by Helicobacter pylori Infection in Innate Cellular Model and Its Correlation to IL-1β Production

Authors: Islam Nowisser, Noha Farag, Mohamed El Azizi

Abstract:

Helicobacter pylori is a highly important human pathogen which inhabits about 50% of the population worldwide. Infection with this bacteria is very hard to treat, with high probability of recurrence. H. pylori causes severe gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer, gastritis, and gastric cancer, which has been linked to chronic inflammation. The infection has been reported to be associated with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β and TNF-α. The aim of the current study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which H. pylori activates NLRP3 inflammasome and its contribution to Il-1 β production in an innate cellular model. H. pylori PMSS1 and G27 standard strains, as well as the PMSS1 isogenic mutant strain PMSS1ΔVacA and G27ΔVacA, G27ΔCagA in addition to clinical isolates obtained from biopsy samples from the antrum and corpus mucosa of chronic gastritis patients, were used to establish infection in RAW-264.7 macrophages. The production levels of TNF-α and IL-1β was assessed using ELISA. Since expression of these cytokines is often regulated by the transcription factor complex, nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), the activation of NF-κB in H. pylori infected cells was also evaluated by luciferase assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from bacterial cultures of H. pylori clinical isolates as well as the standard strains and their corresponding mutants, where they were evaluated for the cagA pathogenicity island and vacA expression. The correlation between these findings and expression of the cagA Pathogenicity Island and vacA in the bacteria was also investigated. The results showed IL-1β, and TNF-α production significantly increased in raw macrophages following H. pylori infection. The cagA+ and vacA+ H. pylori strains induced significant production of IL-1β compared to cagA- and vacA- strains. The activation pattern of NF-κB was correlated in the isolates to their cagA and vacA expression profiles. A similar finding could not be confirmed for TNF-α production. Our study shows the ability of H. pylori to activate NF-kB and induce significant IL-1β production as a possible mechanism for the augmented inflammatory response seen in subjects infected with cagA+ and vacA+ H. pylori strains that would lead to the progression to more severe form of the disease.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, IL-1β, inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor KB, TNF-α

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
4 From Primer Generation to Chromosome Identification: A Primer Generation Genotyping Method for Bacterial Identification and Typing

Authors: Wisam H. Benamer, Ehab A. Elfallah, Mohamed A. Elshaari, Farag A. Elshaari

Abstract:

A challenge for laboratories is to provide bacterial identification and antibiotic sensitivity results within a short time. Hence, advancement in the required technology is desirable to improve timing, accuracy and quality. Even with the current advances in methods used for both phenotypic and genotypic identification of bacteria the need is there to develop method(s) that enhance the outcome of bacteriology laboratories in accuracy and time. The hypothesis introduced here is based on the assumption that the chromosome of any bacteria contains unique sequences that can be used for its identification and typing. The outcome of a pilot study designed to test this hypothesis is reported in this manuscript. Methods: The complete chromosome sequences of several bacterial species were downloaded to use as search targets for unique sequences. Visual basic and SQL server (2014) were used to generate a complete set of 18-base long primers, a process started with reverse translation of randomly chosen 6 amino acids to limit the number of the generated primers. In addition, the software used to scan the downloaded chromosomes using the generated primers for similarities was designed, and the resulting hits were classified according to the number of similar chromosomal sequences, i.e., unique or otherwise. Results: All primers that had identical/similar sequences in the selected genome sequence(s) were classified according to the number of hits in the chromosomes search. Those that were identical to a single site on a single bacterial chromosome were referred to as unique. On the other hand, most generated primers sequences were identical to multiple sites on a single or multiple chromosomes. Following scanning, the generated primers were classified based on ability to differentiate between medically important bacterial and the initial results looks promising. Conclusion: A simple strategy that started by generating primers was introduced; the primers were used to screen bacterial genomes for match. Primer(s) that were uniquely identical to specific DNA sequence on a specific bacterial chromosome were selected. The identified unique sequence can be used in different molecular diagnostic techniques, possibly to identify bacteria. In addition, a single primer that can identify multiple sites in a single chromosome can be exploited for region or genome identification. Although genomes sequences draft of isolates of organism DNA enable high throughput primer design using alignment strategy, and this enhances diagnostic performance in comparison to traditional molecular assays. In this method the generated primers can be used to identify an organism before the draft sequence is completed. In addition, the generated primers can be used to build a bank for easy access of the primers that can be used to identify bacteria.

