Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16281

Search results for: plant model

16281 Modeling and Simulation Methods Using MATLAB/Simulink

Authors: Jamuna Konda, Umamaheswara Reddy Karumuri, Sriramya Muthugi, Varun Pishati, Ravi Shakya,


This paper investigates the challenges involved in mathematical modeling of plant simulation models ensuring the performance of the plant models much closer to the real time physical model. The paper includes the analysis performed and investigation on different methods of modeling, design and development for plant model. Issues which impact the design time, model accuracy as real time model, tool dependence are analyzed. The real time hardware plant would be a combination of multiple physical models. It is more challenging to test the complete system with all possible test scenarios. There are possibilities of failure or damage of the system due to any unwanted test execution on real time.

Keywords: model based design (MBD), MATLAB, Simulink, stateflow, plant model, real time model, real-time workshop (RTW), target language compiler (TLC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
16280 Simulation of a Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process

Authors: Sungho Kim, Dae Shik Kim, Jong Min Lee


Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process is one of the most important process in modern refinery indusrty. This paper focuses on the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. As the FCC process is difficult to model well, due to its nonlinearities and various interactions between its process variables, rigorous process modeling of whole FCC plant is demanded for control and plant-wide optimization of the plant. In this study, a process design for the FCC plant includes riser reactor, main fractionator, and gas processing unit was developed. A reactor model was described based on four-lumped kinetic scheme. Main fractionator, gas processing unit and other process units are designed to simulate real plant data, using a process flowsheet simulator, Aspen PLUS. The custom reactor model was integrated with the process flowsheet simulator to develop an integrated process model.

Keywords: fluid catalytic cracking, simulation, plant data, process design

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
16279 Nonlinear Porous Diffusion Modeling of Ionic Agrochemicals in Astomatous Plant Cuticle Aqueous Pores: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Eloise C. Tredenick, Troy W. Farrell, W. Alison Forster, Steven T. P. Psaltis


The agriculture industry requires improved efficacy of sprays being applied to crops. More efficacious sprays provide many environmental and financial benefits. The plant leaf cuticle is known to be the main barrier to diffusion of agrochemicals within the leaf. The importance of a mathematical model to simulate uptake of agrochemicals in plant cuticles has been noted, as the results of each uptake experiments are specific to each formulation of active ingredient and plant species. In this work we develop a mathematical model and numerical simulation for the uptake of ionic agrochemicals through aqueous pores in plant cuticles. We propose a nonlinear porous diffusion model of ionic agrochemicals in isolated cuticles, which provides additions to a simple diffusion model through the incorporation of parameters capable of simulating plant species' variations, evaporation of surface droplet solutions and swelling of the aqueous pores with water. The model could feasibly be adapted to other ionic active ingredients diffusing through other plant species' cuticles. We validate our theoretical results against appropriate experimental data, discuss the key sensitivities in the model and relate theoretical predictions to appropriate physical mechanisms.

Keywords: aqueous pores, ionic active ingredient, mathematical model, plant cuticle, porous diffusion

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16278 Modeling and Simulation of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process

Authors: Sungho Kim, Dae Shik Kim, Jong Min Lee


Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process is one of the most important process in modern refinery industry. This paper focuses on the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. As the FCC process is difficult to model well, due to its non linearities and various interactions between its process variables, rigorous process modeling of whole FCC plant is demanded for control and plant-wide optimization of the plant. In this study, a process design for the FCC plant includes riser reactor, main fractionator, and gas processing unit was developed. A reactor model was described based on four-lumped kinetic scheme. Main fractionator, gas processing unit and other process units are designed to simulate real plant data, using a process flow sheet simulator, Aspen PLUS. The custom reactor model was integrated with the process flow sheet simulator to develop an integrated process model.

Keywords: fluid catalytic cracking, simulation, plant data, process design

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
16277 The Establishment and Application of TRACE/FRAPTRAN Model for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: S. W. Chen, W. K. Lin, J. R. Wang, C. Shih, H. T. Lin, H. C. Chang, W. Y. Li


Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) is a BWR/6 type NPP and located on the northern coast of Taiwan. First, Kuosheng NPP TRACE model were developed in this research. In order to assess the system response of Kuosheng NPP TRACE model, startup tests data were used to evaluate Kuosheng NPP TRACE model. Second, the over pressurization transient analysis of Kuosheng NPP TRACE model was performed. Besides, in order to confirm the mechanical property and integrity of fuel rods, FRAPTRAN analysis was also performed in this study.

