Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2682

Search results for: fitness testing

2682 General and Sport Specific Fitness Testing Practices: Global Developments

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Jed Smith, Lisa Chen, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg

Abstract:

This study compared general conditioning and sport specific fitness tests used in China, European Union (EU), Russia, and the United States. A constant content comparison method was used to identify the differences. Data from the study indicated that there were shared test components, including aerobic fitness, muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility. However, the testing components and items, as well as the cut-off values of the analyzed tests varied by country for the same gender and age. Culturally unique methods of testing and preparing for the tests were identified. Additionally, evidence revealed support for lifelong fitness and long-term sport participation through comprehensive fitness and wellness guidelines for different age groups and through new internet-based technologies.

Keywords: fitness testing, global trends, new developments, worldwide comparison

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
2681 Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning Relationship in Children

Authors: Comfort Mokgothu

Abstract:

This study investigated the relation between processing information and fitness level of active (fit) and sedentary (unfit) children drawn from rural and urban areas in Botswana. It was hypothesized that fit children would display faster simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction times (CRT) and movement times (SMT). 60, third grade children (7.0 – 9.0 years) were initially selected and based upon fitness testing, 45 participated in the study (15 each of fit urban, unfit urban, fit rural). All children completed anthropometric measures, skinfold testing and submaximal cycle ergometer testing. The cognitive testing included SRT, CRT, SMT and Choice Movement Time (CMT) and memory sequence length. Results indicated that the rural fit group exhibited faster SMT than the urban fit and unfit groups. For CRT, both fit groups were faster than the unfit group. Collectively, the study shows that the relationship that exists between physical fitness and cognitive function amongst the elderly can tentatively be extended to the pediatric population. Physical fitness could be a factor in the speed at which we process information, including decision making, even in children.

Keywords: decision making, fitness, information processing, reaction time, cognition movement time

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
2680 Physical Fitness Activities for Elementary School Pupils of Matacon Elementary School

Authors: Ariel B. Domagsang

Abstract:

This study dealt with the physical fitness activities for elementary school pupils of Matacon Elementary School, Polangui South District, Albay Division are presented in this chapter. Specifically, it looked into the pre-post test performance based on the Physical Fitness Test which were subjected to statistical significant test of difference including health- and skill-related improvement. Finally, it came up with physical fitness activities to improve the physical fitness performance of the pupils. The descriptive method through survey using questionnaire-checklist, unstructured interview and document(ary) analysis were utilized in this research. There were 171 grades five and six pupil participants in this undertaking.

Keywords: Matakon, fitness acitivities, elementary schools, physical fitness of pupils

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2679 Marketing Mix Factor Affecting Decision Making Behavior in Using Fitness Service

Authors: Siri-Orn Champatong

Abstract:

The objectives of this research were to study the attitude of service marketing mix that affected the decision making behavior to use fitness service in case of the fitness in Thailand. This study employed by survey research and questionnaire was used to collect the data from 400 of consumers who have used the service and interested in using the service in the future. The descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze data. The results revealed that the attitude toward overall marketing mix was at moderate level. For particulars, attitude toward product and service aspects were at good level, however, attitude toward price, place, promotion, people, physical evidence and service quality aspects were at moderate level. The hypothesis testing results showed that attitude toward each aspect affected word of mouth, however, attitude toward product and service, place, promotion, people and physical evidence affected tendency to use fitness service at .05 statistically significant level.

Keywords: decision making behavior, fitness, marketing mix, marketing service

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
2678 The Effect of Circuit Training on Aerobic Fitness and Body Fat Percentage

Authors: Presto Tri Sambodo, Suharjana, Galih Yoga Santiko

Abstract:

Having an ideal body shape healthy body are the desire of everyone, both young and old. The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) the effect of block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, (2) the effect of non-block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, and (3) differences in the effect of exercise on block and non-circuit training block against aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. This research is an experimental research with the prestest posttest design Two groups design. The population in this study were 57 members of fat loss at GOR UNY Fitness Center. The retrieval technique uses purposive random sampling with a sample of 20 people. The instruments with rockport test (1.6 KM) and body fat percentage with a scale of bioelectrical impedance analysis omron (BIA). So it can be concluded the circuit training between block and non-block has a significant effect on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. And for differences in the effect of circuit training between blocks and non-blocks, it is more influential on aerobic fitness than the percentage of body fat.

