Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16401

Search results for: physical model

16401 Physical Education Teacher's Interpretation toward Teaching Games for Understanding Model

Authors: Soni Nopembri

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to evaluate the implementation of teaching games for Understanding model by conducting action to physical education teacher who have got long teaching experience. The research applied Participatory Action Research. The subjects of this research were 19 physical education teachers who had got training of Teaching Games for Understanding. Data collection was conducted intensively through a questionnaire, in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), observation, and documentation. The collected data was analysis zed qualitatively and quantitatively. The result showed that physical education teachers had got an appropriate interpretation on TGfU model. Some indicators that were the focus of this research indicated this points; they are: (1) physical education teachers had good understanding toward TGfU model, (2) PE teachers’ competence in applying TGfU model on Physical Education at school were adequate, though some improvement were needed, (3) the influence factors in the implementation of TGfU model, in sequence, were teacher, facilities, environment, and students factors, (4) PE teachers’ perspective toward TGfU model were positively good, although some teachers were less optimistic toward the development of TGfU model in the future.

Keywords: TGfU, physical education teacher, teaching games, FGD

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16400 Conduction Model Compatible for Multi-Physical Domain Dynamic Investigations: Bond Graph Approach

Authors: A. Zanj, F. He

Abstract:

In the current paper, a domain independent conduction model compatible for multi-physical system dynamic investigations is suggested. By means of a port-based approach, a classical nonlinear conduction model containing physical states is first represented. A compatible discrete configuration of the thermal domain in line with the elastic domain is then generated through the enhancement of the configuration of the conventional thermal element. The presented simulation results of a sample structure indicate that the suggested conductive model can cover a wide range of dynamic behavior of the thermal domain.

Keywords: multi-physical domain, conduction model, port based modeling, dynamic interaction, physical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
16399 Kinetic Façade Design Using 3D Scanning to Convert Physical Models into Digital Models

Authors: Do-Jin Jang, Sung-Ah Kim

Abstract:

In designing a kinetic façade, it is hard for the designer to make digital models due to its complex geometry with motion. This paper aims to present a methodology of converting a point cloud of a physical model into a single digital model with a certain topology and motion. The method uses a Microsoft Kinect sensor, and color markers were defined and applied to three paper folding-inspired designs. Although the resulted digital model cannot represent the whole folding range of the physical model, the method supports the designer to conduct a performance-oriented design process with the rough physical model in the reduced folding range.

Keywords: design media, kinetic facades, tangible user interface, 3D scanning

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16398 Application of Computational Flow Dynamics (CFD) Analysis for Surge Inception and Propagation for Low Head Hydropower Projects

Authors: M. Mohsin Munir, Taimoor Ahmad, Javed Munir, Usman Rashid

Abstract:

Determination of maximum elevation of a flowing fluid due to sudden rejection of load in a hydropower facility is of great interest to hydraulic engineers to ensure safety of the hydraulic structures. Several mathematical models exist that employ one-dimensional modeling for the determination of surge but none of these perfectly simulate real-time circumstances. The paper envisages investigation of surge inception and propagation for a Low Head Hydropower project using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis on FLOW-3D software package. The fluid dynamic model utilizes its analysis for surge by employing Reynolds’ Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANSE). The CFD model is designed for a case study at Taunsa hydropower Project in Pakistan. Various scenarios have run through the model keeping in view upstream boundary conditions. The prototype results were then compared with the results of physical model testing for the same scenarios. The results of the numerical model proved quite accurate coherence with the physical model testing and offers insight into phenomenon which are not apparent in physical model and shall be adopted in future for the similar low head projects limiting delays and cost incurred in the physical model testing.

Keywords: surge, FLOW-3D, numerical model, Taunsa, RANSE

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16397 Thermal Modelling and Experimental Comparison for a Moving Pantograph Strip

Authors: Nicolas Delcey, Philippe Baucour, Didier Chamagne, Geneviève Wimmer, Auditeau Gérard, Bausseron Thomas, Bouger Odile, Blanvillain Gérard

Abstract:

This paper proposes a thermal study of the catenary/pantograph interface for a train in motion. A 2.5D complex model of the pantograph strip has been defined and created by a coupling between a 1D and a 2D model. Experimental and simulation results are presented and with a comparison allow validating the 2.5D model. Some physical phenomena are described and presented with the help of the model such as the stagger motion thermal effect, particular heats and the effect of the material characteristics. Finally it is possible to predict the critical thermal configuration during a train trip.

