Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14855

Search results for: lumped parameter model

14855 Mathematical Modeling of Human Cardiovascular System: A Lumped Parameter Approach and Simulation

Authors: Ketan Naik, P. H. Bhathawala

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model of Human Cardiovascular System using lumped parameter method. The model is divided in three parts: Systemic Circulation, Pulmonary Circulation and the Heart. The established mathematical model has been simulated by MATLAB software. The innovation of this study is in describing the system based on the vessel diameters and simulating mathematical equations with active electrical elements. Terminology of human physical body and required physical data like vessel’s radius, thickness etc., which are required to calculate circuit parameters like resistance, inductance and capacitance, are proceeds from well-known medical books. The developed model is useful to understand the anatomic of human cardiovascular system and related syndromes. The model is deal with vessel’s pressure and blood flow at certain time.

Keywords: cardiovascular system, lumped parameter method, mathematical modeling, simulation

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14854 Mass Transfer Studies of Carbon Dioxide Absorption in Sodium Hydroxide in Millichannels

Authors: A. Durgadevi, S. Pushpavanam

Abstract:

In this work, absorption studies are done by conducting experiments of 99.9 (v/v%) pure CO₂ with various concentrations of sodium hydroxide solutions in a T-junction glass circular milli-channel. The gas gets absorbed in the aqueous phase resulting in the shrinking of slugs. This phenomenon is used to develop a lumped parameter model. Using this model, the chemical dissolution dynamics and the mass transfer characteristics of the CO₂-NaOH system is analysed. The liquid side mass transfer coefficient is determined with the help of the experimental data.

Keywords: absorption, dissolution dynamics, lumped parameter model, milli-channel, mass transfer coefficient

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14853 A Geometrical Multiscale Approach to Blood Flow Simulation: Coupling 2-D Navier-Stokes and 0-D Lumped Parameter Models

Authors: Azadeh Jafari, Robert G. Owens

Abstract:

In this study, a geometrical multiscale approach which means coupling together the 2-D Navier-Stokes equations, constitutive equations and 0-D lumped parameter models is investigated. A multiscale approach, suggest a natural way of coupling detailed local models (in the flow domain) with coarser models able to describe the dynamics over a large part or even the whole cardiovascular system at acceptable computational cost. In this study we introduce a new velocity correction scheme to decouple the velocity computation from the pressure one. To evaluate the capability of our new scheme, a comparison between the results obtained with Neumann outflow boundary conditions on the velocity and Dirichlet outflow boundary conditions on the pressure and those obtained using coupling with the lumped parameter model has been performed. Comprehensive studies have been done based on the sensitivity of numerical scheme to the initial conditions, elasticity and number of spectral modes. Improvement of the computational algorithm with stable convergence has been demonstrated for at least moderate Weissenberg number. We comment on mathematical properties of the reduced model, its limitations in yielding realistic and accurate numerical simulations, and its contribution to a better understanding of microvascular blood flow. We discuss the sophistication and reliability of multiscale models for computing correct boundary conditions at the outflow boundaries of a section of the cardiovascular system of interest. In this respect the geometrical multiscale approach can be regarded as a new method for solving a class of biofluids problems, whose application goes significantly beyond the one addressed in this work.

Keywords: geometrical multiscale models, haemorheology model, coupled 2-D navier-stokes 0-D lumped parameter modeling, computational fluid dynamics

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14852 Loudspeaker Parameters Inverse Problem for Improving Sound Frequency Response Simulation

Authors: Y. T. Tsai, Jin H. Huang

Abstract:

The sound pressure level (SPL) of the moving-coil loudspeaker (MCL) is often simulated and analyzed using the lumped parameter model. However, the SPL of a MCL cannot be simulated precisely in the high frequency region, because the value of cone effective area is changed due to the geometry variation in different mode shapes, it is also related to affect the acoustic radiation mass and resistance. Herein, the paper presents the inverse method which has a high ability to measure the value of cone effective area in various frequency points, also can estimate the MCL electroacoustic parameters simultaneously. The proposed inverse method comprises the direct problem, adjoint problem, and sensitivity problem in collaboration with nonlinear conjugate gradient method. Estimated values from the inverse method are validated experimentally which compared with the measured SPL curve result. Results presented in this paper not only improve the accuracy of lumped parameter model but also provide the valuable information on loudspeaker cone design.