Keywords: circuit training, aerobic fitness, body fat percentage, healthy body

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
2677 The Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Performance among University Students

Authors: Bahar Ayberk

Abstract:

The study was conducted to determine the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance among university students. A far-famed saying ‘Sound mind in a sound body’ referring to the potential quality of increased physical fitness in the intellectual development of individuals seems to be endorsed. There is a growing body of literature the impact of physical fitness on academic achievement, especially in elementary and middle-school aged children. Even though there are numerous positive effects related to being physically active and physical fitness, their effect on academic achievement is not very much clear for university students. The subjects for this study included 25 students (20 female and 5 male) enrolled in Yeditepe University, Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Department of Health Science Faculty. All participants filled in a questionnaire about their socio-demographic status, general health status, and physical activity status. Health-related physical fitness testing, included several core components: 1) body composition evaluation (body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio), 2) cardiovascular endurance evaluation (queen’s college step test), 3) muscle strength and endurance evaluation (sit-up test, push-up test), 4) flexibility evaluation (sit and reach test). Academic performance evaluation was based on student’s Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA). The prevalence of the subjects participating physical activity was found to be 40% (n = 10). CGPA scores were significantly higher among students having regular physical activity when we compared the students having regular physical activities or not (respectively 2,71 ± 0.46, 3.02 ± 0.28 scores, p = 0.076). The result of the study also revealed that there is positive correlation relationship between sit-up, push up and academic performance points (CGPA) (r = 0.43, p ≤ 0.05 ) and negative correlation relationship between cardiovascular endurance parameter (Queen's College Step Test) and academic performance points (CGPA) (r = -0.47, p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the findings confirmed that physical fitness level was generally associated with academic performance in the study group. Cardiovascular endurance and muscle strength and endurance were associated with student’s CGPA, whereas body composition and flexibility were unrelated to CGPA.

Keywords: academic performance, health-related physical fitness, physical activity, physical fitness testing

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2676 Physical Fitness Evaluation of MARA Junior Science Collage Rugby Player

Authors: Mohamad Nizam Asmuni, Ahmad Naszeri Salleh, Yunus Adam, Azhar Yaacob, Mohd Hafiz Rosli, Muhamad Nazrul Hakim Abdullah

Abstract:

Athletes at the school should have good physical fitness to participate in tournament. Currently, there are no standards for the level of physical fitness for MARA Junior Science Collage (MJSC). Therefore, this research is to determine the level of physical fitness of rugby player at MJSC. A total of 62 samples (age 16.4 ± 0.75) among rugby players at MJSC were randomly selected to participate in this study. Height, weight, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI) and other physical testing are measured and recorded. The results showed that the average of body mass index (BMI) for rugby players is 23.4 ± 4:51. Body mass index (BMI) of rugby players can be categorized as pre-obese based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. BMI for rugby players was categorized as healthy based on body fat ranges for standard adults at NY Obesity Research Center. Bleep test results show that the average Bleep test is level 7 and shuttle 5; average VO2max was 37.94 L/min. Physical fitness and performance of rugby players at MJSC is lower compared to the rugby junior athletes in University Putra Malaysia (UPM). Therefore, physical fitness of rugby players must be improved to ensure the rugby players at MJSC could be performs better in the tournament.

Keywords: physical fitness, MARA junior science collage (MJSC), body mass index (BMI), bleep test

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
2675 Design Systems and the Need for a Usability Method: Assessing the Fitness of Components and Interaction Patterns in Design Systems Using Atmosphere Methodology

Authors: Patrik Johansson, Selina Mardh

Abstract:

The present study proposes a usability test method, Atmosphere, to assess the fitness of components and interaction patterns of design systems. The method covers the user’s perception of the components of the system, the efficiency of the logic of the interaction patterns, perceived ease of use as well as the user’s understanding of the intended outcome of interactions. These aspects are assessed by combining measures of first impression, visual affordance and expectancy. The method was applied to a design system developed for the design of an electronic health record system. The study was conducted involving 15 healthcare personnel. It could be concluded that the Atmosphere method provides tangible data that enable human-computer interaction practitioners to analyze and categorize components and patterns based on perceived usability, success rate of identifying interactive components and success rate of understanding components and interaction patterns intended outcome.