Keywords: electro-thermal studies, mathematical optimizations, multi-physical approach, numerical model, pantograph strip wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
16396 Modeling and Simulation Methods Using MATLAB/Simulink

Authors: Jamuna Konda, Umamaheswara Reddy Karumuri, Sriramya Muthugi, Varun Pishati, Ravi Shakya,

Abstract:

This paper investigates the challenges involved in mathematical modeling of plant simulation models ensuring the performance of the plant models much closer to the real time physical model. The paper includes the analysis performed and investigation on different methods of modeling, design and development for plant model. Issues which impact the design time, model accuracy as real time model, tool dependence are analyzed. The real time hardware plant would be a combination of multiple physical models. It is more challenging to test the complete system with all possible test scenarios. There are possibilities of failure or damage of the system due to any unwanted test execution on real time.

Keywords: model based design (MBD), MATLAB, Simulink, stateflow, plant model, real time model, real-time workshop (RTW), target language compiler (TLC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
16395 Iterative Panel RC Extraction for Capacitive Touchscreen

Authors: Chae Hoon Park, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

Electrical characteristics of capacitive touchscreen need to be accurately analyzed to result in better performance for multi-channel capacitance sensing. In this paper, we extracted the panel resistances and capacitances of the touchscreen by comparing measurement data and model data. By employing a lumped RC model for driver-to-receiver paths in touchscreen, we estimated resistance and capacitance values according to the physical lengths of channel paths which are proportional to the RC model. As a result, we obtained the model having 95.54% accuracy of the measurement data.

Keywords: electrical characteristics of capacitive touchscreen, iterative extraction, lumped RC model, physical lengths of channel paths

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
16394 Estimation of the Temperatures in an Asynchronous Machine Using Extended Kalman Filter

Authors: Yi Huang, Clemens Guehmann

Abstract:

In order to monitor the thermal behavior of an asynchronous machine with squirrel cage rotor, a 9th-order extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is implemented to estimate the temperatures of the stator windings, the rotor cage and the stator core. The state-space equations of EKF are established based on the electrical, mechanical and the simplified thermal models of an asynchronous machine. The asynchronous machine with simplified thermal model in Dymola is compiled as DymolaBlock, a physical model in MATLAB/Simulink. The coolant air temperature, three-phase voltages and currents are exported from the physical model and are processed by EKF estimator as inputs. Compared to the temperatures exported from the physical model of the machine, three parts of temperatures can be estimated quite accurately by the EKF estimator. The online EKF estimator is independent from the machine control algorithm and can work under any speed and load condition if the stator current is nonzero current system.

Keywords: asynchronous machine, extended Kalman filter, resistance, simulation, temperature estimation, thermal model

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
16393 Students’ learning Effects in Physical Education between Sport Education Model with TPSR and Traditional Teaching Model with TPSR

Authors: Yi-Hsiang Pan, Chen-Hui Huang, Ching-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Ting Hsu

Abstract:

The purposes of the study were to explore the students' learning effect of physical education curriculum between merging Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) with sport education model and TPSR with traditional teaching model, which these learning effects included sport self-efficacy, sport enthusiastic, group cohesion, responsibility and game performance. The participants include 3 high school physical education teachers and 6 physical education classes, 133 participants with experience group 75 students and control group 58 students, and each teacher taught an experimental group and a control group for 16 weeks. The research methods used questionnaire investigation, interview, focus group meeting. The research instruments included personal and social responsibility questionnaire, sport enthusiastic scale, group cohesion scale, sport self-efficacy scale and game performance assessment instrument. Multivariate Analysis of covariance and Repeated measure ANOVA were used to test difference of students' learning effects between merging TPSR with sport education model and TPSR with traditional teaching model. The findings of research were: 1) The sport education model with TPSR could improve students' learning effects, including sport self-efficacy, game performance, sport enthusiastic, group cohesion and responsibility. 2) The traditional teaching model with TPSR could improve students' learning effect, including sport self-efficacy, responsibility and game performance. 3) the sport education model with TPSR could improve more learning effects than traditional teaching model with TPSR, including sport self-efficacy, sport enthusiastic,responsibility and game performance. 4) Based on qualitative data about learning experience of teachers and students, sport education model with TPSR significant improve learning motivation, group interaction and game sense. The conclusions indicated sport education model with TPSR could improve more learning effects in physical education curriculum. On other hand, the curricular projects of hybrid TPSR-Sport Education model and TPSR-Traditional Teaching model are both good curricular projects of moral character education, which may be applied in school physical education.

