Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14863

Search results for: time perception

14863 The Role of Arousal in Time Perception: Implications for Emotional Driving

Authors: Ewa Siedlecka

Abstract:

Emotional stress is an important risk factor in the rate and severity of traffic accidents. Moreover, incorrect time perception is implicated in the increase of traffic violations, such as running red lights or collisions. While the role of emotional arousal on perceived time is well-established, the role of physiological arousal in time perception remains unexamined. Specific emotions can be, however, associated with distinct physiological responses. In the current research, two studies examined the role of physiological arousal in time perception. In the first experiment, 41 participants engaged in a cold pressor task and had their time perception measured throughout the experiment. In the second study, 138 participants engaged in either isometric or deep breathing exercises. These activities were designed to simulate the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, respectively. Participants completed a bisection task to measure time perception in both studies, as well as a physiological response via an Electrocardiography (ECG). Results found that activation of the parasympathetic nervous system is associated with greater time perception. These findings are discussed with reference to models of time perception, as well as implications for emotional driving and misperceptions of speed. It is important to consider the role of physiology in the misperception of time, as these factors can lead to increases in driving accidents.

Keywords: emotions, nervous system, physiology, time perception

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14862 Fuzzy Inference Based Modelling of Perception Reaction Time of Drivers

Authors: U. Chattaraj, K. Dhusiya, M. Raviteja

Abstract:

Perception reaction time of drivers is an outcome of human thought process, which is vague and approximate in nature and also varies from driver to driver. So, in this study a fuzzy logic based model for prediction of the same has been presented, which seems suitable. The control factors, like, age, experience, intensity of driving of the driver, speed of the vehicle and distance of stimulus have been considered as premise variables in the model, in which the perception reaction time is the consequence variable. Results show that the model is able to explain the impacts of the control factors on perception reaction time properly.

Keywords: driver, fuzzy logic, perception reaction time, premise variable

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14861 Circadian Clock and Subjective Time Perception: A Simple Open Source Application for the Analysis of Induced Time Perception in Humans

Authors: Agata M. Kołodziejczyk, Mateusz Harasymczuk, Pierre-Yves Girardin, Lucie Davidová

Abstract:

Subjective time perception implies connection to cognitive functions, attention, memory and awareness, but a little is known about connections with homeostatic states of the body coordinated by circadian clock. In this paper, we present results from experimental study of subjective time perception in volunteers performing physical activity on treadmill in various phases of their circadian rhythms. Subjects were exposed to several time illusions simulated by programmed timing systems. This study brings better understanding for further improvement of of work quality in isolated areas. 

Keywords: biological clock, light, time illusions, treadmill

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14860 Third Language Perception of English Initial Plosives by Mandarin-Japanese Bilinguals

Authors: Rika Aoki

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to investigate whether being bilinguals facilitates or impedes the perception of a third language. The present study conducted a perception experiment in which Mandarin-Japanese bilinguals categorized a Voice-Onset-Time (VOT) continuum into English /b/ or /p/. The results show that early bilinguals were influenced by both Mandarin and Japanese, while late bilinguals behaved in a similar manner to Mandarin monolinguals Thus, it can be concluded that in the present study having two languages did not help bilinguals to perceive L3 stop contrast native-likely.

Keywords: bilinguals, perception, third language acquisition, voice-onset-time

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14859 Time's Arrow and Entropy: Violations to the Second Law of Thermodynamics Disrupt Time Perception

Authors: Jason Clarke, Michaela Porubanova, Angela Mazzoli, Gulsah Kut

Abstract:

What accounts for our perception that time inexorably passes in one direction, from the past to the future, the so-called arrow of time, given that the laws of physics permit motion in one temporal direction to also happen in the reverse temporal direction? Modern physics says that the reason for time’s unidirectional physical arrow is the relationship between time and entropy, the degree of disorder in the universe, which is evolving from low entropy (high order; thermal disequilibrium) toward high entropy (high disorder; thermal equilibrium), the second law of thermodynamics. Accordingly, our perception of the direction of time, from past to future, is believed to emanate as a result of the natural evolution of entropy from low to high, with low entropy defining our notion of ‘before’ and high entropy defining our notion of ‘after’. Here we explored this proposed relationship between entropy and the perception of time’s arrow. We predicted that if the brain has some mechanism for detecting entropy, whose output feeds into processes involved in constructing our perception of the direction of time, presentation of violations to the expectation that low entropy defines ‘before’ and high entropy defines ‘after’ would alert this mechanism, leading to measurable behavioral effects, namely a disruption in duration perception. To test this hypothesis, participants were shown briefly-presented (1000 ms or 500 ms) computer-generated visual dynamic events: novel 3D shapes that were seen either to evolve from whole figures into parts (low to high entropy condition) or were seen in the reverse direction: parts that coalesced into whole figures (high to low entropy condition). On each trial, participants were instructed to reproduce the duration of their visual experience of the stimulus by pressing and releasing the space bar. To ensure that attention was being deployed to the stimuli, a secondary task was to report the direction of the visual event (forward or reverse motion). Participants completed 60 trials. As predicted, we found that duration reproduction was significantly longer for the high to low entropy condition compared to the low to high entropy condition (p=.03). This preliminary data suggests the presence of a neural mechanism that detects entropy, which is used by other processes to construct our perception of the direction of time or time’s arrow.

Keywords: time perception, entropy, temporal illusions, duration perception

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14858 The Application of Conceptual Metaphor Theory to the Treatment of Depression

Authors: Uma Kanth, Amy Cook

Abstract:

Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) proposes that metaphor is fundamental to human thought. CMT utilizes embodied cognition, in that emotions are conceptualized as effects on the body because of a coupling of one’s bodily experiences and one’s somatosensory system. Time perception is a function of embodied cognition and conceptual metaphor in that one’s experience of time is inextricably dependent on one’s perception of the world around them. A hallmark of depressive disorders is the distortion in one’s perception of time, such as neurological dysfunction and psychomotor retardation, and yet, to the author’s best knowledge, previous studies have not before linked CMT, embodied cognition, and depressive disorders. Therefore, the focus of this paper is the investigation of how the applications of CMT and embodied cognition (especially regarding time perception) have promise in improving current techniques to treat depressive disorders. This paper aimed to extend, through a thorough review of literature, the theoretical basis required to further research into CMT and embodied cognition’s application in treating time distortion related symptoms of depressive disorders. Future research could include the development of brain training technologies that capitalize on the principles of CMT, with the aim of promoting cognitive remediation and cognitive activation to mitigate symptoms of depressive disorder.

Keywords: depression, conceptual metaphor theory, embodied cognition, time

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14857 The Impact of Financial Literacy, Perception of Debt, and Perception of Risk Toward Student Willingness to Use Online Student Loan

Authors: Irni Rahmayani Johan, Ira Kamelia

Abstract:

One of the impacts of the rapid advancement of technology is the rise of digital finance, including peer-to-peer lending (P2P). P2P lending has been widely marketed, including an online student loan that used the P2P platform. This study aims to analyze the effect of financial literacy, perception of debt, and perception of risk toward student willingness to use the online student loan (P2P lending). Using a cross-sectional study design, in collecting the data this study employed an online survey method, with a total sample of 280 undergraduate students of IPB university, Indonesia. This study found that financial literacy, perception of debt, perception of risk, and interest in using online student loans are categorized as low level. While the level of knowledge is found to be the lowest, the first-year students showed a higher level in terms of willingness to use the online student loan. In addition, the second year students recorded a positive perception toward debt. This study showed that level of study, attendance in personal finance course, and student’ GPA is positively related to financial knowledge. While debt perception is negatively related to financial attitudes. Similarly, the negative relationship is found between risk perception and the willingness to use the online student loan. The determinant factor of the willingness to use online student loans is the level of study, debt perception, financial risk perception, and time risk perception. Students with a higher level of study are more likely to have a lower interest in using online student loans. Moreover, students who perceived debt as a financial stimulator, as well as those with higher level of financial risk perceptions and time risk perceptions, tend to show more interest to use the loan.

Keywords: financial literacy, willingness to use, online student loan, perception of risk, perception of debt

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14856 Investigation of the Perceptional Quality of Nightscape in the Urban Space: A Case Study of Mashhad Koohsangi Axis in Iran

Authors: Fahimeh Khatami, Maryam Ziyaee, Elham Sanagar Darbani

Abstract:

Variety of different factors could influence on the measure urban perception. Both physical and non-physical factors, at least, make the quality of perception through the urban spaces. The value of lighting is one of the important factors which could make the better quality of environmental perception for the user. The perception of urban space in most of the Iranian cities is offer by different factors during the night time which caused to the death of nightlife and social activities. Therefore, this research is an attempt to study on the different of user perception during day and night in the Koohsangi Street. As the case study area in Iran in order to bring out the main influential factors during perception process. To deal with this good we used chi-square test on a sample size made up of on hundred participants. The result shows that for improving the night quality of urban spaces the legibility, navigation, and role stimulation were in important perception factors. Therefore, by focusing on these factors it would be possible to find out more functional solution for improving the activity of night perception.