Keywords: inverse problem, cone effective area, loudspeaker, nonlinear conjugate gradient method

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14851 Lumped Parameter Models for Numerical Simulation of The Dynamic Response of Hoisting Appliances

Authors: Candida Petrogalli, Giovanni Incerti, Luigi Solazzi

Abstract:

This paper describes three lumped parameters models for the study of the dynamic behaviour of a boom crane. The models proposed here allow evaluating the fluctuations of the load arising from the rope and structure elasticity and from the type of the motion command imposed by the winch. A calculation software was developed in order to determine the actual acceleration of the lifted mass and the dynamic overload during the lifting phase. Some application examples are presented, with the aim of showing the correlation between the magnitude of the stress and the type of the employed motion command.

Keywords: crane, dynamic model, overloading condition, vibration

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14850 A Low Order Thermal Envelope Model for Heat Transfer Characteristics of Low-Rise Residential Buildings

Authors: Nadish Anand, Richard D. Gould

Abstract:

A simplistic model is introduced for determining the thermal characteristics of a Low-rise Residential (LRR) building and then predicts the energy usage by its Heating Ventilation & Air Conditioning (HVAC) system according to changes in weather conditions which are reflected in the Ambient Temperature (Outside Air Temperature). The LRR buildings are treated as a simple lump for solving the heat transfer problem and the model is derived using the lumped capacitance model of transient conduction heat transfer from bodies. Since most contemporary HVAC systems have a thermostat control which will have an offset temperature and user defined set point temperatures which define when the HVAC system will switch on and off. The aim is to predict without any error the Body Temperature (i.e. the Inside Air Temperature) which will estimate the switching on and off of the HVAC system. To validate the mathematical model derived from lumped capacitance we have used EnergyPlus simulation engine, which simulates Buildings with considerable accuracy. We have predicted through the low order model the Inside Air Temperature of a single house kept in three different climate zones (Detroit, Raleigh & Austin) and different orientations for summer and winter seasons. The prediction error from the model for the same day as that of model parameter calculation has showed an error of < 10% in winter for almost all the orientations and climate zones. Whereas the prediction error is only <10% for all the orientations in the summer season for climate zone at higher latitudes (Raleigh & Detroit). Possible factors responsible for the large variations are also noted in the work, paving way for future research.

Keywords: building energy, energy consumption, energy+, HVAC, low order model, lumped capacitance

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14849 Algorithm Development of Individual Lumped Parameter Modelling for Blood Circulatory System: An Optimization Study

Authors: Bao Li, Aike Qiao, Gaoyang Li, Youjun Liu

Abstract:

Background: Lumped parameter model (LPM) is a common numerical model for hemodynamic calculation. LPM uses circuit elements to simulate the human blood circulatory system. Physiological indicators and characteristics can be acquired through the model. However, due to the different physiological indicators of each individual, parameters in LPM should be personalized in order for convincing calculated results, which can reflect the individual physiological information. This study aimed to develop an automatic and effective optimization method to personalize the parameters in LPM of the blood circulatory system, which is of great significance to the numerical simulation of individual hemodynamics. Methods: A closed-loop LPM of the human blood circulatory system that is applicable for most persons were established based on the anatomical structures and physiological parameters. The patient-specific physiological data of 5 volunteers were non-invasively collected as personalized objectives of individual LPM. In this study, the blood pressure and flow rate of heart, brain, and limbs were the main concerns. The collected systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, cardiac output, and heart rate were set as objective data, and the waveforms of carotid artery flow and ankle pressure were set as objective waveforms. Aiming at the collected data and waveforms, sensitivity analysis of each parameter in LPM was conducted to determine the sensitive parameters that have an obvious influence on the objectives. Simulated annealing was adopted to iteratively optimize the sensitive parameters, and the objective function during optimization was the root mean square error between the collected waveforms and data and simulated waveforms and data. Each parameter in LPM was optimized 500 times. Results: In this study, the sensitive parameters in LPM were optimized according to the collected data of 5 individuals. Results show a slight error between collected and simulated data. The average relative root mean square error of all optimization objectives of 5 samples were 2.21%, 3.59%, 4.75%, 4.24%, and 3.56%, respectively. Conclusions: Slight error demonstrated good effects of optimization. The individual modeling algorithm developed in this study can effectively achieve the individualization of LPM for the blood circulatory system. LPM with individual parameters can output the individual physiological indicators after optimization, which are applicable for the numerical simulation of patient-specific hemodynamics.