Keywords: character education, sport season, game performance, sport competence

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
16392 Double Layer Security Model for Identification Friend or Foe

Authors: Buse T. Aydın, Enver Ozdemir

Abstract:

In this study, a double layer authentication scheme between the aircraft and the Air Traffic Control (ATC) tower is designed to prevent any unauthorized aircraft from introducing themselves as friends. The method is a combination of classical cryptographic methods and new generation physical layers. The first layer has employed the embedded key of the aircraft. The embedded key is assumed to installed during the construction of the utility. The other layer is a physical attribute (flight path, distance, etc.) between the aircraft and the ATC tower. We create a mathematical model so that two layers’ information is employed and an aircraft is authenticated as a friend or foe according to the accuracy of the results of the model. The results of the aircraft are compared with the results of the ATC tower and if the values found by the aircraft and ATC tower match within a certain error margin, we mark the aircraft as a friend. In this method, even if embedded key is captured by the enemy aircraft, without the information of the second layer, the enemy can easily be determined. Overall, in this work, we present a more reliable system by adding a physical layer in the authentication process.

Keywords: ADS-B, communication with physical layer security, cryptography, identification friend or foe

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16391 The Framework of System Safety for Multi Human-in-The-Loop System

Authors: Hideyuki Shintani, Ichiro Koshijima

Abstract:

In Cyber Physical System (CPS), if there are a large number of persons in the process, a role of person in CPS might be different comparing with the one-man system. It is also necessary to consider how Human-in-The-Loop Cyber Physical Systems (HiTLCPS) ensure safety of each person in the loop process. In this paper, the authors discuss a system safety framework with an illustrative example with STAMP model to clarify what point for safety should be considered and what role of person in the should have.

Keywords: cyber-physical-system, human-in-the-loop, safety, STAMP model

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16390 Developing an Integrated Seismic Risk Model for Existing Buildings in Northern Algeria

Authors: R. Monteiro, A. Abarca

Abstract:

Large scale seismic risk assessment has become increasingly popular to evaluate the physical vulnerability of a given region to seismic events, by putting together hazard, exposure and vulnerability components. This study, developed within the scope of the EU-funded project ITERATE (Improved Tools for Disaster Risk Mitigation in Algeria), explains the steps and expected results for the development of an integrated seismic risk model for assessment of the vulnerability of residential buildings in Northern Algeria. For this purpose, the model foresees the consideration of an updated seismic hazard model, as well as ad-hoc exposure and physical vulnerability models for local residential buildings. The first results of this endeavor, such as the hazard model and a specific taxonomy to be used for the exposure and fragility components of the model are presented, using as starting point the province of Blida, in Algeria. Specific remarks and conclusions regarding the characteristics of the Northern Algerian in-built are then made based on these results.

Keywords: Northern Algeria, risk, seismic hazard, vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
16389 Pattern of Physical Activity and Its Impact on the Quality of Life: A Structural Equation Modelling Analysis

Authors: Ali Maksum

Abstract:

In a number of countries, including Indonesia, the tendency for non-communicable diseases is increasing. As a result, health costs must be paid by the state continues to increase as well. People's lifestyles, including due to lack of physical activity, are thought to have contributed significantly to the problem. This study aims to examine the impact of participation in sports on quality of life, which is reflected in three main indicators, namely health, psychological, and social aspects. The study was conducted in the city of Surabaya and its surroundings, with a total of 490 participants, consisting of 245 men and 245 women with an average age of 45.4 years. Data on physical activity and quality of life were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using structural equation modeling. The test results of the model prove that the value of chi-square = 8,259 with p = .409, RMSEA = .008, NFI = .992, and CFI = 1. This means that the model is compatible with the data. The model explains that physical activity has a significant effect on quality of life. People who exercise regularly are better able to cope with stress, have a lower risk of illness, and have higher pro-social behavior. Therefore, it needs serious efforts from stakeholders, especially the government, to create an ecosystem that allows the growth of movement culture in the community.