Keywords: bacteria chromosome, bacterial identification, sequence, primer generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
3 A Study of Interleukin-1β Genetic Polymorphisms in Gastric Carcinoma and Colorectal Carcinoma in Egyptian Patients

Authors: Mariam Khaled, Noha Farag, Ghada Mohamed Abdel Salam, Khaled Abu-Aisha, Mohamed El-Azizi

Abstract:

Gastric and colorectal cancers are among the most frequent causes of cancer-associated mortalities in Africa. They have been considered as a global public health concern, as nearly one million new cases are reported per year. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine-produced by activated macrophages and monocytes- and a member of the IL-1 family. The inactive IL-1β precursor is cleaved and activated by caspase-1 enzyme, which itself is activated by the assembly of intracellular structures defined as NLRP3 (Nod Like receptor P3) inflammasomes. Activated IL-1β stimulates the Interleukin-1 receptor type-1 (IL-1R1), which is responsible for the initiation of a signal transduction pathway leading to cell proliferation. It has been proven that the IL-1β gene is a highly polymorphic gene in which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may affect its expression. It has been previously reported that SNPs including base transitions between C and T at positions, -511 (C-T; dbSNP: rs16944) and -31 (C-T; dbSNP: rs1143627), from the transcriptional start site, contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric and colorectal cancers by affecting IL-1β levels. Altered production of IL-1β due to such polymorphisms is suspected to stimulate an amplified inflammatory response and promote Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition leading to malignancy. Allele frequency distribution of the IL-1β-31 and -511 SNPs, in different populations, and their correlation to the incidence of gastric and colorectal cancers, has been intriguing to researchers worldwide. The current study aims to investigate allele distributions of the IL-1β SNPs among gastric and colorectal cancers Egyptian patients. In order to achieve to that, 89 Biopsy and surgical specimens from the antrum and corpus mucosa of chronic gastritis subjects and gastric and colorectal carcinoma patients was collected for DNA extraction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). The amplified PCR products of IL-1β-31C > T and IL-1β-511T > C were digested by incubation with the restriction endonuclease enzymes ALu1 and Ava1. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine the allele frequency distribution in the three studied groups. Also, the effect of the IL-1β -31 and -511 SNPs on nuclear factor binding was analyzed using Fluorescence Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA), preceded by nuclear factor extraction from gastric and colorectal tissue samples and LPS stimulated monocytes. The results of this study showed that a significantly higher percentage of Egyptian gastric cancer patients have a homozygous CC genotype at the IL-1β-31 position and a heterozygous TC genotype at the IL-1β-511 position. Moreover, a significantly higher percentage of the colorectal cancer patients have a homozygous CC genotype at the IL-1β-31 and -511 positions as compared to the control group. In addition, the EMSA results showed that IL-1β-31C/T and IL-1β-511T/C SNPs do not affect nuclear factor binding. Results of this study suggest that the IL-1β-31 C/T and IL-1β-511 T/C may be correlated to the incidence of gastric cancer in Egyptian patients; however, similar findings couldn’t be proven in the colorectal cancer patients group for the IL-1β-511 T/C SNP. This is the first study to investigate IL-1β -31 and -511 SNPs in the Egyptian population.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, Egyptian patients, gastric cancer, interleukin-1β, single nucleotide polymorphisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
2 Genotoxic Effect of Tricyclieandidepressant Drug “Clomipramine Hydrochloride’ on Somatic and Germ Cells of Male Mice

Authors: Samia A. El-Fiky, F. A. Abou-Zaid, Ibrahim M. Farag, Naira M. Efiky

Abstract:

Clomipramine hydrochloride is one of the most used tricyclic antidepressant drug in Egypt. This drug contains in its chemical structure on two benzene rings. Benzene is considered to be toxic and clastogenic agent. So, the present study was designed to assess the genotoxic effect of Clomipramine hydrochloride on somatic and germ cells in mice. Three dose levels 0.195 (Low), 0.26 (Medium), and 0.65 (High) mg/kg.b.wt. were used. Seven groups of male mice were utilized in this work. The first group was employed as a control. In the remaining six groups, each of the above doses was orally administrated for two groups, one of them was treated for 5 days and the other group was given the same dose for 30 days. At the end of experiments, the animals were sacrificed for cytogenetic and sperm examination as well as histopathological investigations by using hematoxylin and eosin stains (H and E stains) and electron microscope. Concerning the sperm studies, these studies were confined to 5 days treatment with different dose levels. Moreover, the ultrastructural investigation by electron microscope was restricted to 30 days treatment with drug doses. The results of the dose dependent effect of Clomipramine showed that the treatment with three different doses induced increases of frequencies of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow and spermatocyte cells as compared to control. In addition, mitotic and meiotic activities of somatic and germ cells were declined. The treatments with medium or high doses were more effective for inducing significant increases of chromosome aberrations and significant decreases of cell divisions than treatment with low dose. The effect of high dose was more pronounced for causing such genetic deleterious in respect to effect of medium dose. Moreover, the results of the time dependent effect of Clomipramine observed that the treatment with different dose levels for 30 days led to significant increases of genetic aberrations than treatment for 5 days. Sperm examinations revealed that the treatment with Clomipramine at different dose levels caused significant increase of sperm shape abnormalities and significant decrease in sperm count as compared to control. The adverse effects on sperm shape and count were more obviousness by using the treatments with medium or high doses than those found in treatment with low dose. The group of mice treated with high dose had the highest rate of sperm shape abnormalities and the lowest proportion of sperm count as compared to mice received medium dose. In histopathological investigation, hematoxylin and eosin stains showed that, the using of low dose of Clomipramine for 5 or 30 days caused a little pathological changes in liver tissue. However, using medium and high doses for 5 or 30 days induced severe damages than that observed in mice treated with low dose. The treatment with high dose for 30 days gave the worst results of pathological changes in hepatic cells. Moreover, ultrastructure examination revealed, the mice treated with low dose of Clomipramine had little differences in liver histological architecture as compared to control group. These differences were confined to cytoplasmic inclusions. Whereas, prominent pathological changes in nuclei as well as dilated of rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (rER) were observed in mice treated with medium or high doses of Clomipramine drug. In conclusion, the present study adds evidence that treatments with medium or high doses of Clomipramine have genotoxic effects on somatic and germ cells of mice, as unwanted side effects. However, the using of low dose (especially for short time, 5 days) can be utilized as a therapeutic dose, where it caused relatively similar proportions of genetic, sperm, and histopathological changes as those found in normal control.