Keywords: blood circulatory system, individual physiological indicators, lumped parameter model, optimization algorithm

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14848 Seismic Assessment of Passive Control Steel Structure with Modified Parameter of Oil Damper

Authors: Ahmad Naqi

Abstract:

Today, the passively controlled buildings are extensively becoming popular due to its excellent lateral load resistance circumstance. Typically, these buildings are enhanced with a damping device that has high market demand. Some manufacturer falsified the damping device parameter during the production to achieve the market demand. Therefore, this paper evaluates the seismic performance of buildings equipped with damping devices, which their parameter modified to simulate the falsified devices, intentionally. For this purpose, three benchmark buildings of 4-, 10-, and 20-story were selected from JSSI (Japan Society of Seismic Isolation) manual. The buildings are special moment resisting steel frame with oil damper in the longitudinal direction only. For each benchmark buildings, two types of structural elements are designed to resist the lateral load with and without damping devices (hereafter, known as Trimmed & Conventional Building). The target building was modeled using STERA-3D, a finite element based software coded for study purpose. Practicing the software one can develop either three-dimensional Model (3DM) or Lumped Mass model (LMM). Firstly, the seismic performance of 3DM and LMM models was evaluated and found excellent coincide for the target buildings. The simplified model of LMM used in this study to produce 66 cases for both of the buildings. Then, the device parameters were modified by ± 40% and ±20% to predict many possible conditions of falsification. It is verified that the building which is design to sustain the lateral load with support of damping device (Trimmed Building) are much more under threat as a result of device falsification than those building strengthen by damping device (Conventional Building).

Keywords: passive control system, oil damper, seismic assessment, lumped mass model

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14847 Practical Guide To Design Dynamic Block-Type Shallow Foundation Supporting Vibrating Machine

Authors: Dodi Ikhsanshaleh

Abstract:

When subjected to dynamic load, foundation oscillates in the way that depends on the soil behaviour, the geometry and inertia of the foundation and the dynamic exctation. The practical guideline to analysis block-type foundation excitated by dynamic load from vibrating machine is presented. The analysis use Lumped Mass Parameter Method to express dynamic properties such as stiffness and damping of soil. The numerical examples are performed on design block-type foundation supporting gas turbine compressor which is important equipment package in gas processing plant

Keywords: block foundation, dynamic load, lumped mass parameter

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14846 Method of Parameter Calibration for Error Term in Stochastic User Equilibrium Traffic Assignment Model

Authors: Xiang Zhang, David Rey, S. Travis Waller

Abstract:

Stochastic User Equilibrium (SUE) model is a widely used traffic assignment model in transportation planning, which is regarded more advanced than Deterministic User Equilibrium (DUE) model. However, a problem exists that the performance of the SUE model depends on its error term parameter. The objective of this paper is to propose a systematic method of determining the appropriate error term parameter value for the SUE model. First, the significance of the parameter is explored through a numerical example. Second, the parameter calibration method is developed based on the Logit-based route choice model. The calibration process is realized through multiple nonlinear regression, using sequential quadratic programming combined with least square method. Finally, case analysis is conducted to demonstrate the application of the calibration process and validate the better performance of the SUE model calibrated by the proposed method compared to the SUE models under other parameter values and the DUE model.

Keywords: parameter calibration, sequential quadratic programming, stochastic user equilibrium, traffic assignment, transportation planning

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14845 Iterative Panel RC Extraction for Capacitive Touchscreen

Authors: Chae Hoon Park, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

Electrical characteristics of capacitive touchscreen need to be accurately analyzed to result in better performance for multi-channel capacitance sensing. In this paper, we extracted the panel resistances and capacitances of the touchscreen by comparing measurement data and model data. By employing a lumped RC model for driver-to-receiver paths in touchscreen, we estimated resistance and capacitance values according to the physical lengths of channel paths which are proportional to the RC model. As a result, we obtained the model having 95.54% accuracy of the measurement data.