Keywords: participation, physical activity, quality of life, structural equation modelling

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16388 Mathematical Modeling of Human Cardiovascular System: A Lumped Parameter Approach and Simulation

Authors: Ketan Naik, P. H. Bhathawala

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model of Human Cardiovascular System using lumped parameter method. The model is divided in three parts: Systemic Circulation, Pulmonary Circulation and the Heart. The established mathematical model has been simulated by MATLAB software. The innovation of this study is in describing the system based on the vessel diameters and simulating mathematical equations with active electrical elements. Terminology of human physical body and required physical data like vessel’s radius, thickness etc., which are required to calculate circuit parameters like resistance, inductance and capacitance, are proceeds from well-known medical books. The developed model is useful to understand the anatomic of human cardiovascular system and related syndromes. The model is deal with vessel’s pressure and blood flow at certain time.

Keywords: cardiovascular system, lumped parameter method, mathematical modeling, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
16387 Effects of Merging Personal and Social Responsibility with Sports Education Model on Students' Game Performance and Responsibility

Authors: Yi-Hsiang Pan, Chen-Hui Huang, Wei-Ting Hsu

Abstract:

The purposes of the study were to understand these topics as follows: 1. To explore the effect of merging teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) with sports education model on students' game performance and responsibility. 2. To explore the effect of sports education model on students' game performance and responsibility. 3. To compare the difference between "merging TPSR with sports education model" and "sports education model" on students' game performance and responsibility. The participants include three high school physical education teachers and six physical education classes. Every teacher teaches an experimental group and a control group. The participants had 121 students, including 65 students in the experimental group and 56 students in the control group. The research methods had game performance assessment, questionnaire investigation, interview, focus group meeting. The research instruments include personal and social responsibility questionnaire and game performance assessment instrument. Paired t-test test and MANCOVA were used to test the difference between "merging TPSR with sports education model" and "sports education model" on students' learning performance. 1) "Merging TPSR with sports education model" showed significant improvements in students' game performance, and responsibilities with self-direction, helping others, cooperation. 2) "Sports education model" also had significant improvements in students' game performance, and responsibilities with effort, self-direction, helping others. 3.) There was no significant difference in game performance and responsibilities between "merging TPSR with sports education model" and "sports education model". 4)."Merging TPSR with sports education model" significantly improve learning atmosphere and peer relationships, it may be developed in the physical education curriculum. The conclusions were as follows: Both "Merging TPSR with sports education model" and "sports education model" can help improve students' responsibility and game performance. However, "Merging TPSR with sports education model" can reduce the competitive atmosphere in highly intensive games between students. The curricular projects of hybrid TPSR-Sport Education model is a good approach for moral character education.

Keywords: curriculum and teaching model, sports self-efficacy, sport enthusiastic, character education

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
16386 Classification of Barley Varieties by Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Alper Taner, Yesim Benal Oztekin, Huseyin Duran

Abstract:

In this study, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed in order to classify barley varieties. For this purpose, physical properties of barley varieties were determined and ANN techniques were used. The physical properties of 8 barley varieties grown in Turkey, namely thousand kernel weight, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, kernel volume, surface area, bulk density, true density, porosity and colour parameters of grain, were determined and it was found that these properties were statistically significant with respect to varieties. As ANN model, three models, N-l, N-2 and N-3 were constructed. The performances of these models were compared. It was determined that the best-fit model was N-1. In the N-1 model, the structure of the model was designed to be 11 input layers, 2 hidden layers and 1 output layer. Thousand kernel weight, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, kernel volume, surface area, bulk density, true density, porosity and colour parameters of grain were used as input parameter; and varieties as output parameter. R2, Root Mean Square Error and Mean Error for the N-l model were found as 99.99%, 0.00074 and 0.009%, respectively. All results obtained by the N-l model were observed to have been quite consistent with real data. By this model, it would be possible to construct automation systems for classification and cleaning in flourmills.

Keywords: physical properties, artificial neural networks, barley, classification

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16385 Data Collection with Bounded-Sized Messages in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Min Kyung An

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the data collection problem in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) adopting the two interference models: The graph model and the more realistic physical interference model known as Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR). The main issue of the problem is to compute schedules with the minimum number of timeslots, that is, to compute the minimum latency schedules, such that data from every node can be collected without any collision or interference to a sink node. While existing works studied the problem with unit-sized and unbounded-sized message models, we investigate the problem with the bounded-sized message model, and introduce a constant factor approximation algorithm. To the best known of our knowledge, our result is the first result of the data collection problem with bounded-sized model in both interference models.