Keywords: TRACE, safety analysis, BWR/6, FRAPTRA

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16276 Development of a Model for the Redesign of Plant Structures

Authors: L. Richter, J. Lübkemann, P. Nyhuis


In order to remain competitive in what is a turbulent environment; businesses must be able to react rapidly to change. The past response to volatile market conditions was to introduce an element of flexibility to production. Nowadays, what is often required is a redesign of factory structures in order to cope with the state of constant flux. The Institute of Production Systems and Logistics is currently developing a descriptive and causal model for the redesign of plant structures as part of an ongoing research project. This article presents the first research findings attained in devising this model.

Keywords: change driven factory redesign, factory planning, plant structure, flexibility

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16275 The Establishment of RELAP5/SNAP Model for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: C. Shih, J. R. Wang, H. C. Chang, S. W. Chen, S. C. Chiang, T. Y. Yu


After the measurement uncertainty recapture (MUR) power uprates, Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) was uprated the power from 2894 MWt to 2943 MWt. For power upgrade, several codes (e.g., TRACE, RELAP5, etc.) were applied to assess the safety of Kuosheng NPP. Hence, the main work of this research is to establish a RELAP5/MOD3.3 model of Kuosheng NPP with SNAP interface. The establishment of RELAP5/SNAP model was referred to the FSAR, training documents, and TRACE model which has been developed and verified before. After completing the model establishment, the startup test scenarios would be applied to the RELAP5/SNAP model. With comparing the startup test data and TRACE analysis results, the applicability of RELAP5/SNAP model would be assessed.


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16274 Use of Sentiel-2 Data to Monitor Plant Density and Establishment Rate of Winter Wheat Fields

Authors: Bing-Bing E. Goh


Plant counting is a labour intensive and time-consuming task for the farmers. However, it is an important indicator for farmers to make decisions on subsequent field management. This study is to evaluate the potential of Sentinel-2 images using statistical analysis to retrieve information on plant density for monitoring, especially during critical period at the beginning of March. The model was calibrated with in-situ data from 19 winter wheat fields in Republic of Ireland during the crop growing season in 2019-2020. The model for plant density resulted in R2 = 0.77, RMSECV = 103 and NRMSE = 14%. This study has shown the potential of using Sentinel-2 to estimate plant density and quantify plant establishment to effectively monitor crop progress and to ensure proper field management.

Keywords: winter wheat, remote sensing, crop monitoring, multivariate analysis

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16273 Computer Modeling and Plant-Wide Dynamic Simulation for Industrial Flare Minimization

Authors: Sujing Wang, Song Wang, Jian Zhang, Qiang Xu


Flaring emissions during abnormal operating conditions such as plant start-ups, shut-downs, and upsets in chemical process industries (CPI) are usually significant. Flare minimization can help to save raw material and energy for CPI plants, and to improve local environmental sustainability. In this paper, a systematic methodology based on plant-wide dynamic simulation is presented for CPI plant flare minimizations under abnormal operating conditions. Since off-specification emission sources are inevitable during abnormal operating conditions, to significantly reduce flaring emission in a CPI plant, they must be either recycled to the upstream process for online reuse, or stored somewhere temporarily for future reprocessing, when the CPI plant manufacturing returns to stable operation. Thus, the off-spec products could be reused instead of being flared. This can be achieved through the identification of viable design and operational strategies during normal and abnormal operations through plant-wide dynamic scheduling, simulation, and optimization. The proposed study includes three stages of simulation works: (i) developing and validating a steady-state model of a CPI plant; (ii) transiting the obtained steady-state plant model to the dynamic modeling environment; and refining and validating the plant dynamic model; and (iii) developing flare minimization strategies for abnormal operating conditions of a CPI plant via a validated plant-wide dynamic model. This cost-effective methodology has two main merits: (i) employing large-scale dynamic modeling and simulations for industrial flare minimization, which involves various unit models for modeling hundreds of CPI plant facilities; (ii) dealing with critical abnormal operating conditions of CPI plants such as plant start-up and shut-down. Two virtual case studies on flare minimizations for start-up operation (over 50% of emission savings) and shut-down operation (over 70% of emission savings) of an ethylene plant have been employed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed study.