Keywords: electrical characteristics of capacitive touchscreen, iterative extraction, lumped RC model, physical lengths of channel paths

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14844 Transforming Butterworth Low Pass Filter into Microstrip Line Form at LC-Band Applications

Authors: Liew Hui Fang, Syed Idris Syed Hassan, Mohd Fareq Abd. Malek, Yufridin Wahab, Norshafinash Saudin

Abstract:

The paper implementation new approach method applied into transforming lumped element circuit into microstrip line form for Butterworth low pass filter which is operating at LC band. The filter’s lumped element circuits and microstrip line form were first designed and simulated using Advanced Design Software (ADS) to obtain the best filter characteristic based on S-parameter and implemented on FR4 substrate for order N=3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9. The importance of a new approach of transforming method as a correction factor has been considered into designed microstrip line. From ADS simulation results proved that the response of microstrip line circuit of Butterworth low pass filter with fringing correction factor has an excellent agreement with its lumped circuit. This shows that the new approach of transforming lumped element circuit into microstrip line is able to solve the conventional design of complexity size of circuit of Butterworth low pass filter (LPF) into microstrip line.

Keywords: Butterworth low pass filter, number of order, microstrip line, microwave filter, maximally flat

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14843 A Consideration on the Offset Frontal Impact Modeling Using Spring-Mass Model

Authors: Jaemoon Lim

Abstract:

To construct the lumped spring-mass model considering the occupants for the offset frontal crash, the SISAME software and the NHTSA test data were used. The data on 56 kph 40% offset frontal vehicle to deformable barrier crash test of a MY2007 Mazda 6 4-door sedan were obtained from NHTSA test database. The overall behaviors of B-pillar and engine of simulation models agreed very well with the test data. The trends of accelerations at the driver and passenger head were similar but big differences in peak values. The differences of peak values caused the large errors of the HIC36 and 3 ms chest g’s. To predict well the behaviors of dummies, the spring-mass model for the offset frontal crash needs to be improved.

Keywords: chest g’s, HIC36, lumped spring-mass model, offset frontal impact, SISAME

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14842 New Estimation in Autoregressive Models with Exponential White Noise by Using Reversible Jump MCMC Algorithm

Authors: Suparman Suparman

Abstract:

A white noise in autoregressive (AR) model is often assumed to be normally distributed. In application, the white noise usually do not follows a normal distribution. This paper aims to estimate a parameter of AR model that has a exponential white noise. A Bayesian method is adopted. A prior distribution of the parameter of AR model is selected and then this prior distribution is combined with a likelihood function of data to get a posterior distribution. Based on this posterior distribution, a Bayesian estimator for the parameter of AR model is estimated. Because the order of AR model is considered a parameter, this Bayesian estimator cannot be explicitly calculated. To resolve this problem, a method of reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is adopted. A result is a estimation of the parameter AR model can be simultaneously calculated.

Keywords: autoregressive (AR) model, exponential white Noise, bayesian, reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)

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14841 Experimental and Numerical Analyses of Tehran Research Reactor

Authors: A. Lashkari, H. Khalafi, H. Khazeminejad, S. Khakshourniya

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical model is presented. The model is used to analyze a steady state thermo-hydraulic and reactivity insertion transient in TRR reference cores respectively. The model predictions are compared with the experiments and PARET code results. The model uses the piecewise constant and lumped parameter methods for the coupled point kinetics and thermal-hydraulics modules respectively. The advantages of the piecewise constant method are simplicity, efficiency and accuracy. A main criterion on the applicability range of this model is that the exit coolant temperature remains below the saturation temperature, i.e. no bulk boiling occurs in the core. The calculation values of power and coolant temperature, in steady state and positive reactivity insertion scenario, are in good agreement with the experiment values. However, the model is a useful tool for the transient analysis of most research reactor encountered in practice. The main objective of this work is using simple calculation methods and benchmarking them with experimental data. This model can be used for training proposes.

Keywords: thermal-hydraulic, research reactor, reactivity insertion, numerical modeling

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14840 Application of Generalized Autoregressive Score Model to Stock Returns

Authors: Katleho Daniel Makatjane, Diteboho Lawrence Xaba, Ntebogang Dinah Moroke

Abstract:

The current study investigates the behaviour of time-varying parameters that are based on the score function of the predictive model density at time t. The mechanism to update the parameters over time is the scaled score of the likelihood function. The results revealed that there is high persistence of time-varying, as the location parameter is higher and the skewness parameter implied the departure of scale parameter from the normality with the unconditional parameter as 1.5. The results also revealed that there is a perseverance of the leptokurtic behaviour in stock returns which implies the returns are heavily tailed. Prior to model estimation, the White Neural Network test exposed that the stock price can be modelled by a GAS model. Finally, we proposed further researches specifically to model the existence of time-varying parameters with a more detailed model that encounters the heavy tail distribution of the series and computes the risk measure associated with the returns.