Keywords: atomic design, atmosphere methodology, design system, expectancy testing, first impression testing, usability testing, visual affordance testing

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2674 Communication About Health and Fitness in Media and Its Hidden Message About Objectification

Authors: Emiko Suzuki

Abstract:

Although fitness is defined as the body’s ability to respond to the demand of physical activity without undue fatigue in health science, in media oftentimes physical activity is presented as means to an attractive body rather than a fit and healthy one. Of all types of media, Instagram is becoming an increasingly persuasive source of information and advice on health and fitness, where individuals conceptualize what health and fitness mean for them. However, this user-generated and unregulated platform can be problematic, as it can communicate misleading information about health and fitness and possibly leading individuals to psychological problems such as eating disorders. In fact, previous research has shown that some messages that were posted with a tag that related to inspire others to do fitness, in fact, encouraged distancing the self from the internal needs of the body. For this reason, this present study aims to explore how health and fitness are communicated on Instagram by analyzing images and texts. A content analysis of images that were labeled with particular hashtags was performed, followed by a thematic analysis of texts from the same set of images. The result shows an interesting insight about messages about how health and fitness are communicated from companies through media, then digested and further shared among communities on Instagram. The study explores how the use of visual focused way of communicating health and fitness can lead to the dehumanization of human bodies.

Keywords: Instagram, fitness, dehumanization, body image, embodiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
2673 Physical Fitness Evaluation of Physical Education Teachers in Maktab Rendah Sains MARA (MRSM)

Authors: Mohamad Nizam Asmuni, Ahmad Naszeri Salleh, Yunus Adam, Azhar Yaacob, Mohd Hafiz Rosli, Muhamad Nazrul Hakim Abdullah

Abstract:

Physical Education teacher at the school should have good physical fitness to educate and guide students in the school. Currently, there are no standards for the level of physical fitness for teachers who teaches physical education at the school. Therefore, this research is to determine the level of physical fitness of teacher of Physical Education at Maktab Rendah Sains MARA (MRSM). A total of 28 samples (18 men and 10 women, age 33 ± 4.91), teachers of physical education at MRSM, were randomly selected to participate in this study. Height, weight, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI) and other physical testing are measured and recorded. The results showed that the average of body mass index (BMI) for teachers of Physical Education is 25.9 ± 4:57. Body mass index (BMI) of teachers can be categorized as pre-obese based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Body fat percentage for male (age; 34.3 ± 5.13) and female (age; 30.9 ± 3.81) teachers is 24.7% ± 6.54 and 30.6% ± 6.28, respectively. Male teachers were categorized as overfat, however, female teachers were categorized as healthy based on body fat ranges for standard adults at NY Obesity Research Center. Bleep test results show that the average Bleep test is level 4 and shuttle 2; average VO2max was 27.5 ± 5.94 L/min. Physical fitness and performance of physical education teachers at MRSM is much lower compared to the rugby junior athlete in University Putra Malaysia (UPM). Therefore, physical fitness of teachers must be improved to ensure the physical education classes at MRSM could be done better.

Keywords: physical fitness, BMI, bleep test, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
2672 A Usability Framework to Influence the Intention to Use Mobile Fitness Applications in South Africa

Authors: Bulelani Ngamntwini, Liezel Cilliers

Abstract:

South Africa has one of the highest prevalence of obese people on the African continent. Forty-six percent of the adults in South Africa are physically inactive. Fitness applications can be used to increase physical inactivity. However, the uptake of mobile fitness applications in South Africa has been found to be poor due to usability challenges with the technology. The study developed a usability framework to influence the intention to use mobile fitness applications in South Africa. The study made use of a positivistic approach to collect data. A questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 377 respondents that have used mobile fitness applications in the past. A response rate of 80.90% was recorded. To analyse the data, the Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationships between the various hypotheses. There are four usability factors, efficiency, effectiveness, satisfaction, and learnability, which contribute to the intention of users to make use of mobile fitness applications. The study, therefore, recommends that for a mobile fitness application to be successful, these four factors must be considered and incorporated by developers when designing the applications.

