Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16170

Search results for: blood circulatory system

16170 Algorithm Development of Individual Lumped Parameter Modelling for Blood Circulatory System: An Optimization Study

Authors: Bao Li, Aike Qiao, Gaoyang Li, Youjun Liu

Abstract:

Background: Lumped parameter model (LPM) is a common numerical model for hemodynamic calculation. LPM uses circuit elements to simulate the human blood circulatory system. Physiological indicators and characteristics can be acquired through the model. However, due to the different physiological indicators of each individual, parameters in LPM should be personalized in order for convincing calculated results, which can reflect the individual physiological information. This study aimed to develop an automatic and effective optimization method to personalize the parameters in LPM of the blood circulatory system, which is of great significance to the numerical simulation of individual hemodynamics. Methods: A closed-loop LPM of the human blood circulatory system that is applicable for most persons were established based on the anatomical structures and physiological parameters. The patient-specific physiological data of 5 volunteers were non-invasively collected as personalized objectives of individual LPM. In this study, the blood pressure and flow rate of heart, brain, and limbs were the main concerns. The collected systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, cardiac output, and heart rate were set as objective data, and the waveforms of carotid artery flow and ankle pressure were set as objective waveforms. Aiming at the collected data and waveforms, sensitivity analysis of each parameter in LPM was conducted to determine the sensitive parameters that have an obvious influence on the objectives. Simulated annealing was adopted to iteratively optimize the sensitive parameters, and the objective function during optimization was the root mean square error between the collected waveforms and data and simulated waveforms and data. Each parameter in LPM was optimized 500 times. Results: In this study, the sensitive parameters in LPM were optimized according to the collected data of 5 individuals. Results show a slight error between collected and simulated data. The average relative root mean square error of all optimization objectives of 5 samples were 2.21%, 3.59%, 4.75%, 4.24%, and 3.56%, respectively. Conclusions: Slight error demonstrated good effects of optimization. The individual modeling algorithm developed in this study can effectively achieve the individualization of LPM for the blood circulatory system. LPM with individual parameters can output the individual physiological indicators after optimization, which are applicable for the numerical simulation of patient-specific hemodynamics.

Keywords: blood circulatory system, individual physiological indicators, lumped parameter model, optimization algorithm

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16169 Liquid Biopsy Based Microbial Biomarker in Coronary Artery Disease Diagnosis

Authors: Eyup Ozkan, Ozkan U. Nalbantoglu, Aycan Gundogdu, Mehmet Hora, A. Emre Onuk

Abstract:

The human microbiome has been associated with cardiological conditions and this relationship is becoming to be defined beyond the gastrointestinal track. In this study, we investigate the alteration in circulatory microbiota in the context of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). We received circulatory blood samples from suspected CAD patients and maintain 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to identify each patient’s microbiome. It was found that Corynebacterium and Methanobacteria genera show statistically significant differences between healthy and CAD patients. The overall biodiversities between the groups were observed to be different revealed by machine learning classification models. We also achieve and demonstrate the performance of a diagnostic method using circulatory blood microbiome-based estimation.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, blood microbiome, machine learning, angiography, next-generation sequencing

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16168 Evaluation of Different Anticoagulant Effects on Flow Properties of Human Blood Using Falling Needle Rheometer

Authors: Hiroki Tsuneda, Takamasa Suzuki, Hideki Yamamoto, Kimito Kawamura, Eiji Tamura, Katharina Wochner, Roberto Plasenzotti

Abstract:

Flow property of human blood is one of the important factors on the prevention of the circulatory condition such as a high blood pressure, a diabetes mellitus, and a cardiac infarction. However, the measurement of flow property of human blood, especially blood viscosity, is not so easy, because of their coagulation or aggregation behaviors after taking a sample from blood vessel. In the experiment, some kinds of anticoagulant were added into the human blood to avoid its solidification. Anticoagulant used in the blood test has been chosen for each purpose of blood test, for anticoagulant effect on blood is different mechanism for each. So that, there is a problem that the evaluation of measured blood property with different anticoagulant is so difficult. Therefore, it is so important to make clear the difference of anticoagulant effect on the blood property. In the previous work, a compact-size falling needle rheometer (FNR) has been developed in order to measure the flow property of human blood such as a flow curve, an apparent viscosity. It was found that FNR system can apply to a rheometer or a viscometry for various experimental conditions for not only human blood but also mammalians blood. In this study, the measurements of human blood viscosity with different anticoagulant (EDTA and Heparin) were carried out using newly developed FNR system. The effect of anticoagulant on blood viscosity was also tested by using the standard liquid for each. The accuracy on the viscometry was also tested by using the standard liquid for calibrating materials (JS-10, JS-20) and observed data have satisfactory agreement with reference data around 1.0% at 310K. The flow curve of six males and females with different anticoagulant were measured using FNR. In this experiment, EDTA and Heparin were chosen as anticoagulant for blood. Heparin can inhibit the coagulation of human blood by activating the body of anti-thrombin. To examine the effect of human blood viscosity on anticoagulant, flow curve was measured at high shear rate (>350s-1), and apparent viscosity of each person were determined with different anticoagulant. The apparent viscosity of human blood with heparin was 2%-9% higher than that with EDTA. However, the difference of blood viscosity for two anticoagulants for same blood was different for each. Further discussion, we need the consideration of effect on other physical property, such as cellular component and plasma component.