Keywords: generalized autoregressive score model, South Africa, stock returns, time-varying

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14839 Comparative Assessment of a Distributed Model and a Lumped Model for Estimating of Sediments Yielding in Small Urban Areas

Authors: J.Zambrano Nájera, M.Gómez Valentín

Abstract:

Increases in urbanization during XX century, have brought as one major problem the increased of sediment production. Hydraulic erosion is one of the major causes of increasing of sediments in small urban catchments. Such increments in sediment yielding in header urban catchments can caused obstruction of drainage systems, making impossible to capture urban runoff, increasing runoff volumes and thus exacerbating problems of urban flooding. For these reasons, it is more and more important to study of sediment production in urban watershed for properly analyze and solve problems associated to sediments. The study of sediments production has improved with the use of mathematical modeling. For that reason, it is proposed a new physically based model applicable to small header urban watersheds that includes the advantages of distributed physically base models, but with more realistic data requirements. Additionally, in this paper the model proposed is compared with a lumped model, reviewing the results, the advantages and disadvantages between the both of them.

Keywords: erosion, hydrologic modeling, urban runoff, sediment modeling, sediment yielding, urban planning

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14838 Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Helical Gear with Torque-Limiter

Authors: Ahmed Guerine, Ali El Hafidi, Bruno Martin, Philippe Leclaire

Abstract:

This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic response of a mechanical torque limiter which is used to protect drive parts from overload (helical transmission gears). The system is driven by four excitations: two external excitations (aerodynamics torque and force) and two internal excitations (two mesh stiffness fluctuations). In this work, we develop a dynamic model with lumped components and 28 degrees of freedom. We use the Runge Kutta step-by-step time integration numerical algorithm to solve the equations of motion obtained by Lagrange formalism. The numerical results have allowed us to identify the sources of vibration in the wind turbine. Also, they are useful to help the designer to make the right design and correctly choose the times for maintenance.

Keywords: two-stage helical gear, lumped model, dynamic response, torque-limiter

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14837 Parameter Tuning of Complex Systems Modeled in Agent Based Modeling and Simulation

Authors: Rabia Korkmaz Tan, Şebnem Bora

Abstract:

The major problem encountered when modeling complex systems with agent-based modeling and simulation techniques is the existence of large parameter spaces. A complex system model cannot be expected to reflect the whole of the real system, but by specifying the most appropriate parameters, the actual system can be represented by the model under certain conditions. When the studies conducted in recent years were reviewed, it has been observed that there are few studies for parameter tuning problem in agent based simulations, and these studies have focused on tuning parameters of a single model. In this study, an approach of parameter tuning is proposed by using metaheuristic algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colonies (ABC), Firefly (FA) algorithms. With this hybrid structured study, the parameter tuning problems of the models in the different fields were solved. The new approach offered was tested in two different models, and its achievements in different problems were compared. The simulations and the results reveal that this proposed study is better than the existing parameter tuning studies.

Keywords: parameter tuning, agent based modeling and simulation, metaheuristic algorithms, complex systems

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14836 A Crop Growth Subroutine for Watershed Resources Management (WRM) Model

Authors: Kingsley Nnaemeka Ogbu, Constantine Mbajiorgu

Abstract:

Vegetation has a marked effect on runoff and has become an important component in hydrologic model. The watershed Resources Management (WRM) model, a process-based, continuous, distributed parameter simulation model developed for hydrologic and soil erosion studies at the watershed scale lack a crop growth component. As such, this model assumes a constant parameter values for vegetation and hydraulic parameters throughout the duration of hydrologic simulation. Our approach is to develop a crop growth algorithm based on the original plant growth model used in the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate Model (EPIC) model. This paper describes the development of a single crop growth model which has the capability of simulating all crops using unique parameter values for each crop. Simulated crop growth processes will reflect the vegetative seasonality of the natural watershed system. An existing model was employed for evaluating vegetative resistance by hydraulic and vegetative parameters incorporated into the WRM model. The improved WRM model will have the ability to evaluate the seasonal variation of the vegetative roughness coefficient with depth of flow and further enhance the hydrologic model’s capability for accurate hydrologic studies