Keywords: flare minimization, large-scale modeling and simulation, plant shut-down, plant start-up

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16272 Iterative Design Process for Development and Virtual Commissioning of Plant Control Software

Authors: Thorsten Prante, Robert Schöch, Ruth Fleisch, Vaheh Khachatouri, Alexander Walch


The development of industrial plant control software is a complex and often very expensive task. One of the core problems is that a lot of the implementation and adaptation work can only be done after the plant hardware has been installed. In this paper, we present our approach to virtually developing and validating plant-level control software of production plants. This way, plant control software can be virtually commissioned before actual ramp-up of a plant, reducing actual commissioning costs and time. Technically, this is achieved by linking the actual plant-wide process control software (often called plant server) and an elaborate virtual plant model together to form an emulation system. Method-wise, we are suggesting a four-step iterative process with well-defined increments and time frame. Our work is based on practical experiences from planning to commissioning and start-up of several cut-to-size plants.

Keywords: iterative system design, virtual plant engineering, plant control software, simulation and emulation, virtual commissioning

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16271 Simulation Modeling and Analysis of In-Plant Logistics at a Cement Manufacturing Plant in India

Authors: Sachin Kamble, Shradha Gawankar


This paper presents the findings of successful implementation of Business Process Reengineering (BPR) of cement dispatch activities in a cement manufacturing plant located in India. Simulation model was developed for the purpose of identifying and analyzing the areas for improvement. The company was facing a problem of low throughput rate and subsequent forced stoppages of the plant leading to a high production loss of 15000MT per month. It was found from the study that the present systems and procedures related to the in-plant logistics plant required significant changes. The major recommendations included process improvement at the entry gate, reducing the cycle time at the security gate and installation of an additional weigh bridge. This paper demonstrates how BPR can be implemented for improving the in-plant logistics process. Various recommendations helped the plant to increase its throughput by 14%.

Keywords: in-plant logistics, cement logistics, simulation modelling, business process re-engineering, supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
16270 Mathematical Modeling of Activated Sludge Process: Identification and Optimization of Key Design Parameters

Authors: Ujwal Kishor Zore, Shankar Balajirao Kausley, Aniruddha Bhalchandra Pandit


There are some important design parameters of activated sludge process (ASP) for wastewater treatment and they must be optimally defined to have the optimized plant working. To know them, developing a mathematical model is a way out as it is nearly commensurate the real world works. In this study, a mathematical model was developed for ASP, solved under activated sludge model no 1 (ASM 1) conditions and MATLAB tool was used to solve the mathematical equations. For its real-life validation, the developed model was tested for the inputs from the municipal wastewater treatment plant and the results were quite promising. Additionally, the most cardinal assumptions required to design the treatment plant are discussed in this paper. With the need for computerization and digitalization surging in every aspect of engineering, this mathematical model developed might prove to be a boon to many biological wastewater treatment plants as now they can in no time know the design parameters which are required for a particular type of wastewater treatment.

Keywords: waste water treatment, activated sludge process, mathematical modeling, optimization

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16269 A Simulation Model and Parametric Study of Triple-Effect Desalination Plant

Authors: Maha BenHamad, Ali Snoussi, Ammar Ben Brahim


A steady-state analysis of triple-effect thermal vapor compressor desalination unit was performed. A mathematical model based on mass, salinity and energy balances is developed. The purpose of this paper is to develop a connection between process simulator and process optimizer in order to study the influence of several operating variables on the performance and the produced water cost of the unit. A MATLAB program is used to solve the model equations, and Aspen HYSYS is used to model the plant. The model validity is examined against a commercial plant and showed a good agreement between industrial data and simulations results. Results show that the pressures of the last effect and the compressed vapor have an important influence on the produced cost, and the increase of the difference temperature in the condenser decreases the specific heat area about 22%.