Keywords: falling-needle rheometer, human blood, viscosity, anticoagulant

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16167 Signal Processing of the Blood Pressure and Characterization

Authors: Hadj Abd El Kader Benghenia, Fethi Bereksi Reguig

Abstract:

In clinical medicine, blood pressure, raised blood hemodynamic monitoring is rich pathophysiological information of cardiovascular system, of course described through factors such as: blood volume, arterial compliance and peripheral resistance. In this work, we are interested in analyzing these signals to propose a detection algorithm to delineate the different sequences and especially systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the wave and dicrotic to do their analysis in order to extract the cardiovascular parameters.

Keywords: blood pressure, SBP, DBP, detection algorithm

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16166 Evaluation of DNA Microarray System in the Identification of Microorganisms Isolated from Blood

Authors: Merih Şimşek, Recep Keşli, Özgül Çetinkaya, Cengiz Demir, Adem Aslan

Abstract:

Bacteremia is a clinical entity with high morbidity and mortality rates when immediate diagnose, or treatment cannot be achieved. Microorganisms which can cause sepsis or bacteremia are easily isolated from blood cultures. Fifty-five positive blood cultures were included in this study. Microorganisms in 55 blood cultures were isolated by conventional microbiological methods; afterwards, microorganisms were defined in terms of the phenotypic aspects by the Vitek-2 system. The same microorganisms in all blood culture samples were defined in terms of genotypic aspects again by Multiplex-PCR DNA Low-Density Microarray System. At the end of the identification process, the DNA microarray system’s success in identification was evaluated based on the Vitek-2 system. The Vitek-2 system and DNA Microarray system were able to identify the same microorganisms in 53 samples; on the other hand, different microorganisms were identified in the 2 blood cultures by DNA Microarray system. The microorganisms identified by Vitek-2 system were found to be identical to 96.4 % of microorganisms identified by DNA Microarrays system. In addition to bacteria identified by Vitek-2, the presence of a second bacterium has been detected in 5 blood cultures by the DNA Microarray system. It was identified 18 of 55 positive blood culture as E.coli strains with both Vitek 2 and DNA microarray systems. The same identification numbers were found 6 and 8 for Acinetobacter baumanii, 10 and 10 for K.pneumoniae, 5 and 5 for S.aureus, 7 and 11 for Enterococcus spp, 5 and 5 for P.aeruginosa, 2 and 2 for C.albicans respectively. According to these results, DNA Microarray system requires both a technical device and experienced staff support; besides, it requires more expensive kits than Vitek-2. However, this method should be used in conjunction with conventional microbiological methods. Thus, large microbiology laboratories will produce faster, more sensitive and more successful results in the identification of cultured microorganisms.

Keywords: microarray, Vitek-2, blood culture, bacteremia

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16165 Development of Monitoring Blood Bank Center Based PIC Microcontroller Using CAN Communication

Authors: Kaiwan S. Ismael, Ergun Ercelebi, Majeed Nader

Abstract:

This paper describes the design and implementation of a hardware setup for online monitoring of 24 refrigerators inside blood bank center using the microcontroller and CAN bus for communications between each node. Due to the security of locations in the blood bank hall and difficulty of monitoring of each refrigerator separately, this work proposes a solution to monitor all the blood bank refrigerators in one location. CAN-bus system is used because it has many applications and advantages, especially for this system due to easy in use, low cost, providing a reduction in wiring, fast to repair and easily expanding the project without a problem.

Keywords: control area network (CAN), monitoring blood bank center, PIC microcontroller, MPLAB IDE

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16164 Simulation of Remove the Fouling on the in vivo By Using MHD

Authors: Farhad Aalizadeh, Ali Moosavi

Abstract:

When a blood vessel is injured, the cells of your blood bond together to form a blood clot. The blood clot helps you stop bleeding. Blood clots are made of a combination of blood cells, platelets(small sticky cells that speed up the clot-making process), and fibrin (protein that forms a thread-like mesh to trap cells). Doctors call this kind of blood clot a “thrombus.”We study the effects of different parameters on the deposition of Nanoparticles on the surface of a bump in the blood vessels by the magnetic field. The Maxwell and the flow equations are solved for this purpose. It is assumed that the blood is non-Newtonian and the number of particles has been considered enough to rely on the results statistically. Using MHD and its property it is possible to control the flow velocity, remove the fouling on the walls and return the system to its original form.