Keywords: crop yield, roughness coefficient, PAR, WRM model

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14835 A Crop Growth Subroutine for Watershed Resources Management (WRM) Model 1: Description

Authors: Kingsley Nnaemeka Ogbu, Constantine Mbajiorgu

Abstract:

Vegetation has a marked effect on runoff and has become an important component in hydrologic model. The watershed Resources Management (WRM) model, a process-based, continuous, distributed parameter simulation model developed for hydrologic and soil erosion studies at the watershed scale lack a crop growth component. As such, this model assumes a constant parameter values for vegetation and hydraulic parameters throughout the duration of hydrologic simulation. Our approach is to develop a crop growth algorithm based on the original plant growth model used in the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate Model (EPIC) model. This paper describes the development of a single crop growth model which has the capability of simulating all crops using unique parameter values for each crop. Simulated crop growth processes will reflect the vegetative seasonality of the natural watershed system. An existing model was employed for evaluating vegetative resistance by hydraulic and vegetative parameters incorporated into the WRM model. The improved WRM model will have the ability to evaluate the seasonal variation of the vegetative roughness coefficient with depth of flow and further enhance the hydrologic model’s capability for accurate hydrologic studies.

Keywords: runoff, roughness coefficient, PAR, WRM model

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
14834 Vibration of a Beam on an Elastic Foundation Using the Variational Iteration Method

Authors: Desmond Adair, Kairat Ismailov, Martin Jaeger

Abstract:

Modelling of Timoshenko beams on elastic foundations has been widely used in the analysis of buildings, geotechnical problems, and, railway and aerospace structures. For the elastic foundation, the most widely used models are one-parameter mechanical models or two-parameter models to include continuity and cohesion of typical foundations, with the two-parameter usually considered the better of the two. Knowledge of free vibration characteristics of beams on an elastic foundation is considered necessary for optimal design solutions in many engineering applications, and in this work, the efficient and accurate variational iteration method is developed and used to calculate natural frequencies of a Timoshenko beam on a two-parameter foundation. The variational iteration method is a technique capable of dealing with some linear and non-linear problems in an easy and efficient way. The calculations are compared with those using a finite-element method and other analytical solutions, and it is shown that the results are accurate and are obtained efficiently. It is found that the effect of the presence of the two-parameter foundation is to increase the beam’s natural frequencies and this is thought to be because of the shear-layer stiffness, which has an effect on the elastic stiffness. By setting the two-parameter model’s stiffness parameter to zero, it is possible to obtain a one-parameter foundation model, and so, comparison between the two foundation models is also made.

Keywords: Timoshenko beam, variational iteration method, two-parameter elastic foundation model

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14833 The Impact of the Composite Expanded Graphite PCM on the PV Panel Whole Year Electric Output: Case Study Milan

Authors: Hasan A Al-Asadi, Ali Samir, Afrah Turki Awad, Ali Basem

Abstract:

Integrating the phase change material (PCM) with photovoltaic (PV) panels is one of the effective techniques to minimize the PV panel temperature and increase their electric output. In order to investigate the impact of the PCM on the electric output of the PV panels for a whole year, a lumped-distributed parameter model for the PV-PCM module has been developed. This development has considered the impact of the PCM density variation between the solid phase and liquid phase. This contribution will increase the assessment accuracy of the electric output of the PV-PCM module. The second contribution is to assess the impact of the expanded composite graphite-PCM on the PV electric output in Milan for a whole year. The novel one-dimensional model has been solved using MATLAB software. The results of this model have been validated against literature experiment work. The weather and the solar radiation data have been collected. The impact of expanded graphite-PCM on the electric output of the PV panel for a whole year has been investigated. The results indicate this impact has an enhancement rate of 2.39% for the electric output of the PV panel in Milan for a whole year.