Keywords: steady-state, triple effect, thermal vapor compressor, Matlab, Aspen Hysys

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16268 Concrete Recycling in Egypt for Construction Applications: A Technical and Financial Feasibility Model

Authors: Omar Farahat Hassanein, A. Samer Ezeldin


The construction industry is a very dynamic field. Every day new technologies and methods are developing to fasten the process and increase its efficiency. Hence, if a project uses fewer resources, it will be more efficient. This paper examines the recycling of concrete construction and demolition (C&D) waste to reuse it as aggregates in on-site applications for construction projects in Egypt and possibly in the Middle East. The study focuses on a stationary plant setting. The machinery set-up used in the plant is analyzed technically and financially. The findings are gathered and grouped to obtain a comprehensive cost-benefit financial model to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing and operating a concrete recycling plant. Furthermore, a detailed business plan including the time and hierarchy is proposed.

Keywords: construction wastes, recycling, sustainability, financial model, concrete recycling, concrete life cycle

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16267 Implementation of IWA-ASM1 Model for Simulating the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Beja by GPS-X 5.1

Authors: Fezzani Boubaker


The modified activated sludge model (ASM1 or Mantis) is a generic structured model and a common platform for dynamic simulation of varieties of aerobic processes for optimization and upgrading of existing plants and for new facilities design. In this study, the modified ASM1 included in the GPS-X software was used to simulate the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Beja treating domestic sewage mixed with baker‘s yeast factory effluent. The results of daily measurements and operating records were used to calibrate the model. A sensitivity and an automatic optimization analysis were conducted to determine the most sensitive and optimal parameters. The results indicated that the ASM1 model could simulate with good accuracy: the COD concentration of effluents from the WWTP of Beja for all months of the year 2012. In addition, it prevents the disruption observed at the output of the plant by injecting the baker‘s yeast factory effluent at high concentrations varied between 20 and 80 g/l.

Keywords: ASM1, activated sludge, baker’s yeast effluent, modelling, simulation, GPS-X 5.1 software

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
16266 Thermal Efficiency Analysis and Optimal of Feed Water Heater for Mae Moh Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Khomkrit Mongkhuntod, Chatchawal Chaichana, Atipoang Nuntaphan


Feed Water Heater is the important equipment for thermal power plant. The heating temperature from feed heating process is an impact to power plant efficiency or heat rate. Normally, the degradation of feed water heater that operated for a long time is effect to decrease plant efficiency or increase plant heat rate. For Mae Moh power plant, each unit operated more than 20 years. The degradation of the main equipment is effect of planting efficiency or heat rate. From the efficiency and heat rate analysis, Mae Moh power plant operated in high heat rate more than the commissioning period. Some of the equipment were replaced for improving plant efficiency and plant heat rates such as HP turbine and LP turbine that the result is increased plant efficiency by 5% and decrease plant heat rate by 1%. For the target of power generation plan that Mae Moh power plant must be operated more than 10 years. These work is focus on thermal efficiency analysis of feed water heater to compare with the commissioning data for find the way to improve the feed water heater efficiency that may effect to increase plant efficiency or decrease plant heat rate by use heat balance model simulation and economic value add (EVA) method to study the investment for replacing the new feed water heater and analyze how this project can stay above the break-even point to make the project decision.

Keywords: feed water heater, power plant efficiency, plant heat rate, thermal efficiency analysis

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16265 Integrated Process Modelling of a Thermophilic Biogas Plant

Authors: Obiora E. Anisiji, Jeremiah L. Chukwuneke, Chinonso H. Achebe, Paul C. Okolie