Keywords: data collection, collision-free, interference-free, physical interference model, SINR, approximation, bounded-sized message model, wireless sensor networks

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16384 Long Short-Time Memory Neural Networks for Human Driving Behavior Modelling

Authors: Lu Zhao, Nadir Farhi, Yeltsin Valero, Zoi Christoforou, Nadia Haddadou

Abstract:

In this paper, a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network model is proposed to replicate simultaneously car-following and lane-changing behaviors in road networks. By combining two kinds of LSTM layers and three input designs of the neural network, six variants of the LSTM model have been created. These models were trained and tested on the NGSIM 101 dataset, and the results were evaluated in terms of longitudinal speed and lateral position, respectively. Then, we compared the LSTM model with a classical car-following model (the intelligent driving model (IDM)) in the part of speed decision. In addition, the LSTM model is compared with a model using classical neural networks. After the comparison, the LSTM model demonstrates higher accuracy than the physical model IDM in terms of car-following behavior and displays better performance with regard to both car-following and lane-changing behavior compared to the classical neural network model.

Keywords: traffic modeling, neural networks, LSTM, car-following, lane-change

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16383 Effective Validation Model and Use of Mobile-Health Apps for Elderly People

Authors: Leonardo Ramirez Lopez, Edward Guillen Pinto, Carlos Ramos Linares

Abstract:

The controversy brought about by the increasing use of mHealth apps and their effectiveness for disease prevention and diagnosis calls for immediate control. Although a critical topic in research areas such as medicine, engineering, economics, among others, this issue lacks reliable implementation models. However, projects such as Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) and various studies have helped to create useful and reliable apps. This research is conducted under a quality model to optimize two mHealth apps for older adults. Results analysis on the use of two physical activity monitoring apps - AcTiv (physical activity) and SMCa (energy expenditure) - is positive and ideal. Through a theoretical and practical analysis, precision calculations and personal information control of older adults for disease prevention and diagnosis were performed. Finally, apps are validated by a physician and, as a result, they may be used as health monitoring tools in physical performance centers or any other physical activity. The results obtained provide an effective validation model for this type of mobile apps, which, in turn, may be applied by other software developers that along with medical staff would offer digital healthcare tools for elderly people.

Keywords: model, validation, effective, healthcare, elderly people, mobile app

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16382 Unspoken Playground Rules Prompt Adolescents to Avoid Physical Activity: A Focus Group Study of Constructs in the Prototype Willingness Model

Authors: Catherine Wheatley, Emma L. Davies, Helen Dawes

Abstract:

The health benefits of exercise are widely recognised, but numerous interventions have failed to halt a sharp decline in physical activity during early adolescence. Many such projects are underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, yet this model of rational decision-making leaves variance in behavior unexplained. This study investigated whether the Prototype Willingness Model, which proposes a second, reactive decision-making path to account for spontaneous responses to the social environment, has potential to improve understanding of adolescent exercise behaviour in school by exploring constructs in the model with young people. PE teachers in 4 Oxfordshire schools each nominated 6 pupils who were active in school, and 6 who were inactive, to participate in the study. Of these, 45 (22 male) aged 12-13 took part in 8 focus group discussions. These were transcribed and subjected to deductive thematic analysis to search for themes relating to the prototype willingness model. Participants appeared to make rational decisions about commuting to school or attending sports clubs, but spontaneous choices to be inactive during both break and PE. These reactive decisions seemed influenced by a social context described as more ‘judgmental’ than primary school, characterised by anxiety about physical competence, negative peer evaluation and inactive playground norms. Participants described their images of typical active and inactive adolescents: active images included negative social characteristics including ‘show-off’. There was little concern about the long-term risks of inactivity, although participants seemed to recognise that physical activity is healthy. The Prototype Willingness Model might more fully explain young adolescents’ physical activity in school than rational behavioural models, indicating potential for physical activity interventions that target social anxieties in response to the changing playground environment. Images of active types could be more complex than earlier research has suggested, and their negative characteristics might influence willingness to be active.