Keywords: PV panel efficiency, PCM, numerical model, solar energy

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14832 Stochastic Modeling for Parameters of Modified Car-Following Model in Area-Based Traffic Flow

Authors: N. C. Sarkar, A. Bhaskar, Z. Zheng

Abstract:

The driving behavior in area-based (i.e., non-lane based) traffic is induced by the presence of other individuals in the choice space from the driver’s visual perception area. The driving behavior of a subject vehicle is constrained by the potential leaders and leaders are frequently changed over time. This paper is to determine a stochastic model for a parameter of modified intelligent driver model (MIDM) in area-based traffic (as in developing countries). The parametric and non-parametric distributions are presented to fit the parameters of MIDM. The goodness of fit for each parameter is measured in two different ways such as graphically and statistically. The quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot is used for a graphical representation of a theoretical distribution to model a parameter and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test is used for a statistical measure of fitness for a parameter with a theoretical distribution. The distributions are performed on a set of estimated parameters of MIDM. The parameters are estimated on the real vehicle trajectory data from India. The fitness of each parameter with a stochastic model is well represented. The results support the applicability of the proposed modeling for parameters of MIDM in area-based traffic flow simulation.

Keywords: area-based traffic, car-following model, micro-simulation, stochastic modeling

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14831 Numerical Reproduction of Hemodynamic Change Induced by Acupuncture to ST-36

Authors: Takuya Suzuki, Atsushi Shirai, Takashi Seki

Abstract:

Acupuncture therapy is one of the treatments in traditional Chinese medicine. Recently, some reports have shown the effectiveness of acupuncture. However, its full acceptance has been hindered by the lack of understanding on mechanism of the therapy. Acupuncture applied to Zusanli (ST-36) enhances blood flow volume in superior mesenteric artery (SMA), yielding peripheral vascular resistance – regulated blood flow of SMA dominated by the parasympathetic system and inhibition of sympathetic system. In this study, a lumped-parameter approximation model of blood flow in the systemic arteries was developed. This model was extremely simple, consisting of the aorta, carotid arteries, arteries of the four limbs and SMA, and their peripheral vascular resistances. Here, the individual artery was simplified to a tapered tube and the resistances were modelled by a linear resistance. We numerically investigated contribution of the peripheral vascular resistance of SMA to the systemic blood distribution using this model. In addition to the upstream end of the model, which correlates with the left ventricle, two types of boundary condition were applied; mean left ventricular pressure which correlates with blood pressure (BP) and mean cardiac output which corresponds to cardiac index (CI). We examined it to reproduce the experimentally obtained hemodynamic change, in terms of the ratio of the aforementioned hemodynamic parameters from their initial values before the acupuncture, by regulating the peripheral vascular resistances and the upstream boundary condition. First, only the peripheral vascular resistance of SMA was changed to show contribution of the resistance to the change in blood flow volume in SMA, expecting reproduction of the experimentally obtained change. It was found, however, this was not enough to reproduce the experimental result. Then, we also changed the resistances of the other arteries together with the value given at upstream boundary. Here, the resistances of the other arteries were changed simultaneously in the same amount. Consequently, we successfully reproduced the hemodynamic change to find that regulation of the upstream boundary condition to the value experimentally obtained after the stimulation is necessary for the reproduction, though statistically significant changes in BP and CI were not observed in the experiment. It is generally known that sympathetic and parasympathetic tones take part in regulation of whole the systemic circulation including the cardiac function. The present result indicates that stimulation to ST-36 could induce vasodilation of peripheral circulation of SMA and vasoconstriction of that of other arteries. In addition, it implies that experimentally obtained small changes in BP and CI induced by the acupuncture may be involved in the therapeutic response.

Keywords: acupuncture, hemodynamics, lumped-parameter approximation, modeling, systemic vascular resistance

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14830 Effects of Level Densities and Those of a-Parameter in the Framework of Preequilibrium Model for 63,65Cu(n,xp) Reactions in Neutrons at 9 to 15 MeV

Authors: L. Yettou

Abstract:

In this study, the calculations of proton emission spectra produced by 63Cu(n,xp) and 65Cu(n,xp) reactions are used in the framework of preequilibrium models using the EMPIRE code and TALYS code. Exciton Model predidtions combined with the Kalbach angular distribution systematics and the Hybrid Monte Carlo Simulation (HMS) were used. The effects of levels densities and those of a-parameter have been investigated for our calculations. The comparison with experimental data shows clear improvement over the Exciton Model and HMS calculations.