This work developed a mathematical model of a biogas plant from a mechanistic point of view, for urban area clean energy requirement. It aimed at integrating thermodynamics; which deals with the direction in which a process occurs and Biochemical kinetics; which gives the understanding of the rates of biochemical reaction. The mathematical formulation of the proposed gas plant follows the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, and further analysis were accomplished to develop an algorithm for evaluating the plant performance preferably in terms of daily production capacity. In addition, the capacity of the plant is equally estimated for a given cycle of operation and presented in time histories. A nominal 1500m3 biogas plant was studied characteristically and its performance efficiency evaluated. It was observed that the rate of biogas production is essentially a function of enthalpy ratio, the reactor temperature, pH, substrate concentration, rate of degradation of the biomass, and the accumulation of matter in the system due to bacteria growth. The results of this study conform to a very large extent with reported empirical data of some existing plant and further model validations were conducted in line with classical records found in literature.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas plant, biogas production, bio-reactor, energy, fermentation, rate of production, temperature, therm

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16264 Application of Nonlinear Model to Optimize the Coagulant Dose in Drinking Water Treatment

Authors: M. Derraz, M.Farhaoui


In the water treatment processes, the determination of the optimal dose of the coagulant is an issue of particular concern. Coagulant dosing is correlated to raw water quality which depends on some parameters (turbidity, ph, temperature, conductivity…). The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with a tool that enables to predict and replace, sometimes, the manual method (jar testing) used in this plant to predict the optimum coagulant dose. The model is constructed using actual process data for a water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).

Keywords: coagulation process, aluminum sulfate, model, coagulant dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
16263 Modelling and Simulation of a Commercial Thermophilic Biogas Plant

Authors: Jeremiah L. Chukwuneke, Obiora E. Anisiji, Chinonso H. Achebe, Paul C. Okolie


This paper developed a mathematical model of a commercial biogas plant for urban area clean energy requirement. It identified biodegradable waste materials like domestic/city refuse as economically viable alternative source of energy. The mathematical formulation of the proposed gas plant follows the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, and further analyses were accomplished to develop an algorithm for evaluating the plant performance preferably in terms of daily production capacity. In addition, the capacity of the plant is equally estimated for a given cycle of operation and presented in time histories. A nominal 1500 m3 power gas plant was studied characteristically and its performance efficiency evaluated. It was observed that the rate of bio gas production is essentially a function of the reactor temperature, pH, substrate concentration, rate of degradation of the biomass, and the accumulation of matter in the system due to bacteria growth. The results of this study conform to a very large extent with reported empirical data of some existing plant and further model validations were conducted in line with classical records found in literature.

Keywords: energy and mass conservation, specific growth rate, thermophilic bacteria, temperature, rate of bio gas production

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
16262 A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Aluminum Production Process

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Wael El Hasan, Mahmoud Alijla, Ammar Manawi, Abdelbaki Benamour


The production of aluminium alloys and ingots -starting from the processing of alumina to aluminium, and the final cast product- was studied using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The studied aluminium supply chain consisted of a carbon plant, a reduction plant, a casting plant, and a power plant. In the LCA model, the environmental loads of the different plants for the production of 1 ton of aluminium metal were investigated. The impact of the aluminium production was assessed in eight impact categories. The results showed that for all of the impact categories the power plant had the highest impact only in the cases of Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) the reduction plant had the highest impact and in the Marine Aquatic Eco-Toxicity Potential (MAETP) the carbon plant had the highest impact. Furthermore, the impact of the carbon plant and the reduction plant combined was almost the same as the impact of the power plant in the case of the Acidification Potential (AP). The carbon plant had a positive impact on the environment when it comes to the Eutrophication Potential (EP) due to the production of clean water in the process. The natural gas based power plant used in the case study had 8.4 times less negative impact on the environment when compared to the heavy fuel based power plant and 10.7 times less negative impact when compared to the hard coal based power plant.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, aluminium production, supply chain, ecological impacts

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16261 Technical and Economical Evaluation of Electricity Generation and Seawater Desalination Using Nuclear Energy

Authors: A. Hany A. Khater, G. M. Mostafa, M. R. Badawy


The techno-economic analysis of the nuclear desalination is a very important tool that enables studying of the mutual effects between the nuclear power plant and the coupled desalination plant under different operating conditions, and hence investigating the feasibility of safe and economical production of potable water. For this purpose, a comprehensive model for both technical and economic performance evaluation of the nuclear desalination has been prepared. The developed model has the capability to be used in performing a parametric study for the performance measuring parameters of the nuclear desalination system. Also a sensitivity analysis of varying important factors such as interest/discount rate, power plant availability, fossil fuel prices, purchased electricity price, nuclear fuel cost, and specific base cost for both power and water plant has been conducted.