Keywords: perception, urban space, legibility, imageability, nightscape

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14855 Design and Realization of Computer Network Security Perception Control System

Authors: El Miloudi Djelloul

Abstract:

Based on analysis on applications by perception control technology in computer network security status and security protection measures, from the angles of network physical environment and network software system environmental security, this paper provides network security system perception control solution using Internet of Things (IOT), telecom and other perception technologies. Security Perception Control System is in the computer network environment, utilizing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of IOT and telecom integration technology to carry out integration design for systems. In the network physical security environment, RFID temperature, humidity, gas and perception technologies are used to do surveillance on environmental data, dynamic perception technology is used for network system security environment, user-defined security parameters, security log are used for quick data analysis, extends control on I/O interface, by development of API and AT command, Computer Network Security Perception Control based on Internet and GSM/GPRS is achieved, which enables users to carry out interactive perception and control for network security environment by WEB, E-MAIL as well as PDA, mobile phone short message and Internet. In the system testing, through middle ware server, security information data perception in real time with deviation of 3-5% was achieved; it proves the feasibility of Computer Network Security Perception Control System.

Keywords: computer network, perception control system security strategy, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

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14854 Perception, Awareness and Attitude of Muslim Academicians on Islamic Banking Products in Kano State of Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad Abdullahi Mago

Abstract:

Islamic Banking began in Nigeria last three years and the sector has shown the sign of bright future for the sector and the Nigerian economy, within this very short time it is important to know the perception of the customers particularly learned or educated individuals for immediate evaluation and adjustment. This study investigates into the perception, awareness and attitudes of the academicians in the most populous state/place in Nigeria with more than 90% muslims, and the results has shown a relatively low levels results in all the variables of the study.The study recommends aggressive marketing strategy for the Banks operating within the sector.

Keywords: Islamic Banking Products, Islamic Financial Products, academicians, Islamic finance industry, perception, awareness and attitude

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14853 Binocular Heterogeneity in Saccadic Suppression

Authors: Evgeny Kozubenko, Dmitry Shaposhnikov, Mikhail Petrushan

Abstract:

This work is focused on the study of the binocular characteristics of the phenomenon of perisaccadic suppression in humans when perceiving visual objects. This phenomenon manifests in a decrease in the subject's ability to perceive visual information during saccades, which play an important role in purpose-driven behavior and visual perception. It was shown that the impairment of perception of visual information in the post-saccadic time window is stronger (p < 0.05) in the ipsilateral eye (the eye towards which the saccade occurs). In addition, the observed heterogeneity of post-saccadic suppression in the contralateral and ipsilateral eyes may relate to depth perception. Taking the studied phenomenon into account is important when developing ergonomic control panels in modern operator systems.

Keywords: eye movement, natural vision, saccadic suppression, visual perception

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14852 Body Perception and Self-Esteem in Individuals Performing Bodybuilding Exercise Program

Authors: Yildiz Erdoganoglu, Unzile Tunc

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of body, upper extremity, lower extremity endurance, and core functionality with body perception and self-esteem in individuals who applied for a bodybuilding exercise program. Forty volunteer male subjects who underwent bodybuilding exercises for one year or more were included in the study. After obtaining demographic information of the individuals, trunk endurance was evaluated by curl-up and modified Sorensen test, upper extremity endurance by push-up test, lower extremity endurance by repeated squat test, core functionalities by single-leg wall sitting and repeated single-leg squatting tests. body perception, body image perception scale, and self-esteem were evaluated with Rosenberg self-esteem scale. The mean age of the individuals was 25.60 ± 4.70 years, mean exercise time was 22.47 ± 34.60 months. At the end of the study, body perception was low, and self-esteem was moderate. There was no significant relationship between abdominal endurance, back extensor endurance, upper extremity, and lower extremity endurance, core functionality, and body perception (p > 0.05). Also, there was no significant relationship between abdominal extensor, back extensor, upper extremity and lower extremity endurance, core functionality, and self-esteem (p > 0.05). The body, upper and lower extremity endurance, and core functionality of bodybuilders did not have any effect on body perception and self-esteem, suggesting that these individuals did not contribute positively to their efforts to improve their body perception and self- esteem.