Keywords: MHD, fouling, in-vivo, blood clots, simulation

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16163 A Physiological Approach for Early Detection of Hemorrhage

Authors: Rabie Fadil, Parshuram Aarotale, Shubha Majumder, Bijay Guargain

Abstract:

Hemorrhage is the loss of blood from the circulatory system and leading cause of battlefield and postpartum related deaths. Early detection of hemorrhage remains the most effective strategy to reduce mortality rate caused by traumatic injuries. In this study, we investigated the physiological changes via non-invasive cardiac signals at rest and under different hemorrhage conditions simulated through graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), blood pressure (BP), impedance cardiogram (ICG), and phonocardiogram (PCG) were acquired from 10 participants (age:28 ± 6 year, weight:73 ± 11 kg, height:172 ± 8 cm). The LBNP protocol consisted of applying -20, -30, -40, -50, and -60 mmHg pressure to the lower half of the body. Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean aerial pressure (MAP) were extracted from ECG and blood pressure. Systolic amplitude (SA), systolic time (ST), diastolic time (DT), and left ventricle Ejection time (LVET) were extracted from PPG during each stage. Preliminary results showed that the application of -40 mmHg i.e. moderate stage simulated hemorrhage resulted significant changes in HR (85±4 bpm vs 68 ± 5bpm, p < 0.01), ST (191 ± 10 ms vs 253 ± 31 ms, p < 0.05), LVET (350 ± 14 ms vs 479 ± 47 ms, p < 0.05) and DT (551 ± 22 ms vs 683 ± 59 ms, p < 0.05) compared to rest, while no change was observed in SA (p > 0.05) as a consequence of LBNP application. These findings demonstrated the potential of cardiac signals in detecting moderate hemorrhage. In future, we will analyze all the LBNP stages and investigate the feasibility of other physiological signals to develop a predictive machine learning model for early detection of hemorrhage.

Keywords: blood pressure, hemorrhage, lower-body negative pressure, LBNP, machine learning

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16162 Monitoring Blood Pressure Using Regression Techniques

Authors: Qasem Qananwah, Ahmad Dagamseh, Hiam AlQuran, Khalid Shaker Ibrahim

Abstract:

Blood pressure helps the physicians greatly to have a deep insight into the cardiovascular system. The determination of individual blood pressure is a standard clinical procedure considered for cardiovascular system problems. The conventional techniques to measure blood pressure (e.g. cuff method) allows a limited number of readings for a certain period (e.g. every 5-10 minutes). Additionally, these systems cause turbulence to blood flow; impeding continuous blood pressure monitoring, especially in emergency cases or critically ill persons. In this paper, the most important statistical features in the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals were extracted to estimate the blood pressure noninvasively. PPG signals from more than 40 subjects were measured and analyzed and 12 features were extracted. The features were fed to principal component analysis (PCA) to find the most important independent features that have the highest correlation with blood pressure. The results show that the stiffness index means and standard deviation for the beat-to-beat heart rate were the most important features. A model representing both features for Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) was obtained using a statistical regression technique. Surface fitting is used to best fit the series of data and the results show that the error value in estimating the SBP is 4.95% and in estimating the DBP is 3.99%.

Keywords: blood pressure, noninvasive optical system, principal component analysis, PCA, continuous monitoring

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16161 Design and Development of a Bi-Leaflet Pulmonary Valve

Authors: Munirah Ismail, Joon Hock Yeo

Abstract:

Paediatric patients who require ventricular outflow tract reconstruction usually need valve construction to prevent valvular regurgitation. They would face problems like lack of suitable, affordable conduits and the need to undergo several operations in their lifetime due to the short lifespan of existing valves. Their natural growth and development are also of concern, even if they manage to receive suitable conduits. Current prosthesis including homografts, bioprosthetic valves, mechanical valves, and bovine jugular veins either do not have the long-term durability or the ability to adapt to the growth of such patients. We have developed a new design of bi-leaflet valve. This new technique accommodates patients’ annular size growth while maintaining valvular patency. A mock circulatory system was set up to assess the hemodynamic performance of the bi-leaflet pulmonary valve. It was found that the percentage regurgitation was acceptable and thus, validates this novel concept.

Keywords: bi-leaflet pulmonary valve, pulmonary heart valve, tetralogy of fallot, mock circulatory system

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16160 The Influence of Atmospheric Air on the Health of the Population Living in Oil and Gas Production Area in Aktobe Region, Kazakhstan

Authors: Perizat Aitmaganbet, Kerbez Kimatova, Gulmira Umarova

Abstract:

As a result of medical check-up conducted in the framework of this research study an evaluation of the health status of the population living in the oil-producing regions, namely Sarkul and Kenkiyak villages in Aktobe was examined. With the help of the Spearman correlation, the connection between the level of hazard chemical elements in the atmosphere and the health of population living in the regions of oil and gas industry was estimated. Background & Objective. The oil and gas resource-extraction industries play an important role in improving the economic conditions of the Republic of Kazakhstan, especially for the oil-producing administrative regions. However, environmental problems may adversely affect the health of people living in that area. Thus, the aim of the study is to evaluate the exposure to negative environmental factors of the adult population living in Sarkul and Kenkiyak villages, the oil and gas producing areas in the Aktobe region. Methods. After conducting medical check-up among the population of Sarkul and Kenkiyak villages. A single cross-sectional study was conducted. The population consisted of randomly sampled 372 adults (181 males and 191 females). Also, atmospheric air probes were taken to measure the level of hazardous chemical elements in the air. The nonparametric method of the Spearman correlation analysis was performed between the mean concentration of substances exceeding the Maximum Permissible Concentration and the classes of newly diagnosed diseases. Selection and analysis of air samples were carried out according to the developed research protocol; the qualitative-quantitative analysis was carried out on the Gas analyzer HANK-4 apparatus. Findings. The medical examination of the population identified the following diseases: the first two dominant were diseases of the circulatory and digestive systems, in the 3rd place - diseases of the genitourinary system, and the nervous system and diseases of the ear and mastoid process were on the fourth and fifth places. Moreover, significant pollution of atmospheric air by carbon monoxide (MPC-5,0 mg/m3), benzapyrene (MPC-1mg/m3), dust (MPC-0,5 mg/m3) and phenol (МРС-0,035mg/m3) were identified in places. Correlation dependencies between these pollutants of air and the diseases of the population were established, as a result of diseases of the circulatory system (r = 0,7), ear and mastoid process (r = 0,7), nervous system (r = 0,6) and digestive organs(r = 0,6 ); between the concentration of carbon monoxide and diseases of the circulatory system (r = 0.6), the digestive system(r = 0.6), the genitourinary system (r = 0.6) and the musculoskeletal system; between nitric oxide and diseases of the digestive system (r = 0,7) and the circulatory system (r = 0,6); between benzopyrene and diseases of the digestive system (r = 0,6), the genitourinary system (r = 0,6) and the nervous system (r = 0,4). Conclusion. The positive correlation was found between air pollution and the health of the population living in Sarkul and Kenkiyak villages. To enhance the reliability of the results we are going to continue this study further.

Keywords: atmospheric air, chemical substances, oil and gas, public health

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16159 An Algorithm of Regulation of Glucose-Insulin Concentration in the Blood

Authors: B. Selma, S. Chouraqui

Abstract:

The pancreas is an elongated organ that extends across the abdomen, below the stomach. In addition, it secretes certain enzymes that aid in food digestion. The pancreas also manufactures hormones responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. In the present paper, we propose a mathematical model to study the homeostasis of glucose and insulin in healthy human, and a simulation of this model, which depicts the physiological events after a meal, will be represented in ordinary humans. The aim of this paper is to design an algorithm which regulates the level of glucose in the blood. The algorithm applied the concept of expert system for performing an algorithm control in the form of an "active" used to prescribe the rate of insulin infusion. By decomposing the system into subsystems, we have developed parametric models of each subsystem by using a forcing function strategy. The results showed a performance of the control system.

Keywords: modeling, algorithm, regulation, glucose-insulin, blood, control system

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16158 EhfadHaya (SaveLife) / AateHayah (GiveLife) Blood Donor Website

Authors: Sameer Muhammad Aslam, Nura Said Mohsin Al-Saifi

Abstract:

This research shows the process of creating a blood donation website for Oman. Blood donation is a widespread, crucial, ongoing process, so it is important that this website is easy to use. Several automated blood management systems are available, but none provides an effective algorithm that takes into account variables such as frequency of donation, donation date, and gender. In Oman, the Ministry of Health maintains a blood bank and keeps donors informed about the need for blood through a website. They also inform donors and the wider public where and when is their next blood donation event. The website's main goals are to educate the community about the benefits of blood donation. It also manages donor and receiver documentation and encourages voluntary blood donation by providing easy access to information about blood types and blood distribution in various hospitals in Oman, based on hospital needs.

Keywords: Oman, blood bank, blood donors, donor website

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16157 Blood Glucose Measurement and Analysis: Methodology

Authors: I. M. Abd Rahim, H. Abdul Rahim, R. Ghazali

Abstract:

There is numerous non-invasive blood glucose measurement technique developed by researchers, and near infrared (NIR) is the potential technique nowadays. However, there are some disagreements on the optimal wavelength range that is suitable to be used as the reference of the glucose substance in the blood. This paper focuses on the experimental data collection technique and also the analysis method used to analyze the data gained from the experiment. The selection of suitable linear and non-linear model structure is essential in prediction system, as the system developed need to be conceivably accurate.