Keywords: adolescence, physical activity, prototype willingness model, school

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16381 Mathematical Modelling of Human Cardiovascular-Respiratory System Response to Exercise in Rwanda

Authors: Jean Marie Ntaganda, Froduald Minani, Wellars Banzi, Lydie Mpinganzima, Japhet Niyobuhungiro, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Vincent Dusabejambo, Immaculate Kambutse

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a nonlinear dynamic model for the interactive mechanism of the cardiovascular and respiratory system. The model is designed and analyzed for human during physical exercises. In order to verify the adequacy of the designed model, data collected in Rwanda are used for validation. We have simulated the impact of heart rate and alveolar ventilation as controls of cardiovascular and respiratory system respectively to steady state response of the main cardiovascular hemodynamic quantities i.e., systemic arterial and venous blood pressures, arterial oxygen partial pressure and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, to the stabilised values of controls. We used data collected in Rwanda for both male and female during physical activities. We obtained a good agreement with physiological data in the literature. The model may represent an important tool to improve the understanding of exercise physiology.

Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular/respiratory, hemodynamic quantities, numerical simulation, physical activity, sportsmen in Rwanda, system

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16380 Optimization of Flip Bucket Dents in Order to Reduce Scour Hole Depth (Plunge Pool) Using a Comprehensive Physical Model

Authors: Majid Galoie, Khodadad Safavi, Abdolreza Karami Nejad, Reza Roshan

Abstract:

Scour downstream of a flip bucket in a plunge pool is caused by impingement of water jet force. In order to reduce this force and consequently reduce scour hole depth, flip buckets may equip by dents. The minimum scour hole depth might be occurred by optimization of dents (number, shape, placement) on flip buckets. In this study, a comprehensive physical model has been developed and various options for dents have been investigated. The experimental data for each dent option such as scour hole depth, angle of impingement jet, piezometric pressure in tail-water and jet trajectory have been measured for various discharges. Finally, the best option can be found by analysis of the experimental results which has been expressed in this paper.

Keywords: scouring process, plunge pool, scour hole depth, physical model, flip bucket

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16379 A New Nonlinear State-Space Model and Its Application

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei

Abstract:

In this work, a new nonlinear model will be introduced. The model is in the state-space form. The nonlinearity of this model is in the state equation where the state vector is multiplied by its self. This technique makes our model generalizes many famous models as Lotka-Volterra model and Lorenz model which have many applications in the real life. We will apply our new model to estimate the wind speed by using a new nonlinear estimator which suitable to work with our model.

Keywords: nonlinear systems, state-space model, Kronecker product, nonlinear estimator

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16378 Learning Performance of Sports Education Model Based on Self-Regulated Learning Approach

Authors: Yi-Hsiang Pan, Ching-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Ting Hsu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to compare the learning effects of the sports education model (SEM) to those of the traditional teaching model (TTM) in physical education classes in terms of students learning motivation, action control, learning strategies, and learning performance. A quasi-experimental design was utilized in this study, and participants included two physical educators and four classes with a total of 94 students in grades 5 and 6 of elementary schools. Two classes implemented the SEM (n=47, male=24, female=23; age=11.89, SD=0.78) and two classes implemented the TTM (n=47, male=25, female=22, age=11.77; SD=0.66). Data were collected from these participants using a self-report questionnaire (including a learning motivation scale, action control scale, and learning strategy scale) and a game performance assessment instrument, and multivariate analysis of covariance was used to conduct statistical analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the SEM was significantly better than the TTM in promoting students learning motivation, action control, learning strategies, and game performance. It was concluded that the SEM could promote the mechanics of students self-regulated learning process, and thereby improve students movement performance.

Keywords: self-regulated learning theory, learning process, curriculum model, physical education

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16377 Testing a Motivational Model of Physical Education on Contextual Outcomes and Total Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity of Middle School Students

Authors: Arto Grasten

Abstract:

Given the rising trend in obesity in children and youth, age-related decline in moderate- to- vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) in several Western, African, and Asian countries in addition to limited evidence of behavioral, affective, cognitive outcomes in physical education, it is important to clarify the motivational processes in physical education classes behind total MVPA engagement. The present study examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, contextual behavior, affect, cognition, total MVPA, and associated links to body mass index (BMI) and gender differences. A cross-sectional data comprised self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (Mage = 13.99 ± .81 years, 52% of girls) in North-East Finland. In order to test the associations between motivational climate, psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, cognition, behavior, affect, and total MVPA, a path model was implemented. Indirect effects between motivational climate and cognition, behavior, affect and total MVPA were tested by setting basic needs and intrinsic motivation as mediators into the model. The findings showed that direct and indirect paths for girls and boys associated with different contextual outcomes and girls’ indirect paths were not related with total MVPA. Precisely, task-involving climate-mediated by physical competence and intrinsic motivation related to enjoyment, importance, and graded assessments within girls, whereas task-involving climate associated with enjoyment and importance via competence and autonomy, and total MVPA via autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and importance within boys. Physical education assessments appeared to be essential in motivating students to participate in greater total MVPA. BMI was negatively linked with competence and relatedness only among girls. Although, the current and previous empirical findings supported task-involving teaching methods in physical education, in some cases, ego-involving climate should not be totally avoided. This may indicate that girls and boys perceive physical education classes in a different way. Therefore, both task- and ego-involving teaching practices can be useful ways of driving behavior in physical education classes.