Keywords: body endurance, body perception, core functionality, self esteem

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14851 Essential Factors of Risk Perception Crucial in Efficient Construction Management

Authors: Francis Edum-Fotwe, Tony Thorpe, Charles Afetornu

Abstract:

Risk perception informs the outcome of how issues are responded to in either solving or overcoming a problem or improving a situation. Risk perception is established to be affected by some key factors reflecting in the varying ways in which work is done as well as the level of efficiency achieved. These factors potentially would influence risk perception to different extents. Such that if these factors are said to determine risk perception, how does a change in any affect risk perception. Since the ability to address risk is influenced by risk perception, establishing and developing awareness of that perception should enable construction professionals to make viable decisions. Any act to improve the construction industry cannot be overemphasised, considering its contribution to national development. A survey questionnaire was conducted in Ghana to elicit data that measures the risk perception and the essential factors as well as the necessary demographics of the respondents, who are construction professionals. This study finds out the sensitivity of the critical factors of risk perception. It uses the Relative Importance Index analysis tool to investigate the differential effect of these essential factors on risk perception, such that a slight change in a factor makes a significant change in risk perception, having established that it is influenced by essential factors. The findings can lead to policy formation for employers on the prioritisation factors to undertake to improve the risk perception of employees. Other areas in which this study can be useful in team formation for sensitive and complex projects where efficient risk management is critical.

Keywords: construction industry, risk, risk management, risk perception

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14850 Ingratiation as a Moderator of the Impact of the Perception of Organizational Politics on Job Satisfaction

Authors: Triana Fitriastuti, Pipiet Larasatie, Alex Vanderstraten

Abstract:

Many scholars have demonstrated the negative impacts of the perception of organizational politics on organizational outcomes. The model proposed in this study analyzes the impact of the perception of organizational politics on job satisfaction. In the same way, ingratiation as a moderator variable is tested. We applied regression analysis to test the hypothesis. The findings of the current research, which was conducted with 240 employees in the public sector in Indonesia, show that the perception of organizational politics has a negative effect on job satisfaction. In contrast, ingratiation plays a role that fully moderates the relationship between organizational politics and organizational outcomes and changes the correlation between the perception of organizational politics on job satisfaction. Employees who use ingratiation as a coping mechanism tend to do so when they perceive a high degree of organizational politics.

Keywords: ingratiation, impression management, job satisfaction, perception of organizational politics

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14849 Spatiotemporal Analysis of Visual Evoked Responses Using Dense EEG

Authors: Rima Hleiss, Elie Bitar, Mahmoud Hassan, Mohamad Khalil

Abstract:

A comprehensive study of object recognition in the human brain requires combining both spatial and temporal analysis of brain activity. Here, we are mainly interested in three issues: the time perception of visual objects, the ability of discrimination between two particular categories (objects vs. animals), and the possibility to identify a particular spatial representation of visual objects. Our experiment consisted of acquiring dense electroencephalographic (EEG) signals during a picture-naming task comprising a set of objects and animals’ images. These EEG responses were recorded from nine participants. In order to determine the time perception of the presented visual stimulus, we analyzed the Event Related Potentials (ERPs) derived from the recorded EEG signals. The analysis of these signals showed that the brain perceives animals and objects with different time instants. Concerning the discrimination of the two categories, the support vector machine (SVM) was applied on the instantaneous EEG (excellent temporal resolution: on the order of millisecond) to categorize the visual stimuli into two different classes. The spatial differences between the evoked responses of the two categories were also investigated. The results showed a variation of the neural activity with the properties of the visual input. Results showed also the existence of a spatial pattern of electrodes over particular regions of the scalp in correspondence to their responses to the visual inputs.

Keywords: brain activity, categorization, dense EEG, evoked responses, spatio-temporal analysis, SVM, time perception

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14848 Velocity Profiles of Vowel Perception by Javanese and Sundanese English Language Learners

Authors: Arum Perwitasari

Abstract:

Learning L2 sounds is influenced by the first language (L1) sound system. This current study seeks to examine how the listeners with a different L1 vowel system perceive L2 sounds. The fact that English has a bigger number of vowel inventory than Javanese and Sundanese L1 might cause problems for Javanese and Sundanese English language learners perceiving English sounds. To reveal the L2 sound perception over time, we measured the mouse trajectories related to the hand movements made by Javanese and Sundanese language learners, two of Indonesian local languages. Do the Javanese and Sundanese listeners show higher velocity than the English listeners when they perceive English vowels which are similar and new to their L1 system? The study aims to map the patterns of real-time processing through compatible hand movements to reveal any uncertainties when making selections. The results showed that the Javanese listeners exhibited significantly slower velocity values than the English listeners for similar vowels /I, ɛ, ʊ/ in the 826-1200ms post stimulus. Unlike the Javanese, the Sundanese listeners showed slow velocity values except for similar vowel /ʊ/. For the perception of new vowels /i:, æ, ɜ:, ʌ, ɑː, u:, ɔ:/, the Javanese listeners showed slower velocity in making the lexical decision. In contrast, the Sundanese listeners showed slow velocity only for vowels /ɜ:, ɔ:, æ, I/ indicating that these vowels are hard to perceive. Our results fit well with the second language model representing how the L1 vowel system influences the L2 sound perception.

Keywords: velocity profiles, EFL learners, speech perception, experimental linguistics

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14847 Evaluation of Colour Perception in Different Correlated Colour Temperature of LED Lighting

Authors: Saadet Akbay, Ayşe Nihan Avcı

Abstract:

The perception of colour is a subjective experience which depends on age, gender, race, cultural and educational backgrounds, etc. of an individual. However, colour perception is also affected by the correlated colour temperature (CCT) of a light source which is considered as one of the most fundamental quantitative lighting characteristics. This study focuses on evaluating colour perception in different CCT of light emitting diodes (LED) lighting. The aim is to compare the inherent colours with the perceived colours under two CCT of ‘warm’ (2700K), and ‘cool’ (4000K) LED lights and to understand how different CTT affect the perception of a colour. Analysis and specifications of colour attributes are made with Natural Colour System (NCS) which is an international colour communication system. The outcome of the study reveals the possible tendencies for perceived colours under different illuminance levels of LED lighting.

Keywords: colour perception, correlated colour temperature, inherent and perceived colour, LED lighting, natural colour system (NCS)

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14846 Visual Speech Perception of Arabic Emphatics

Authors: Maha Saliba Foster

Abstract:

Speech perception has been recognized as a bi-sensory process involving the auditory and visual channels. Compared to the auditory modality, the contribution of the visual signal to speech perception is not very well understood. Studying how the visual modality affects speech recognition can have pedagogical implications in second language learning, as well as clinical application in speech therapy. The current investigation explores the potential effect of speech visual cues on the perception of Arabic emphatics (AEs). The corpus consists of 36 minimal pairs each containing two contrasting consonants, an AE versus a non-emphatic (NE). Movies of four Lebanese speakers were edited to allow perceivers to have partial view of facial regions: lips only, lips-cheeks, lips-chin, lips-cheeks-chin, lips-cheeks-chin-neck. In the absence of any auditory information and relying solely on visual speech, perceivers were above chance at correctly identifying AEs or NEs across vowel contexts; moreover, the models were able to predict the probability of perceivers’ accuracy in identifying some of the COIs produced by certain speakers; additionally, results showed an overlap between the measurements selected by the computer and those selected by human perceivers. The lack of significant face effect on the perception of AEs seems to point to the lips, present in all of the videos, as the most important and often sufficient facial feature for emphasis recognition. Future investigations will aim at refining the analyses of visual cues used by perceivers by using Principal Component Analysis and including time evolution of facial feature measurements.

Keywords: Arabic emphatics, machine learning, speech perception, visual speech perception

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14845 Consumers' Awareness, Knowledge, and Perception towards Goods and Services Tax in India

Authors: Harjinder Kaur

Abstract:

GST was implemented by government with the expectation to reform the taxation system of India. So this study basically seeks to understand the consumers’ awareness, knowledge and perception about the implementation of GST. To conduct this study, 100 respondents of all demographic profile were randomly selected from the Punjab region of India. To investigate the relationship between demographic profile and level of awareness and knowledge about GST, one way ANOVA test was used and it is found that there is a significant relationship between gender, age and qualification and level of awareness and knowledge. Furthermore, due to the lack of information on GST, the respondents had a high negative perception. The study also reveals that the implementation of GST has resulted in higher prices for goods and services and thus this tax may cause burden to people. Also after implementation of GST financial issues such as inflation, rising cost of living, economic instability have impacted many Indian consumers in terms of their spending. But at the same time it is also perceived that GST is designed to remove the burden of many indirect taxes and aims to develop the more efficient tax system which increases the revenue of country.