Keywords: obese, overweight, physical inactivity, mobile fitness application, usability factors

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2671 Analyzing Test Data Generation Techniques Using Evolutionary Algorithms

Authors: Arslan Ellahi, Syed Amjad Hussain

Abstract:

Software Testing is a vital process in software development life cycle. We can attain the quality of software after passing it through software testing phase. We have tried to find out automatic test data generation techniques that are a key research area of software testing to achieve test automation that can eventually decrease testing time. In this paper, we review some of the approaches presented in the literature which use evolutionary search based algorithms like Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), etc. to validate the test data generation process. We also look into the quality of test data generation which increases or decreases the efficiency of testing. We have proposed test data generation techniques for model-based testing. We have worked on tuning and fitness function of PSO algorithm.

Keywords: search based, evolutionary algorithm, particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithm, test data generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
2670 The Effect of Aerobics Course on Fitness Ability of the University Students

Authors: Hui-Fang Lee, Hsuan-Jung Hsieh, Wen-Chi Lu, Meng-Chu Liu

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to examine abnormal BMI students of Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology, implement teaching aerobics course through elementary and advanced curriculum design, dietary education and three-day dietary record, analyze participant fitness improvement, an 10-week course as well as pre-test and post-test were carried out to evaluate the effect of the aerobics course on the fitness ability. The actual participate elementary and advanced courses each of 40 people, with low participation deduction course unfinished fitness testing, access to elementary curriculum valid samples 35 (87.5%) people, advanced courses valid samples 38(95%) people, 16 students participated in two consecutive courses. The fitness activities included sit-bending, one-minute sit-ups, standing long jump, and three minutes to board the stage. Analysis and comparison to the average three-day dietary record difference, an independent samples t-test was conducted to analyze the differences in the four activities between pre-test and post-test. The results showed that the elementary course had significant effects on females’ sit-bending and one minute sit-ups, the females also had high fat intake in three-day dietary record. The advanced course had significant effects on males’ sit-bending and on females’ BMI, sit-bending and standing long jump, males and females in three-day dietary record carbohydrate intake slightly low, slightly higher protein and fat intake. In conclusion, aerobics course teaching, dietary education and three-day, dietary record implementation can significantly enhance the physical fitness indicators, and continued to participate in advanced courses better. In the practice of sport should be the future course planning elementary and advanced courses, while introducing dietary education, achieve concrete results in improving physical fitness.

Keywords: physical fitness, aerobics course, dietary education, three-day dietary record

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
2669 New Types of Fitness Equipment for Seniors-Based on Beginning Movement Load Training

Authors: Chia-Chi Chen, Tai-Sheng Huang

Abstract:

Ageing society has been spread around the world. The global population is not only ageing but also declining. The structure of population has changed, which has a significant impact on both the economies and industries. Thus, how to be a healthy senior citizen to relieve the burden to the family and society will be a popular issue. Although fitness equipment manufacturing industry has been mature, the ageing population is still increasing. Therefore, this study aims to design an innovative style of fitness equipment for senior citizens, based on BMLT presented by Dr. Koyama Hirofumi. The analysis of current fitness equipment on the market and the future trend will be applied in the study. With the coming of information age, senior citizens in the future are the users of information product for sure, and the new style of fitness equipment will be combined with information technology as well. Through this study, it is believed to design an innovative style of fitness equipment for seniors and help them live heartier and happier lives.

Keywords: aging society, BMLT (Beginning Movement Load Training), seniors, new style of fitness equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
2668 Impact of Organic Architecture in Building Design

Authors: Zainab Yahaya Suleiman

Abstract:

Physical fitness, as one of the most important keys to a healthy wellbeing, is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity. As a result, the fitness world is expanding every day. It is believed that a fitness centre is a place of healing and also the natural environment is vital to speedy recovery. The aim of this paper is to propose and designs a suitable location for a fitness centre in Batagarawa metropolis. Batagarawa city is enriched with four tertiary institutions with diverse commerce and culture but lacks the facility of a well-equipped fitness centre. The proposed fitness centre intends to be an organically sound centre that will make use of principles of organic architecture to create a new pleasant environment between man and his environments. Organic architecture is the science of designing a building within pleasant natural resources and features surrounding the environment. It is regarded as visual poetry and reinterpretation of nature’s principles; as well as embodies a settlement of person, place, and materials. Using organic architecture, the design was interlaced with the dynamic, organic and monumental features surrounding the environment. The city has inadequate/no facility that is considered organic where one can keep fit in a friendly, conducive and adequate location. Thus, the need for establishing a fitness centre to cater for this need cannot be over-emphasised. Conclusively, a fitness centre will be an added advantage to this fast growing centre of learning.