Keywords: linear, near-infrared (NIR), non-invasive, non-linear, prediction system

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16156 Effect of Hypertension Exercise and Slow Deep Breathing Combination to Blood Pressure: A Mini Research in Elderly Community

Authors: Prima Khairunisa, Febriana Tri Kusumawati, Endah Luthfiana

Abstract:

Background: Hypertension in elderly, caused by cardiovascular system cannot work normally, because the valves thickened and inelastic blood vessels. It causes vasoconstriction of the blood vessels. Hypertension exercise, increase cardiovascular function and the elasticity of the blood vessels. While slow deep breathing helps the body and mind feel relax. Combination both of them will decrease the blood pressure. Objective: To know the effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to blood pressure in elderly. Method: The study conducted with one group pre-post test experimental design. The samples were 10 elderly both male and female in a Village in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The tool was manual sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure. Result: Based on paired t-test between hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with systole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0.045, while paired t-test between hypertension exercise hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with diastole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0,343. The changes of systole blood pressure were 127.5 mmHg, and diastole blood pressure was 80 mmHg. Systole blood pressure decreases significantly because the average of systole blood pressure before implementation was 135-160 mmHg. While diastole blood pressure was not decreased significantly. It was influenced by the average of diastole blood pressure before implementation of hypertension exercise was not too high. It was between 80- 90 mmHg. Conclusion: There was an effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to the blood pressure in elderly after 6 times implementations.

Keywords: hypertension exercise, slow deep breathing, elderly, blood pressure

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16155 GUI Design of Mathematical Model of Cardiovascular-Respiratory System

Authors: Ntaganda J.M., Maniraguha J.D., Mukeshimana S., Harelimana D, Bizimungu T., Ruataganda E.

Abstract:

This paper presents the design of Graphic User Interface (GUI) in Matlab as interaction tool between human and machine. The designed GUI can be used by medical doctors and other experts particularly the physiologists. Matlab packages and estimated parameters of the mathematical model of cardiovascular-respiratory system developed in Rwandan context are used in GUI. The ordinary differential equations (ODE’s) govern a mathematical model in designing GUI in Matlab and a window that sets model estimated parameters and the measured parameters by any user. For healthy subject, these measured parameters include heart rate, systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, concentration of bound and dissolved oxygen in the mixed venous blood entering the lungs, and concentration of bound and dissolved carbon dioxide in the mixed venous blood entering the lungs. The results of numerical test give a consistent appearance as empirically known results.

Keywords: Graphic User Interface, mathematical model, cardiovascur-respiratory system, walking physical activity, blood pressure, oxygen

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16154 A Fuzzy Logic Based Health Assesment Platform

Authors: J. Al-Dmour, A. Sagahyroon, A. Al-Ali, S. Abusnana

Abstract:

Radio Frequency Based Identification Systems have emerged as one of the possible valuable solutions that can be utilized in healthcare systems. Nowadays, RFID tags are available with built-in human vital signs sensors such as Body Temperature, Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Blood Sugar level and Oxygen Saturation in Blood. This work proposes the design, implementation, and testing of an integrated mobile RFID-based health care system. The system consists of a wireless mobile vital signs data acquisition unit (RFID-DAQ) integrated with a fuzzy-logic–based software algorithm to monitor and assess patients conditions. The system is implemented and tested in ‘Rashid Center for Diabetes and Research’, Ajman, UAE. System testing results are compared with the Modified Early Warning System (MEWS) that is currently used in practice. We demonstrate that the proposed and implemented system exhibits an accuracy level that is comparable and sometimes better than the widely adopted MEWS system.

Keywords: healthcare, fuzzy logic, MEWS, RFID

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16153 An AFM Approach of RBC Micro and Nanoscale Topographic Features During Storage

Authors: K. Santacruz-Gomez, E. Silva-Campa, S. Álvarez-García, V. Mata-Haro, D. Soto-Puebla, M. Pedroza-Montero

Abstract:

Blood gamma irradiation is the only available method to prevent transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD). However, when blood is irradiated, determine blood shelf time is crucial. Non-irradiated blood has a self-time from 21 to 35 days when is preserved with an anticoagulated solution and stored at 4°C. During their storage, red blood cells (RBC) undergo a series of biochemical, biomechanical and molecular changes involving what is known as storage lesion (SL). SL include loss of structural integrity of RBC, a decrease of 2,3-diphosphatidylglyceric acid levels, and an increase of both ion potassium concentration and hemoglobin (Hb). On the other hand, Atomic force Microscopy (AFM) represents a versatile tool for a nano-scale high-resolution topographic analysis in biological systems. In order to evaluate SL in irradiated and non-irradiated blood, RBC topography and morphometric parameters were obtained from an AFM XE-BIO system. Cell viability was followed using flow cytometry. Our results showed that early markers as nanoscale roughness, allow us to evaluate blood quality since another perspective.

Keywords: AFM, blood γ-irradiation, roughness, storage lesion

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16152 Detecting the Blood of Femoral and Carotid Artery of Swine Using Photoacoustic Tomography in-vivo

Authors: M. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, S. M. Yu, H. S. Jo, C. G. Song

Abstract:

Photoacoustic imaging is the imaging technology that combines the optical imaging with ultrasound. It also provides the high contrast and resolution due to optical and ultrasound imaging, respectively. For these reasons, many studies take experiment in order to apply this method for many diagnoses. We developed the real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using linear-ultrasound transducer. In this study, we conduct the experiment using swine and detect the blood of carotid artery and femoral artery. We measured the blood of femoral and carotid artery of swine and reconstructed the image using 950nm due to the HbO₂ absorption coefficient. The photoacoustic image is overlaid with ultrasound image in order to match the position. In blood of artery, major composition of blood is HbO₂. In this result, we can measure the blood of artery.