Keywords: goods and service tax, consumers awareness, knowledge, perception

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14844 Issues of Time's Urgency and Ritual in Children's Picture Books: A Closer Look at the Contributions of Grandparents

Authors: Karen Armstrong

Abstract:

Although invisible and fleeting, time is an essential variable in perception. Ritual is proposed as an antithesis to the passage of time, a way of linking our narratives with the past, present and future. This qualitative exploration examines a variety of award winning twentieth-century children’s picture books, specifically regarding the issues of time’s urgency and ritual with respect to children and grandparents. The paper will begin with a consideration of issues of time from the area of psychology, with regard to age, specifically contrasting later age and childhood. Next the value of ritual as represented by the presence of grandparents in children’s books. Specific instances of the contributions of grandparents or older adults with regard to this balancing function between time’s urgency and ritual will be discussed. Recommendations for future research include a consideration of grandparents’ or older characters’ depictions in books for older children.

Keywords: children's picture books, grandparents, ritual, time

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14843 Perception of Young Consumers about SMS Marketing in Pakistan

Authors: Raja Irfan Sabir, Nargis Dewan

Abstract:

This study examines the role of SMS marketing on perception of young consumers and its impact on society by keeping in mind the culture, values and communication norms of Pakistan. The study focused on the consumer’s perception towards SMS Marketing of Entertainment, Informativeness, Credibility and Irritation factor which can have influence on the perception of young consumer positively or negatively. It’s also observed that some of the message contents do have good or bad impact on the society’s norm. The result derived from a sample of 200 consumers indicate that communication medium ‘SMS marketing’ positively influence the consumers perception but the messages that consumers receive from these companies are against the social norms and have bad impact. So Pakistani entrepreneurs of cellular industries should be more aware that there is need to somehow modify their message content strategies according to culture, norms and values of our society and environmental situation.

Keywords: SMS marketing, messages content, consumers’ perception, cultural values and norms

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14842 The Role of Tempo in the Perception of Musical Grouping

Authors: Marina B. Cottrell

Abstract:

Tempo plays a significant role in the perception of metrical groupings, with faster tempi tending to increase the number of beats in a given metrical unit. Previous research has shown a correlation between the perception of metric grouping and native language, but little is currently known about other possible musical factors that contribute to metric grouping tendencies. This study aims to find the tempo boundaries at which the perceptual groupings of a melodic pattern changes and to correlate these regions with self-reported musical experience. Participants were presented with looping melodies (divided between major and minor keys). Using a slider bar that controlled the tempo, subjects were asked to locate the point at which they heard the metric grouping doubled or halved. This region was shown to primarily be affected by the mode and time signature of the stimulus. The results also suggest a correlation between the level of musical training and the region of perceived grouping change.

Keywords: meter, metric grouping, mode, tempo

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14841 Development of Visual Element Design Guidelines for Consumer Products Based on User Characteristics

Authors: Taezoon Park, Wonil Hwang

Abstract:

This study aims to build a design guideline for the effective visual display used for consumer products considering user characteristics; gender and age. Although a number of basic experiments identified the limits of human visual perception, the findings remain fragmented and many times in an unfriendly form. This study compiled a design cases along with tables aggregated from the experimental result of visual perception; brightness/contrast, useful field of view, color sensitivity. Visual design elements commonly used for consumer product, were selected and appropriate guidelines were developed based on the experimental result. Since the provided data with case example suggests a feasible design space, it will save time for a product designer to find appropriate design alternatives.

Keywords: design guideline, consumer product, visual design element, visual perception, emotional design

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14840 Construction Quality Perception of Construction Professionals and Their Expectations from a Quality Improvement Technique in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Yousaf Sadiq

Abstract:

The complexity arises in defining the construction quality due to its perception, based on inherent market conditions and their requirements, the diversified stakeholders itself and their desired output. An quantitative survey based approach was adopted in this constructive study. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted for the assessment of construction Quality perception and expectations in the context of quality improvement technique. The survey feedback of professionals of the leading construction organizations/companies of Pakistan construction industry were analyzed. The financial capacity, organizational structure, and construction experience of the construction firms formed basis for their selection. The quality perception was found to be project-scope-oriented and considered as an excess cost for a construction project. Any quality improvement technique was expected to maximize the profit for the employer, by improving the productivity in a construction project. The study is beneficial for the construction professionals to assess the prevailing construction quality perception and the expectations from implementation of any quality improvement technique in construction projects.