Keywords: achievement goal theory, assessment, enjoyment, hierarchical model of motivation, physical activity, self-determination theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
16376 Reliability Assessment of Various Empirical Formulas for Prediction of Scour Hole Depth (Plunge Pool) Using a Comprehensive Physical Model

Authors: Majid Galoie, Khodadad Safavi, Abdolreza Karami Nejad, Reza Roshan

Abstract:

In this study, a comprehensive scouring model has been developed in order to evaluate the accuracy of various empirical relationships which were suggested for prediction of scour hole depth in plunge pools by Martins, Mason, Chian and Veronese. For this reason, scour hole depths caused by free falling jets from a flip bucket to a plunge pool were investigated. In this study various discharges, angles, scouring times, etc. have been considered. The final results demonstrated that the all mentioned empirical formulas, except Mason formula, were reasonably agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: scour hole depth, plunge pool, physical model, reliability assessment

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16375 Moving Beyond the Limits of Disability Inclusion: Using the Concept of Belonging Through Friendship to Improve the Outcome of the Social Model of Disability

Authors: Luke S. Carlos A. Thompson

Abstract:

The medical model of disability, though beneficial for the medical professional, is often exclusionary, restrictive and dehumanizing when applied to the lived experience of disability. As a result, a critique of this model was constructed called the social model of disability. Much of the language used to articulate the purpose behind the social model of disability can be summed up within the word inclusion. However, this essay asserts that inclusiveness is an incomplete aspiration. The social model, as it currently stands, does not aid in creating a society where those with impairments actually belong. Rather, the social model aids in lessening the visibility, or negative consequence of, difference. Therefore, the social model does not invite society to welcome those with physical and intellectual impairments. It simply aids society in ignoring the existence of impairment by removing explicit forms of exclusion. Rather than simple inclusion, then, this essay uses John Swinton’s concept of friendship and Jean Vanier’s understanding of belonging to better articulate the intended outcome of the social model—a society where everyone can belong.

Keywords: belong, community, differently-able, disability, exclusion, friendship, inclusion, normality

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16374 Body of Dialectics: Exploring a Dynamic-Adaptational Model of Physical Self-Integrity and the Pursuit of Happiness in a Hostile World

Authors: Noam Markovitz

Abstract:

People with physical disabilities constitute a very large and simultaneously a diverse group of general population, as the term physical disabilities is extensive and covers a wide range of disabilities. Therefore, individuals with physical disabilities are often faced with a new, threatening and stressful reality leading possibly to a multi-crisis in their lives due to the great changes they experience in somatic, socio-economic, occupational and psychological level. The current study seeks to advance understanding of the complex adaptation to physical disabilities by expanding the dynamic-adaptational model of the pursuit of happiness in a hostile world with a new conception of physical self-integrity. Physical self-integrity incorporates an objective dimension, namely physical self-functioning (PSF), and a subjective dimension, namely physical self-concept (PSC). Both of these dimensions constitute an experience of wholeness in the individual’s identification with her or his physical body. The model guiding this work is dialectical in nature and depicts two systems in the individual’s sense of happiness: subjective well-being (SWB) and meaning in life (MIL). Both systems serve as self-adaptive agents that moderate the complementary system of the hostile-world scenario (HWS), which integrates one’s perceived threats to one’s integrity. Thus, in situations of increased HWS, the moderation may take a form of joint activity in which SWB and MIL are amplified or a form of compensation in which one system produces a stronger effect while the other system produces a weaker effect. The current study investigated PSC in relations to SWB and MIL through pleasantness and meanings that are physically or metaphorically grounded in one’s body. In parallel, PSC also relates to HWS by activating representations of inappropriateness, deformation and vulnerability. In view of possibly dialectical positions of opposing and complementary forces within the current model, the current field study that aims to explore PSC as appearing in an independent, cross-sectional, design addressing the model’s variables in a focal group of people with physical disabilities. This study delineated the participation of the PSC in the adaptational functions of SWB and MIL vis-à-vis HWS-related life adversities. The findings showed that PSC could fully complement the main variables of the pursuit of happiness in a hostile world model. The assumed dialectics in the form of a stronger relationship between SWB and MIL in the face of physical disabilities was not supported. However, it was found that when HWS increased, PSC and MIL were strongly linked, whereas PSC and SWB were weakly linked. This highlights the compensatory role of MIL. From a conceptual viewpoint, the current investigation may clarify the role of PSC as an adaptational agent of the individual’s positive health in complementary senses of bodily wholeness. Methodologically, the advantage of the current investigation is the application of an integrative, model-based approach within a specially focused design with a particular relevance to PSC. Moreover, from an applicative viewpoint, the current investigation may suggest how an innovative model may be translated to therapeutic interventions used by clinicians, counselors and practitioners in improving wellness and psychological well-being, particularly among people with physical disabilities.