Keywords: uclear desalination, PWR, MED, MED-TVC, MSF, RO

Procedia PDF Downloads 596
16260 Modeling and Benchmarking the Thermal Energy Performance of Palm Oil Production Plant

Authors: Mathias B. Michael, Esther T. Akinlabi, Tien-Chien Jen


Thermal energy consumption in palm oil production plant comprises mainly of steam, hot water and hot air. In most efficient plants, hot water and air are generated from the steam supply system. Research has shown that thermal energy utilize in palm oil production plants is about 70 percent of the total energy consumption of the plant. In order to manage the plants’ energy efficiently, the energy systems are modelled and optimized. This paper aimed to present the model of steam supply systems of a typical palm oil production plant in Ghana. The models include exergy and energy models of steam boiler, steam turbine and the palm oil mill. The paper further simulates the virtual plant model to obtain the thermal energy performance of the plant under study. The simulation results show that, under normal operating condition, the boiler energy performance is considerably below the expected level as a result of several factors including intermittent biomass fuel supply, significant moisture content of the biomass fuel and significant heat losses. The total thermal energy performance of the virtual plant is set as a baseline. The study finally recommends number of energy efficiency measures to improve the plant’s energy performance.

Keywords: palm biomass, steam supply, exergy and energy models, energy performance benchmark

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
16259 Technical Evaluation of Upgrading a Simple Gas Turbine Fired by Diesel to a Combined Cycle Power Plant in Kingdom of Suadi Arabistan Using WinSim Design II Software

Authors: Salman Obaidoon, Mohamed Hassan, Omer Bakather


As environmental regulations increase, the need for a clean and inexpensive energy is becoming necessary these days using an available raw material with high efficiency and low emissions of toxic gases. This paper presents a study on modifying a gas turbine power plant fired by diesel, which is located in Saudi Arabia in order to increase the efficiency and capacity of the station as well as decrease the rate of emissions. The studied power plant consists of 30 units with different capacities and total net power is 1470 MW. The study was conducted on unit number 25 (GT-25) which produces 72.3 MW with 29.5% efficiency. In the beginning, the unit was modeled and simulated by using WinSim Design II software. In this step, actual unit data were used in order to test the validity of the model. The net power and efficiency obtained from software were 76.4 MW and 32.2% respectively. A difference of about 6% was found in the simulated power plant compared to the actual station which means that the model is valid. After the validation of the model, the simple gas turbine power plant was converted to a combined cycle power plant (CCPP). In this case, the exhausted gas released from the gas turbine was introduced to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), which consists of three heat exchangers: an economizer, an evaporator and a superheater. In this proposed model, many scenarios were conducted in order to get the optimal operating conditions. The net power of CCPP was increased to 116.4 MW while the overall efficiency of the unit was reached to 49.02%, consuming the same amount of fuel for the gas turbine power plant. For the purpose of comparing the rate of emissions of carbon dioxide on each model. It was found that the rate of CO₂ emissions was decreased from 15.94 kg/s to 9.22 kg/s by using the combined cycle power model as a result of reducing of the amount of diesel from 5.08 kg/s to 2.94 kg/s needed to produce 76.5 MW. The results indicate that the rate of emissions of carbon dioxide was decreased by 42.133% in CCPP compared to the simple gas turbine power plant.

Keywords: combined cycle power plant, efficiency, heat recovery steam generator, simulation, validation, WinSim design II software

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16258 Plant Leaf Recognition Using Deep Learning

Authors: Aadhya Kaul, Gautam Manocha, Preeti Nagrath


Our environment comprises of a wide variety of plants that are similar to each other and sometimes the similarity between the plants makes the identification process tedious thus increasing the workload of the botanist all over the world. Now all the botanists cannot be accessible all the time for such laborious plant identification; therefore, there is an urge for a quick classification model. Also, along with the identification of the plants, it is also necessary to classify the plant as healthy or not as for a good lifestyle, humans require good food and this food comes from healthy plants. A large number of techniques have been applied to classify the plants as healthy or diseased in order to provide the solution. This paper proposes one such method known as anomaly detection using autoencoders using a set of collections of leaves. In this method, an autoencoder model is built using Keras and then the reconstruction of the original images of the leaves is done and the threshold loss is found in order to classify the plant leaves as healthy or diseased. A dataset of plant leaves is considered to judge the reconstructed performance by convolutional autoencoders and the average accuracy obtained is 71.55% for the purpose.