Keywords: photoacoustic tomography, swine artery, carotid artery, femoral artery

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16151 Numerical Investigation of Blood Flow around a Leaflet Valve through a Perforating Vein

Authors: Zohreh Sheidaei, Farhad Sadegh Moghanlou, Rahim Vesal

Abstract:

Diseases related to leg venous system are common worldwide. An incompetent vein with deformed wall and insufficient valves affects flow field of blood and disrupts the process of blood circulating system. Having enough knowledge about the flow field through veins will help find new ways to cure the related diseases. In the present study, blood flow around a leaflet valve of a perforating vein is investigated numerically by Finite Element Method. Flow behavior and vortexes, generated around the leaflet valves, are studied considering valve opening percentage. Obtained velocity and pressure fields show mechanical stresses on vein wall and these valves and consequently introduce the regions susceptible to deformation.

Keywords: fluid flow, leaflet valve, numerical investigation, perforating vein

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16150 Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors

Authors: L. Parisi

Abstract:

A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.

Keywords: blood pressure, blood saturation, sensors, actuators, design improvement

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16149 Retrospective Study of Positive Blood Cultures Carried out in the Microbiology Department of General Hospital of Ioannina in 2017

Authors: M. Gerasimou, S. Mantzoukis, P. Christodoulou, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

Abstract:

Purpose: Microbial infection of the blood is a serious condition where bacteria invade the bloodstream and cause systemic disease. In such cases, blood cultures are performed. Blood cultures are a key diagnostic test for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Material and method: The BacT/Alert system, which measures the production of carbon dioxide with metabolic organisms, is used. The positive result in the BacT/Alert system is followed by culture in the following selective media: Blood, Mac Conkey No 2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Sabaureaud agar. Gram staining method was used to differentiate bacterial species. The microorganisms were identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan (Siemens) system and followed by a sensitivity test on the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer-based test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 3347 blood cultures. Of these, 170 came from the ICU. 116 found positive. Of these S. epidermidis was identified in 42, A. baumannii in 27, K. pneumoniae in 12 (4 of these KPC ‘Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase’), S. hominis in 8, E. faecium in 7, E. faecalis in 5, P. aeruginosa in 3, C. albicans in 3, S. capitis in 2, K. oxytoca in 2, P. mirabilis in 2, E. coli in 1, S. intermidius in 1 and S. lugdunensis in 1. Conclusions: The study of epidemiological data and microbial resistance phenotypes is essential for the choice of therapeutic regimen for the early treatment and limitation of multivalent strains, while it is a crucial factor to solve diagnostic problems.

Keywords: blood culture, bloodstream, infection, intensive care unit

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16148 Construction of a Dynamic Model of Cerebral Blood Circulation for Future Integrated Control of Brain State

Authors: Tomohiko Utsuki

Abstract:

Currently, brain resuscitation becomes increasingly important due to revising various clinical guidelines pertinent to emergency care. In brain resuscitation, the control of brain temperature (BT), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) is required for stabilizing physiological state of brain, and is described as the essential treatment points in many guidelines of disorder and/or disease such as brain injury, stroke, and encephalopathy. Thus, an integrated control system of BT, ICP, and CBF will greatly contribute to alleviating the burden on medical staff and improving treatment effect in brain resuscitation. In order to develop such a control system, models related to BT, ICP, and CBF are required for control simulation, because trial and error experiments using patients are not ethically allowed. A static model of cerebral blood circulation from intracranial arteries and vertebral artery to jugular veins has already constructed and verified. However, it is impossible to represent the pooling of blood in blood vessels, which is one cause of cerebral hypertension in this model. And, it is also impossible to represent the pulsing motion of blood vessels caused by blood pressure change which can have an affect on the change of cerebral tissue pressure. Thus, a dynamic model of cerebral blood circulation is constructed in consideration of the elasticity of the blood vessel and the inertia of the blood vessel wall. The constructed dynamic model was numerically analyzed using the normal data, in which each arterial blood flow in cerebral blood circulation, the distribution of blood pressure in the Circle of Willis, and the change of blood pressure along blood flow were calculated for verifying against physiological knowledge. As the result, because each calculated numerical value falling within the generally known normal range, this model has no problem in representing at least the normal physiological state of the brain. It is the next task to verify the accuracy of the present model in the case of disease or disorder. Currently, the construction of a migration model of extracellular fluid and a model of heat transfer in cerebral tissue are in progress for making them parts of an integrated model of brain physiological state, which is necessary for developing an future integrated control system of BT, ICP and CBF. The present model is applicable to constructing the integrated model representing at least the normal condition of brain physiological state by uniting with such models.