Keywords: older adults, physical disabilities, physical self-concept, pursuit of happiness in a hostile-world

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16373 Double Layer Security Authentication Model for Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast

Authors: Buse T. Aydin, Enver Ozdemir

Abstract:

An automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) system has serious security problems. In this study, a double layer authentication scheme between the aircraft and ground station, aircraft to aircraft, ground station to ATC tower is designed to prevent any unauthorized aircrafts from introducing themselves as friends. This method can be used as a solution to the problem of authentication. The method is a combination of classical cryptographic methods and new generation physical layers. The first layer has employed the embedded key of the aircraft. The embedded key is assumed to installed during the construction of the utility. The other layer is a physical attribute (flight path, distance, etc.) between the aircraft and the ATC tower. We create a mathematical model so that two layers’ information is employed and an aircraft is authenticated as a friend or unknown according to the accuracy of the results of the model. The results of the aircraft are compared with the results of the ATC tower and if the values found by the aircraft and ATC tower match within a certain error margin, we mark the aircraft as friend. As a result, the ADS-B messages coming from this authenticated friendly aircraft will be processed. In this method, even if the embedded key is captured by the unknown aircraft, without the information of the second layer, the unknown aircraft can easily be determined. Overall, in this work, we present a reliable system by adding physical layer in the authentication process.

Keywords: ADS-B, authentication, communication with physical layer security, cryptography, identification friend or foe

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16372 Evaluating the Educational Intervention Based on Web and Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction to Promote Physical Activities and HS-CRP Factor among Nurses

Authors: Arsalan Ghaderi

Abstract:

Introduction: Inactivity is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. According to the study prevalence of inactivity in Iran, about 67.5% and in the staff, and especially nurses, are similar. The inflammatory index (HS-CRP) is highly predictive of the progression of these diseases. Physical activity education is very important in preventing these diseases. One of the modern educational methods is web-based theory-based education. Methods: This is a semi-experimental interventional study which was conducted in Isfahan and Kurdistan universities of medical sciences in two stages. A cross-sectional study was done to determine the status of physical activity and its predictive factors. Then, intervention was performed, and six months later the data were retrieved. The data was collected using a demographic questionnaire, an integrative model of behavior prediction constructs, a standard physical activity questionnaire and (HS-CRP) test. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Physical activity was low in 66.6% of nurses, 25.4% were moderate and 8% severe. According to Pearson correlation matrix, the highest correlation was found between behavioral intention and skill structures (0.553**), subjective norms (0.222**) and self-efficacy (0.198**). The relationship between age and physical activity in the first study was reverse and significant. After intervention, there was a significant change in attitudes, self-efficacy, skill and behavioral intention in the intervention group. This change was significant in attitudes, self-efficacy and environmental conditions of the control group. HS-CRP index decreased significantly after intervention in both groups, but there was not a significant relationship between inflammatory index and physical activity score. The change in physical activity level was significant only in the control group. Conclusion: Despite the effect of educational intervention on attitude, self-efficacy, skill, and behavioral intention, the results showed that if factors such as environmental factors are not corrected, training and changing structures cannot lead to physical activity behavior. On the other hand, no correlation between physical activity and HS-CRP showed that this index can be influenced by other factors, and this should be considered in any intervention to reduce the HS-CRP index.

Keywords: HS-CRP, integrative model of behavior prediction, physical activity, nurses, web-based education

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