Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: bioagent

4 Efficacy of Bio-Control Agents against Colletotrichum falcatum Causing Red Rot Disease of Sugarcane

Authors: Geeta Sharma, Suma Chandra

Abstract:

Sugarcane is one of the major commercial crop playing roles in agriculture and industrial economy of India. Globally sugarcane is affected by approximately 240 diseases caused by various plant pathogenic organisms. Among them, red rot disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum, is one of the most important diseases. In the present investigation, one fungal bioagent of Trichoderma harzianum, Pant Bioagent 1 and one bacterial bioagent Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pant Bioagent 2 (PBAT 1 and PBAT 2, respectively) were tested by dual culture method against the pathogen under laboratory conditions. The effectiveness of biocontrol agents was observed against four isolates of C. falcatum. In the case of PBAT1 maximum percent inhibition of pathogen was recorded in isolated Cf 0238 (61.05%), followed by Cf 09 (60.62%) whereas, minimum percent inhibition was recorded in Cf 3220 (48.55%) and in case of PBAT2 maximum mycelial growth inhibition percent was recorded in Cf 767 (50.50%) followed by Cf 088230(48.83%), whereas minimum percent inhibition was recorded in Cf 08 (40.16%) followed by Cf 0238 (41.83%). The present study showed that these biocontrol agents have the potential of controlling the pathogen and can further be used for the management of red rot disease in field.

Keywords: biocontrol agents, Colletotrichum falcatum, isolates, sugarcane

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3 Microbial Bioagent Triggered Biochemical Response in Tea (Camellia sinensis) Inducing Resistance against Grey Blight Disease and Yield Enhancement

Authors: Popy Bora, L. C. Bora, A. Bhattacharya, Sehnaz S. Ahmed

Abstract:

Microbial bioagents, viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, and Trichoderma viride were assessed for their ability to suppress grey blight caused by Pestalotiopsis theae, a major disease of tea crop in Assam. The expression of defense-related phytochemicals due to the application of these bioagents was also evaluated. The individual bioagents, as well as their combinations, were screened for their bioefficacy against P. theae in vitro using nutrient agar (NA) as basal medium. The treatment comprising a combination of the three bioagents, P. fluorescens, B. subtilis, and T. viride showed significantly the highest inhibition against the pathogen. Bioformulation of effective bioagent combinations was further evaluated under field condition, where significantly highest reduction of grey blight (90.30%), as well as the highest increase in the green leaf yield (10.52q/ha), was recorded due to application of the bioformulation containing the three bioagents. The application of the three bioformulation also recorded an enhanced level of caffeine (4.15%) and polyphenols (22.87%). A significant increase in the enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were recorded in the plants treated with the microbial bioformulation of the three bioagents. The present investigation indicates the role of microbial agents in suppressing disease, inducing plant defense response, as well as improving the quality of tea.

Keywords: enzymatic activity, grey blight, microbial bioagents, Pestalotiopsis theae, phytochemicals, plant defense, tea

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2 Application of Metarhizium anisopliae against Meloidogyne javanica in Soil Amended with Oak Debris

Authors: Mohammad Abdollahi

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most popular, widely grown and the second most important vegetable crop, after potatoes. Nematodes have been identified as one of the major pests affecting tomato production throughout the world. The most destructive nematodes are the genus Meloidogyne. Most widespread and devastating species of this genus are M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria. These species can cause complete crop loss under adverse growing conditions. There are several potential methods for management of the root knot nematodes. Although the chemicals are widely used against the phytonematodes, because of hazardous effects of these compounds on non-target organisms and on the environment, there is a need to develop other control strategies. Nowadays, non-chemical measures are widely used to control the plant parasitic nematodes. Biocontrol of phytonematodes is an important method among environment-friendly measures of nematode management. There are some soil-inhabiting fungi that have biocontrol potential on phytonematodes, which can be used in nematode management program. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, originally is an entomopathogenic bioagent. Biocontrol potential of this fungus on some phytonematodes has been reported earlier. Recently, use of organic soil amendments as well as the use of bioagents is under special attention in sustainable agriculture. This research aimed to reduce the pesticide use in control of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in tomato. The effects of M. anisopliae IMI 330189 and different levels of oak tree debris on M. javanica were determined. The combination effect of the fungus as well as the different rates of soil amendments was determined. Pots were filled with steam pasteurized soil mixture and the six leaf tomato seedlings were inoculated with 3000 second stage larvae of M. javanica/kg of soil. After eight weeks, plant growth parameters and nematode reproduction factors were compared. Based on the results of our experiment, combination of M. anisopliae IMI 330189 and oak debris caused more than 90% reduction in reproduction factor of nematode, at the rates of 100 and 150 g/kg soil (P ≤ 0.05). As compared to control, the reduction in number of galls was 76%. It was 86% for nematode reproduction factor, showing the significance of combined effect of both tested agents. Our results showed that plant debris can increase the biological activity of the tested bioagent. It was also proved that there was no adverse effect of oak debris, which potentially has antimicrobial activity, on antagonistic power of applied bioagent.

Keywords: biological control, nematode management, organic soil, Quercus branti, root knot nematode, soil amendment

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1 Nanoderma: Ecofriendly Nano Biofungicides for Controlling Plant Pathogenic Fungi

Authors: Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam, Alexei R. Khokhlov

Abstract:

Studies on bioefficacy (in vitro and in vivo) and mode of action of the nanocides against the most important plant diseases in Egypt and Russia might assist in the goal of sustainable agriculture. To our knowledge, few researchers have evaluated the combined antimicrobial effect of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) with bioorganic pesticides for controlling plant pathogens in the greenhouse and open field, decontrol investigated synergistic effect. In the current project, we will develop eco-friendly alternative management strategies including the use of heavy nanometal-tolerant Trichoderma strains and the main effective material in conventional fungicides (curpic, sulfur, phosphorus and zinc) for controlling plant diseases. Studies on bioefficacy and the mechanism of the nanocides against the most important plant diseases in Egypt were evaluated. There is a growing need to establish mechanisms of action for nano bio and/or fungicides to assist the design of new compounds or combinations of compounds, in order to understand resistance mechanisms and to provide a focus for toxicological attention. Nanofungicides represent an emerging technological development that could offer a range of benefits including increased efficacy, durability, and a reduction in the amounts of active ingredients that need to be used.

Keywords: biohybrids, biocides, bioagent, plant pathogenic fungi

Procedia PDF Downloads 138