Keywords: Preequilibrium models , level density, level density a-parameter., Empire code, Talys code.

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14829 On Parameter Estimation of Simultaneous Linear Functional Relationship Model for Circular Variables

Authors: N. A. Mokhtar, A. G. Hussin, Y. Z. Zubairi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new simultaneous simple linear functional relationship model by assuming equal error variances. We derive the maximum likelihood estimate of the parameters in the simultaneous model and the covariance. We show by simulation study the small bias values of the parameters suggest the suitability of the estimation method. As an illustration, the proposed simultaneous model is applied to real data of the wind direction and wave direction measured by two different instruments.

Keywords: simultaneous linear functional relationship model, Fisher information matrix, parameter estimation, circular variables

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14828 Modelling and Optimisation of Floating Drum Biogas Reactor

Authors: L. Rakesh, T. Y. Heblekar

Abstract:

This study entails the development and optimization of a mathematical model for a floating drum biogas reactor from first principles using thermal and empirical considerations. The model was derived on the basis of mass conservation, lumped mass heat transfer formulations and empirical biogas formation laws. The treatment leads to a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations whose solution mapped four-time independent controllable parameters to five output variables which adequately serve to describe the reactor performance. These equations were solved numerically using fourth order Runge-Kutta method for a range of input parameter values. Using the data so obtained an Artificial Neural Network with a single hidden layer was trained using Levenberg-Marquardt Damped Least Squares (DLS) algorithm. This network was then fine-tuned for optimal mapping by varying hidden layer size. This fast forward model was then employed as a health score generator in the Bacterial Foraging Optimization code. The optimal operating state of the simplified Biogas reactor was thus obtained.

Keywords: biogas, floating drum reactor, neural network model, optimization

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14827 Adaptive Kaman Filter for Fault Diagnosis of Linear Parameter-Varying Systems

Authors: Rajamani Doraiswami, Lahouari Cheded

Abstract:

Fault diagnosis of Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) system using an adaptive Kalman filter is proposed. The LPV model is comprised of scheduling parameters, and the emulator parameters. The scheduling parameters are chosen such that they are capable of tracking variations in the system model as a result of changes in the operating regimes. The emulator parameters, on the other hand, simulate variations in the subsystems during the identification phase and have negligible effect during the operational phase. The nominal model and the influence vectors, which are the gradient of the feature vector respect to the emulator parameters, are identified off-line from a number of emulator parameter perturbed experiments. A Kalman filter is designed using the identified nominal model. As the system varies, the Kalman filter model is adapted using the scheduling variables. The residual is employed for fault diagnosis. The proposed scheme is successfully evaluated on simulated system as well as on a physical process control system.

Keywords: identification, linear parameter-varying systems, least-squares estimation, fault diagnosis, Kalman filter, emulators

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14826 Soil-Structure Interaction Models for the Reinforced Foundation System – A State-of-the-Art Review

Authors: Ashwini V. Chavan, Sukhanand S. Bhosale

Abstract:

Challenges of weak soil subgrade are often resolved either by stabilization or reinforcing it. However, it is also practiced to reinforce the granular fill to improve the load-settlement behavior of over weak soil strata. The inclusion of reinforcement in the engineered granular fill provided a new impetus for the development of enhanced Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) models, also known as mechanical foundation models or lumped parameter models. Several researchers have been working in this direction to understand the mechanism of granular fill-reinforcement interaction and the response of weak soil under the application of load. These models have been developed by extending available SSI models such as the Winkler Model, Pasternak Model, Hetenyi Model, Kerr Model etc., and are helpful to visualize the load-settlement behavior of a physical system through 1-D and 2-D analysis considering beam and plate resting on the foundation respectively. Based on the literature survey, these models are categorized as ‘Reinforced Pasternak Model,’ ‘Double Beam Model,’ ‘Reinforced Timoshenko Beam Model,’ and ‘Reinforced Kerr Model.’ The present work reviews the past 30+ years of research in the field of SSI models for reinforced foundation systems, presenting the conceptual development of these models systematically and discussing their limitations. Special efforts are taken to tabulate the parameters and their significance in the load-settlement analysis, which may be helpful in future studies for the comparison and enhancement of results and findings of physical models.

Keywords: geosynthetics, mathematical modeling, reinforced foundation, soil-structure interaction, ground improvement, soft soil

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