Keywords: clomipramine, mice, chromosome aberrations, sperm abnormalities, histopathology

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
1 Genotoxic Effect of Tricyclic Antidepressant Drug “Clomipramine Hydrochloride’ on Somatic and Germ Cells of Male Mice

Authors: Samia A. El-Fiky, Fouad A. Abou-Zaid, Ibrahim M. Farag, Naira M. El-Fiky

Abstract:

Clomipramine hydrochloride is one of the most used tricyclic antidepressant drug in Egypt. This drug contains in its chemical structure on two benzene rings. Benzene is considered to be toxic and clastogenic agent. So, the present study was designed to assess the genotoxic effect of Clomipramine hydrochloride on somatic and germ cells in mice. Three dose levels 0.195 (Low), 0.26 (Medium), and 0.65 (High) mg/kg.b.wt. were used. Seven groups of male mice were utilized in this work. The first group was employed as a control. In the remaining six groups, each of the above doses was orally administrated for two groups, one of them was treated for 5 days and the other group was given the same dose for 30 days. At the end of experiments, the animals were sacrificed for cytogenetic and sperm examination as well as histopathological investigations by using hematoxylin and eosin stains (H and E stains) and electron microscope. Concerning the sperm studies, these studies were confined to 5 days treatment with different dose levels. Moreover, the ultrastructural investigation by electron microscope was restricted to 30 days treatment with drug doses. The results of the dose dependent effect of Clomipramine showed that the treatment with three different doses induced increases of frequencies of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow and spermatocyte cells as compared to control. In addition, mitotic and meiotic activities of somatic and germ cells were declined. The treatments with medium or high doses were more effective for inducing significant increases of chromosome aberrations and significant decreases of cell divisions than treatment with low dose. The effect of high dose was more pronounced for causing such genetic deleterious in respect to effect of medium dose. Moreover, the results of the time dependent effect of Clomipramine observed that the treatment with different dose levels for 30 days led to significant increases of genetic aberrations than treatment for 5 days. Sperm examinations revealed that the treatment with Clomipramine at different dose levels caused significant increase of sperm shape abnormalities and significant decrease in sperm count as compared to control. The adverse effects on sperm shape and count were more obviousness by using the treatments with medium or high doses than those found in treatment with low dose. The group of mice treated with high dose had the highest rate of sperm shape abnormalities and the lowest proportion of sperm count as compared to mice received medium dose. In histopathological investigation, hematoxylin and eosin stains showed that, the using of low dose of Clomipramine for 5 or 30 days caused a little pathological changes in liver tissue. However, using medium and high doses for 5 or 30 days induced severe damages than that observed in mice treated with low dose. The treatment with high dose for 30 days gave the worst results of pathological changes in hepatic cells. Moreover, ultrastructure examination revealed, the mice treated with low dose of Clomipramine had little differences in liver histological architecture as compared to control group. These differences were confined to cytoplasmic inclusions. Whereas, prominent pathological changes in nuclei as well as dilated of rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (rER) were observed in mice treated with medium or high doses of Clomipramine drug. In conclusion, the present study adds evidence that treatments with medium or high doses of Clomipramine have genotoxic effects on somatic and germ cells of mice, as unwanted side effects. However, the using of low dose (especially for short time, 5 days) can be utilized as a therapeutic dose, where it caused relatively similar proportions of genetic, sperm, and histopathological changes as those found in normal control.

Keywords: chromosome aberrations, clomipramine, mice, histopathology, sperm abnormalities

Procedia PDF Downloads 424