Keywords: dynamic model, cerebral blood circulation, brain resuscitation, automatic control

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16147 Blood Oxygen Saturation Measurement System Using Broad-Band Light Source with LabVIEW Program

Authors: Myoung Ah Kim, Dong Ho Sin, Chul Gyu Song

Abstract:

Blood oxygen saturation system is a well-established, noninvasive photoplethysmographic method to monitor vital signs. Conventional blood oxygen saturation measurements for the two LED light source is the ambiguity of the oxygen saturation measurement principle and the measurement results greatly influenced and heat and motion artifact. A high accuracy in order to solve these problems blood oxygen saturation measuring method has been proposed using a broadband light source that can be easily understood by the algorithm. The measurement of blood oxygen saturation based on broad-band light source has advantage of simple testing facility and easy understanding. Broadband light source based on blood oxygen saturation measuring program proposed in this paper is a combination of LabVIEW and MATLAB. Using the wavelength range of 450 nm-750 nm using a floating light absorption of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to measure the blood oxygen saturation. Hand movement is to fix the probe to the motor stage in order to prevent oxygen saturation measurement that affect the sample and probe kept constant interval. Experimental results show that the proposed method noticeably increases the accuracy and saves time compared with the conventional methods.

Keywords: oxygen saturation, broad-band light source, CCD, light reflectance theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
16146 Findings in Vascular Catheter Cultures at the Laboratory of Microbiology of General Hospital during One Year

Authors: P. Christodoulou, M. Gerasimou, S. Mantzoukis, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

Abstract:

Abstract— Purpose: The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) environment is conducive to the growth of microorganisms. A variety of microorganisms gain access to the intravascular area and are transported throughout the circulatory system. Therefore, examination of the catheters used in ICU patients is of paramount importance. Material and Method: The culture medium is a catheter tip, which is enriched with Tryptic soy broth (TSB). After one day of incubation, the broth is passaged in the following selective media: Blood, Mac conkey No. 2, chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman, and Saboureaud agar. The above selective media is incubated for 2 days. After this period, if any number of microbial colonies is detected, gram staining is performed and then the microorganisms are identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan (Siemens) system followed by a sensitivity test in the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer test. Results: In 2017, the Microbiology Laboratory received 84 catheters from the ICU. 42 were found positive. Of these, S. epidermidis was identified at 8, A. baumannii in 10, K. pneumoniae in 6, P. aeruginosa in 6, P. mirabilis in 3, S. simulans in 1, S. haemolyticus in 4, S. aureus in 3 and S. hominis in 1. Conclusions: The results show that the placement and maintenance of the catheters in ICU patients are relatively successful, despite the unfavorable environment of the unit.

Keywords: culture, intensive care unit, microorganisms, vascular catheters

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16145 Development of Soft-Core System for Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation

Authors: Caje F. Pinto, Jivan S. Parab, Gourish M. Naik

Abstract:

This paper is about the development of non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation in human blood using Altera NIOS II soft-core processor system. In today's world, monitoring oxygen saturation and heart rate is very important in hospitals to keep track of low oxygen levels in blood. We have designed an Embedded System On Peripheral Chip (SOPC) reconfigurable system by interfacing two LED’s of different wavelengths (660 nm/940 nm) with a single photo-detector to measure the absorptions of hemoglobin species at different wavelengths. The implementation of the interface with Finger Probe and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) was carried out using NIOS II soft-core system running on Altera NANO DE0 board having target as Cyclone IVE. This designed system is used to monitor oxygen saturation in blood and heart rate for different test subjects. The designed NIOS II processor based non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation was verified with another Operon Pulse oximeter for 50 measurements on 10 different subjects. It was found that the readings taken were very close to the Operon Pulse oximeter.

Keywords: heart rate, NIOS II, oxygen saturation, photoplethysmography, soft-core, SOPC

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
16144 Analysis on the Effectiveness of the "Three-Exemption" Policy Aimed at Promoting Unpaid Blood Donation in Zhejiang

Authors: Ni Tang, Jinping Zhang

Abstract:

An effective and sustainable volunteer team is needed to create a more available blood supply system. In order to promote the sustainable development of blood donation in Zhejiang Province, China, a “three-exemption” policy was proposed in 2014: blood donors who received the National Award for unpaid blood donation may government-invested and funded parks, scenic spots and other places for free, visit non-profit medical institutions for free outpatient fees, and be exempted from urban public transportation fees. As the policy has been in place for seven years, this study evaluated the effectiveness of the policy by comparing the increasing rate of blood donation in Hangzhou (capital city of Zhejiang) before and after the policy using the intermittent time series analysis. The blood donation in Anhui, a Province near Zhejiang, was also compared as a negative control. Blood donation data from 2012 to 2018 were obtained from the donation center's official websites. The increasing rate of blood donation volume since 2012 in Hangzhou is 34.37 units/month, and after 2014, the increasing rate additionally increases 71.69 (p=0.1442), which indicating a statistically non-significant change after the policy. While as a negative control, in Anhui, the increasing rate of blood donation volume since 2012 is -163.3 unit/month, and the increasing rate additionally increases 167.2 (p=5.63e-07) after 2014. The result shows that the three-exemption policy had a certain level of impact on encouraging volunteers to donate blood, but the effect was not substantial. One possible reason for the ineffectiveness of the policy might be a lack of public awareness of the policy. On the other hand, this policy mainly waived unnecessary life expenses, such as fares and scenic entrance fees, and requires a certain number of blood donations, registration procedures, and blood donation certificates. Perhaps, reducing life-related expenses such as oil, water and electricity, could better attract people to participate in blood donation. This current study on the three-exemption policy provides a new direction for promoting people's blood donation. Incentive policies may require greater publicity and incentives. In order to better ensure the operation of the blood donation system, other policies, especially incentive policies, should be further explored.

Keywords: blood donation, policy, Zhejiang, unpaid blood donation, three-exemption policy

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16143 A Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System Using near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Remote Data Logging

Authors: Bodhayan Nandi, Shubhajit Roy Chowdhury

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a portable blood glucose monitoring device based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. The system supports Internet connectivity through WiFi and uploads the time series data of glucose concentration of patients to a server. In addition, the server is given sufficient intelligence to predict the future pathophysiological state of a patient given the current and past pathophysiological data. This will enable to prognosticate the approaching critical condition of the patient much before the critical condition actually occurs.The server hosts web applications to allow authorized users to monitor the data remotely.

Keywords: non invasive, blood glucose concentration, microcontroller, IoT, application server, database server

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
16142 The Amount of Organic Phosphates (Like DPG) Existing in Blood is Determining Factor of Mammal’s Bulk

Authors: Ramin Amirmardfar

Abstract:

Throughout Necessary oxygen should be supplied for all cells of a mammal at any moment through blood to make it possible remain alive all cells the mammal’s body. In case a mammal’s bulk is large, there is a farther distance between cells in different tissues and mammals’ heart. Therefore red blood cells in bulky mammal’s body should be capable of conveying oxygen to farther distances. To make it practical, oxygen should be glued red blood cells tenaciously. In other words, cohesion strength of oxygen to red blood cell of bulky mammal’s blood should be much more than the same of small mammal’s blood. In mammal’s bodies, the controlling factor of amount of cohesion of oxygen to red blood cell, are organic phosphates (like DPG). The less DPG in red blood cells of a mammal, the more cohesion of oxygen to red blood cell (at the same rate). As much as oxygen is glued more tenacious to red blood cells, oxygen could been carried to farther distance and as much as oxygen could be conveyed to farther points of heart, bulk of mammal could be larger at the same rate.

Keywords: mammals size, animals size, organic phosphates, DPG, red blood cell, metabolism

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16141 Alternative Housing Systems: Influence on Blood Profile of Egg-Type Chickens in Humid Tropics

Authors: Olufemi M. Alabi, Foluke A. Aderemi, Adebayo A. Adewumi, Banwo O. Alabi

Abstract:

General well-being of animals is of paramount interest in some developed countries and of global importance hence the shift onto alternative housing systems for egg-type chickens as replacement for conventional battery cage system. However, there is paucity of information on the effect of this shift on physiological status of the hens to judge their health via the blood profile. Therefore, investigation was carried out on two strains of hen kept in three different housing systems in humid tropics to evaluate changes in their blood parameters. 108, 17-weeks old super black (SBL) hens and 108, 17-weeks old super brown (SBR) hens were randomly allotted to three different intensive systems Partitioned Conventional Cage (PCC), Extended Conventional Cage (ECC) and Deep Litter System (DLS) in a randomized complete block design with 36 hens per housing system, each with three replicates. The experiment lasted 37 weeks during which blood samples were collected at 18th week of age and bi-weekly thereafter for analyses. Parameters measured are packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood counts (RBC), white blood counts (WBC) and serum metabolites such as total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (Glb), glucose, cholesterol, urea, bilirubin, serum cortisol while blood indices such as mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were calculated. The hematological values of the hens were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the housing system and strain, so also the serum metabolites except for the serum cortisol which was significantly (p<0.05) affected by the housing system only. Hens housed on PCC had higher values (20.05 ng/ml for SBL and 20.55 ng/ml for SBR) followed by hens on ECC (18.15ng/ml for SBL and 18.38ng/ml for SBL) while hens on DLS had the lowest value (16.50ng/ml for SBL and 16.00ng/ml for SBR) thereby confirming indication of stress with conventionally caged birds. Alternative housing systems can also be adopted for egg-type chickens in the humid tropics from welfare point of view with the results of this work confirming stress among caged hens.

Keywords: blood, housing, humid-tropics, layers

Procedia PDF Downloads 371