Keywords: organic architecture, fitness center, environment, natural resources, natural features, building design

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2667 Improvment Efficiency of Fitness Clubs Operation

Authors: E. V. Kuzmicheva

Abstract:

An attention is concentrated on a service quality estimation of sport services. A typical mathematical model was developed at the base of the «general economic theory of mass service» accounting pedagogical requirements of fitness services. Also it took into account a dependence of the club member number versus on a value of square of sport facilities. Final recommendations were applied to the fitness club resulted in some improvement of the quality sport service, an increasing of the revenue from club members and profit of clubs.

Keywords: fitness club, efficiency of operation, facilities, service quality, mass service

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2666 Task Scheduling on Parallel System Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Jasbir Singh Gill, Baljit Singh

Abstract:

Scheduling and mapping the application task graph on multiprocessor parallel systems is considered as the most crucial and critical NP-complete problem. Many genetic algorithms have been proposed to solve such problems. In this paper, two genetic approach based algorithms have been designed and developed with or without task duplication. The proposed algorithms work on two fitness functions. The first fitness i.e. task fitness is used to minimize the total finish time of the schedule (schedule length) while the second fitness function i.e. process fitness is concerned with allocating the tasks to the available highly efficient processor from the list of available processors (load balance). Proposed genetic-based algorithms have been experimentally implemented and evaluated with other state-of-art popular and widely used algorithms.

Keywords: parallel computing, task scheduling, task duplication, genetic algorithm

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2665 Health and Performance Fitness Assessment of Adolescents in Middle Income Schools in Lagos State

Authors: Onabajo Paul

Abstract:

The testing and assessment of physical fitness of school-aged adolescents in Nigeria has been going on for several decades. Originally, these tests strictly focused on identifying health and physical fitness status and comparing the results of adolescents with others. There is a considerable interest in health and performance fitness of adolescents in which results attained are compared with criteria representing positive health rather than simply on score comparisons with others. Despite the fact that physical education program is being studied in secondary schools and physical activities are encouraged, it is observed that regular assessment of students’ fitness level and health status seems to be scarce or not being done in these schools. The purpose of the study was to assess the heath and performance fitness of adolescents in middle-income schools in Lagos State. A total number of 150 students were selected using the simple random sampling technique. Participants were measured on hand grip strength, sit-up, pacer 20 meter shuttle run, standing long jump, weight and height. The data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics of means, standard deviations, and range and compared with fitness norms. It was concluded that majority 111(74.0%) of the adolescents achieved the healthy fitness zone, 33(22.0%) were very lean, and 6(4.0%) needed improvement according to the normative standard of Body Mass Index test. For muscular strength, majority 78(52.0%) were weak, 66(44.0%) were normal, and 6(4.0%) were strong according to the normative standard of hand-grip strength test. For aerobic capacity fitness, majority 93(62.0%) needed improvement and were at health risk, 36(24.0%) achieved healthy fitness zone, and 21(14.0%) needed improvement according to the normative standard of PACER test. Majority 48(32.0%) of the participants had good hip flexibility, 38(25.3%) had fair status, 27(18.0%) needed improvement, 24(16.0%) had very good hip flexibility status, and 13(8.7%) of the participants had excellent status. Majority 61(40.7%) had average muscular endurance status, 30(20.0%) had poor status, 29(18.3%) had good status, 28(18.7%) had fair muscular endurance status, and 2(1.3%) of the participants had excellent status according to the normative standard of sit-up test. Majority 52(34.7%) had low jump ability fitness, 47(31.3%) had marginal fitness, 31(20.7%) had good fitness, and 20(13.3%) had high performance fitness according to the normative standard of standing long jump test. Based on the findings, it was concluded that majority of the adolescents had better Body Mass Index status, and performed well in both hip flexibility and muscular endurance tests. Whereas majority of the adolescents performed poorly in aerobic capacity test, muscular strength and jump ability test. It was recommended that to enhance wellness, adolescents should be involved in physical activities and recreation lasting 30 minutes three times a week. Schools should engage in fitness program for students on regular basis at both senior and junior classes so as to develop good cardio-respiratory, muscular fitness and improve overall health of the students.