Keywords: convolutional autoencoder, anomaly detection, web application, FLASK

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16257 Hybrid Inventory Model Optimization under Uncertainties: A Case Study in a Manufacturing Plant

Authors: E. Benga, T. Tengen, A. Alugongo


Periodic and continuous inventory models are the two classical management tools used to handle inventories. These models have advantages and disadvantages. The implementation of both continuous (r,Q) inventory and periodic (R, S) inventory models in most manufacturing plants comes with higher cost. Such high inventory costs are due to the fact that most manufacturing plants are not flexible enough. Since demand and lead-time are two important variables of every inventory models, their effect on the flexibility of the manufacturing plant matter most. Unfortunately, these effects are not clearly understood by managers. The reason is that the decision parameters of the continuous (r, Q) inventory and periodic (R, S) inventory models are not designed to effectively deal with the issues of uncertainties such as poor manufacturing performances, delivery performance supplies performances. There is, therefore, a need to come up with a predictive and hybrid inventory model that can combine in some sense the feature of the aforementioned inventory models. A linear combination technique is used to hybridize both continuous (r, Q) inventory and periodic (R, S) inventory models. The behavior of such hybrid inventory model is described by a differential equation and then optimized. From the results obtained after simulation, the continuous (r, Q) inventory model is more effective than the periodic (R, S) inventory models in the short run, but this difference changes as time goes by. Because the hybrid inventory model is more cost effective than the continuous (r,Q) inventory and periodic (R, S) inventory models in long run, it should be implemented for strategic decisions.

Keywords: periodic inventory, continuous inventory, hybrid inventory, optimization, manufacturing plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
16256 Study and Simulation of a Dynamic System Using Digital Twin

Authors: J.P. Henriques, E. R. Neto, G. Almeida, G. Ribeiro, J.V. Coutinho, A.B. Lugli


Industry 4.0, or the Fourth Industrial Revolution, is transforming the relationship between people and machines. In this scenario, some technologies such as Cloud Computing, Internet of Things, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Additive Manufacturing, among others, are making industries and devices increasingly intelligent. One of the most powerful technologies of this new revolution is the Digital Twin, which allows the virtualization of a real system or process. In this context, the present paper addresses the linear and nonlinear dynamic study of a didactic level plant using Digital Twin. In the first part of the work, the level plant is identified at a fixed point of operation, BY using the existing method of least squares means. The linearized model is embedded in a Digital Twin using Automation Studio® from Famous Technologies. Finally, in order to validate the usage of the Digital Twin in the linearized study of the plant, the dynamic response of the real system is compared to the Digital Twin. Furthermore, in order to develop the nonlinear model on a Digital Twin, the didactic level plant is identified by using the method proposed by Hammerstein. Different steps are applied to the plant, and from the Hammerstein algorithm, the nonlinear model is obtained for all operating ranges of the plant. As for the linear approach, the nonlinear model is embedded in the Digital Twin, and the dynamic response is compared to the real system in different points of operation. Finally, yet importantly, from the practical results obtained, one can conclude that the usage of Digital Twin to study the dynamic systems is extremely useful in the industrial environment, taking into account that it is possible to develop and tune controllers BY using the virtual model of the real systems.