Keywords: construction quality, expectation, improvement, perception

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14839 Nurses' Perception and Core Competencies for Disaster Preparedness: A Study from the Western Region of Turkey

Authors: Gülcan Taşkıran, Ülkü Tatar Baykal

Abstract:

Aim: To identify nurses’ perceived competencies for disaster preparedness. Background: Recently, the number of disasters has increased worldwide. Since disasters often strike without warning, healthcare providers, especially nurses must be prepared with appropriate competencies for disaster procedures. Nurses’ perceptions of their own competencies for disaster preparedness need to be evaluated to aid in the creation of effective national plans and educational programs. Design: This study was conducted with a descriptive and cross-sectional design. Methods: Nurses’ perceptions were assessed using the 13-item Demographic Profile Questionnaire that is based on previous literature and the 45-item Nurses’ Perception of Core Competencies for Disaster Preparedness Scale (NPCDPS). Data were collected from June to September 2014 from 406 (79.9% return rate) Turkish nurses working in the western region of Turkey. Results: At the end of the study, it was found that out of the nurses whose mean age was 31.27 ± 5.86 and mean of working time was 8.07 ± 6.60 by the time vast majority of the nurses were women (85.7%), married (59.4%), bachelor’s degree holder (88.2%) and service nurses (56.2%). The most potential disaster that nurses think is an earthquake (70.9%) by the time majority of nurses consider having a role as a nurse at every stage of disasters. The mean total point score of nurses’ perception of disaster preparedness was 4.62. The mean total point score of the nurses from the Nurses’ Perception of Core Competencies for Disaster Preparedness Scale was 133.96. When the subscales’ mean scores are examined, the highest average of the mean score is for Technical Skills (44.52), and the lowest is for Critical Thinking Skills (10.47). When the subscales of Nurses’ Perception of Core Competencies for Disaster Preparedness Scale compared with sex, marital status and education level out of independent variable of nurses there is no significant difference (p > 0.05); compared with age group, working years, duty and being with a disaster out of independent variable of nurses there is a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Nurses generally perceive themselves as sufficient at a ‘medium level’ in terms of meeting the core competencies that are required for disaster preparedness. Nurses are not adequately prepared for disasters, but they are aware of the need for such preparation and disaster education. Disaster management training should be given to all nurses in their basic education.

Keywords: disaster competencies, disaster management, disaster nursing, disaster preparedness, nursing, nursing administration, Turkish nurses

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14838 Verification of the Effect of the Hazard-Perception Training Tool for Drivers Ported from a Tablet Device to a Smartphone

Authors: K. Shimazaki, M. Mishina, A. Fujii

Abstract:

In a previous study, we developed a hazard-perception training tool for drivers using a tablet device and verified its effectiveness. Accident movies recorded by drive recorders were separated into scenes before and after the collision. The scene before the collision is presented to the driver. The driver then touches the screen to point out where he/she feels danger. After the screen is touched, the tool presents the collision scene and tells the driver if what he/she pointed out is correct. Various effects were observed such as this tool increased the discovery rate of collision targets and reduced the reaction time. In this study, we optimized this tool for the smartphone and verified its effectiveness. Verifying in the same way as in the previous study on tablet devices clarified that the same effect can be obtained on the smartphone screen.

Keywords: hazard perception, smartphone, tablet devices, driver education

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14837 Embedded Visual Perception for Autonomous Agricultural Machines Using Lightweight Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: René A. Sørensen, Søren Skovsen, Peter Christiansen, Henrik Karstoft

Abstract:

Autonomous agricultural machines act in stochastic surroundings and therefore, must be able to perceive the surroundings in real time. This perception can be achieved using image sensors combined with advanced machine learning, in particular Deep Learning. Deep convolutional neural networks excel in labeling and perceiving color images and since the cost of high-quality RGB-cameras is low, the hardware cost of good perception depends heavily on memory and computation power. This paper investigates the possibility of designing lightweight convolutional neural networks for semantic segmentation (pixel wise classification) with reduced hardware requirements, to allow for embedded usage in autonomous agricultural machines. Using compression techniques, a lightweight convolutional neural network is designed to perform real-time semantic segmentation on an embedded platform. The network is trained on two large datasets, ImageNet and Pascal Context, to recognize up to 400 individual classes. The 400 classes are remapped into agricultural superclasses (e.g. human, animal, sky, road, field, shelterbelt and obstacle) and the ability to provide accurate real-time perception of agricultural surroundings is studied. The network is applied to the case of autonomous grass mowing using the NVIDIA Tegra X1 embedded platform. Feeding case-specific images to the network results in a fully segmented map of the superclasses in the image. As the network is still being designed and optimized, only a qualitative analysis of the method is complete at the abstract submission deadline. Proceeding this deadline, the finalized design is quantitatively evaluated on 20 annotated grass mowing images. Lightweight convolutional neural networks for semantic segmentation can be implemented on an embedded platform and show competitive performance with regards to accuracy and speed. It is feasible to provide cost-efficient perceptive capabilities related to semantic segmentation for autonomous agricultural machines.