Keywords: industry 4.0, digital twin, system identification, linear and nonlinear models

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16255 Reliability-Centered Maintenance Application for the Development of Maintenance Strategy for a Cement Plant

Authors: Nabil Hameed Al-Farsi


This study’s main goal is to develop a model and a maintenance strategy for a cement factory called Arabian Cement Company, Rabigh Plant. The proposed work here depends on Reliability centric maintenance approach to develop a strategy and maintenance schedule that ensures increasing the reliability of the production system components, thus ensuring continuous productivity. The cost-effective maintenance of the plant’s dependability performance is the key goal of durability-based maintenance is. The cement plant consists of 7 important steps, so, developing a maintenance plan based on Reliability centric maintenance (RCM) method is made up of 10 steps accordingly starting from selecting units and data until performing and updating the model. The processing unit chosen for the analysis of this case is the calcinatory unit regarding model’s validation and the Travancore Titanium Products Ltd (TTP) using the claimed data history acquired from the maintenance department maintenance from the mentioned company. After applying the proposed model, the results of the maintenance simulation justified the plant's existing scheduled maintenance policy being reconsidered. Results represent the need for preventive maintenance for all Class A criticality equipment instead of the planned maintenance and the breakdown one for all other equipment depends on its criticality and an FMEA report. Consequently, the additional cost of preventive maintenance would be offset by the cost savings from breakdown maintenance for the remaining equipment.

Keywords: engineering, reliability, strategy, maintenance, failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMEA)

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16254 Hybrid Adaptive Modeling to Enhance Robustness of Real-Time Optimization

Authors: Hussain Syed Asad, Richard Kwok Kit Yuen, Gongsheng Huang


Real-time optimization has been considered an effective approach for improving energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. In model-based real-time optimization, model mismatches cannot be avoided. When model mismatches are significant, the performance of the real-time optimization will be impaired and hence the expected energy saving will be reduced. In this paper, the model mismatches for chiller plant on real-time optimization are considered. In the real-time optimization of the chiller plant, simplified semi-physical or grey box model of chiller is always used, which should be identified using available operation data. To overcome the model mismatches associated with the chiller model, hybrid Genetic Algorithms (HGAs) method is used for online real-time training of the chiller model. HGAs combines Genetic Algorithms (GAs) method (for global search) and traditional optimization method (i.e. faster and more efficient for local search) to avoid conventional hit and trial process of GAs. The identification of model parameters is synthesized as an optimization problem; and the objective function is the Least Square Error between the output from the model and the actual output from the chiller plant. A case study is used to illustrate the implementation of the proposed method. It has been shown that the proposed approach is able to provide reliability in decision making, enhance the robustness of the real-time optimization strategy and improve on energy performance.

Keywords: energy performance, hybrid adaptive modeling, hybrid genetic algorithms, real-time optimization, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning

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16253 Multiscale Modelling of Citrus Black Spot Transmission Dynamics along the Pre-Harvest Supply Chain

Authors: Muleya Nqobile, Winston Garira


We presented a compartmental deterministic multi-scale model which encompass internal plant defensive mechanism and pathogen interaction, then we consider nesting the model into the epidemiological model. The objective was to improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of within host and between host of Guignardia citricapa Kiely. The inflow of infected class was scaled down to individual level while the outflow was scaled up to average population level. Conceptual model and mathematical model were constructed to display a theoretical framework which can be used for predicting or identify disease pattern.

Keywords: epidemiological model, mathematical modelling, multi-scale modelling, immunological model

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16252 Study on Flexible Diaphragm In-Plane Model of Irregular Multi-Storey Industrial Plant

Authors: Cheng-Hao Jiang, Mu-Xuan Tao


The rigid diaphragm model may cause errors in the calculation of internal forces due to neglecting the in-plane deformation of the diaphragm. This paper thus studies the effects of different diaphragm in-plane models (including in-plane rigid model and in-plane flexible model) on the seismic performance of structures. Taking an actual industrial plant as an example, the seismic performance of the structure is predicted using different floor diaphragm models, and the analysis errors caused by different diaphragm in-plane models including deformation error and internal force error are calculated. Furthermore, the influence of the aspect ratio on the analysis errors is investigated. Finally, the code rationality is evaluated by assessing the analysis errors of the structure models whose floors were determined as rigid according to the code’s criterion. It is found that different floor models may cause great differences in the distribution of structural internal forces, and the current code may underestimate the influence of the floor in-plane effect.

Keywords: industrial plant, diaphragm, calculating error, code rationality

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