Keywords: autonomous agricultural machines, deep learning, safety, visual perception

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14836 Perception and Implementation of Machine Translation Applications by the Iranian English Translators

Authors: Abdul Amir Hazbavi

Abstract:

The present study is an attempt to provide a relatively comprehensive preview of the Iranian English translators’ perception on Machine Translation. Furthermore, the study tries to shed light on the status of implementation of Machine Translation among the Iranian English Translators. To reach the aforementioned objectives, the Localization Industry Standards Association’s questioner for measuring perceptions with regard to the adoption of a technology innovation was adapted and used to investigate three parameter among the participants of the study, namely familiarity with Machine Translation, general perception on Machine Translation and implementation of Machine Translation systems in translation tasks. The participants of the study were 224 last-year undergraduate Iranian students of English translation at 10 universities across the country. The study revealed a very low level of adoption and a very high level of willingness to get familiar with and learn about Machine Translation, as well as a positive perception of and attitude toward Machine Translation by the Iranian English translators.

Keywords: translation technology, machine translation, perception, implementation

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14835 Consumers Perception on 'Preloved' Luxury Goods in the Malaysian Context

Authors: Noor Shakila Shaari

Abstract:

Though consumptions of luxury goods have had significant attention over the years, ‘preloved’ luxury goods remains a somewhat limited area of study especially in Asian countries such as Malaysia. This paper examines the relevancy of the framework for luxury goods in context to ‘preloved’ luxury goods and whether these two holds the same perception and purchase intention in the eyes of the consumer. A conceptualize framework was derived and findings show that self-expression, conspicuous behaviour and value-expressive and social-adjustive functions are key factors to consumers perception and buying intention of ‘preloved’ luxury goods.

Keywords: consumer behaviour, consumer perception, luxury goods, Malaysia, preloved luxury goods, purchase intention

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14834 An Empirical Analysis of the Perception of First Time Voters in Pakistan on the Upcoming General Election 2018, Relationships between Voters and Factors That Affect Voter Priorities

Authors: Syed Muhammad Wajih ul Hassan

Abstract:

This research looks at the perception of first-time voters in Pakistan on the political dynamics of the country. This paper shall review the researches that were conducted by Gallup Pakistan and compare it with our findings regarding the voter behavior and factors that affect the priorities of the voters. A country where democracy has just completed its 2 consecutive tenures for the first time, one would always want to know about the voting trends among youth where young population makes 60% of the population in the country. In that case, it is not only a big task to find out voter patterns and trends voters might adhere to while a general election is approaching. Also, the paper discovers the psychology of young Pakistani voters on the upcoming election of 2018 but also the factors that influence the voting decisions of a voter. This research tries to study the relations among voters and how they view each other in general. The paper also explores the views of voters on the factors that impact decision making of a voter while casting his/her vote in Pakistan. The paper thoroughly studies the expectations of the voters from the current system that prevails in the country. The reason this research was conducted is that this kind of positive approach towards finding out the voter perception is heavily untouched in Pakistani academia. This study can benefit a lot of institutions and professions in the future too. The constraints and obstacles that came while this research was being conducted are also identified in the paper. The mode of research is primary research as it was impossible to find out the perceptions of first-time voters without going on the field and carrying out the research. The research was conducted in one of the most reputable and liberal educational institutions of Pakistan. This research is based on a survey that was conducted through questionnaires where responses were collected through a mix process of random and convenient sampling. The major findings of the study show that young voters have a realistic perspective about the electoral process in the country. The research also articulates the factors that affect the priorities of young voters, and also how young voters view other voters that belong from other sections of the society. To conclude, we can say that this research will give us a perspective that can define and identify the voter priorities of the future in Pakistan.

Keywords: first time voters, general election 2018, Pakistan, young

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