Keywords: adolescents, health-related fitness, performance-related fitness, physical fitness

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2664 The Effect of Core Training on Physical Fitness Characteristics in Male Volleyball Players

Authors: Sibel Karacaoglu, Fatma Ç. Kayapinar

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of the core training program on physical fitness characteristics and body composition in male volleyball players. 26 male university volleyball team players aged between 19 to 24 years who had no health problems and injury participated in the study. Subjects were divided into training (TG) and control groups (CG) as randomly. Data from twenty-one players who completed all training sessions were used for statistical analysis (TG,n=11; CG,n=10). A core training program was applied to the training group three days a week for 10 weeks. On the other hand, the control group did not receive any training. Before and after the 10-week training program, pre- and post-testing comprised of body composition measurements (weight, BMI, bioelectrical impedance analysis) and physical fitness measurements including flexibility (sit and reach test), muscle strength (back, leg and grip strength by dynamometer), muscle endurance (sit-ups and push-ups tests), power (one-legged jump and vertical jump tests), speed (20m sprint, 30m sprint) and balance tests (one-legged standing test) were performed. Changes of pre- and post- test values of the groups were determined by using dependent t test. According to the statistical analysis of data, no significant difference was found in terms of body composition in the both groups for pre- and post- test values. In the training group, all physical fitness measurements improved significantly after core training program (p<0.05) except 30m speed and handgrip strength (p>0.05). On the hand, only 20m speed test values improved after post-test period (p<0.05), but the other physical fitness tests values did not differ (p>0.05) between pre- and post- test measurement in the control group. The results of the study suggest that the core training program has positive effect on physical fitness characteristics in male volleyball players.

Keywords: body composition, core training, physical fitness, volleyball

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2663 The Development of Portable Application Software for Cardiovascular Fitness Norms of NDUM Cadet Students

Authors: Mohar Kassim, Hardy Azmir, Rahmat Sholihin Mokhtar

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to build portable application software to determine the level of cardiovascular fitness for cadet students of the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM). Fitness in the context of this study refers to physical fitness, specifically the cardiovascular endurance level test battery in the form of a 2.4 km run test for UPNM cadet students. This run test will be conducted to measure, test, and evaluate the performance of UPNM cadet students. All the run test results can be recorded electronically inside the portable software and will later be able to show the level of cardiovascular fitness of every cadet student according to age and gender. This software can also calculate the body mass index (BMI). Normative survey method will be used in this study through the analysis of the 2.4 km run test results. The run test scores will be classified in interval and ratio scales. Based on the findings of this study, portable application software will produced. The software will be able to directly assist the Military Training Academy (ALK), Malaysian Armed Forces (ATM), and other relevant agencies in determining the level of cardiovascular fitness among their staff. The test can be done electronically and on portable mode. The next step to be taken is to have this application patented.

Keywords: development, software, application, portable, fitness norms, cardiovascular endurance

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2662 Building Cardiovascular Fitness through Plyometric Training

Authors: Theresa N. Uzor

Abstract:

The word cardiovascular fitness is a topic of much interest to people of Nigeria, especially during this time, some heart diseases run in families. Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply-rich blood to the working muscle tissues. This type of fitness is a health-related component of physical fitness that is brought about by sustained physical activity such as plyometric training. Plyometric is a form of advanced fitness training that uses fast muscular contractions to improve power and speed in the sports performance by coaches and athletes. Plyometric training involves a rapid stretching of muscle (eccentric phase) immediately followed by a concentric or shortening action of the same muscle and connective tissue. However, the most basic example of true plyometric training is running and can be safe for a wide variety of populations. This paper focused on building cardiovascular health through Plyometric Training. The centre focus of the article is cardiovascular fitness and plyometric training with factors of cardiovascular fitness. Plyometric training at any age provides multiple benefits even beyond weight control and weight loss, decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes, and other diseases, among other benefits of plyometric training to cardiovascular fitness. Participation in plyometric training will increase metabolism of an individual, thereby burning more calories even when at rest and reduces weight is also among the benefits of plyometric training. Some guidelines were recommended for planning plyometric training programme to minimise the chance of injury. With plyometric training in Nigeria, fortune can change for good, especially now that there has been an increase in cardiovascular diseases within the society for great savings would be saved.

Keywords: aerobic, cardiovascular, concentric, stretch-shortening cycle, plyometric

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2661 Automated Java Testing: JUnit versus AspectJ

Authors: Manish Jain, Dinesh Gopalani

Abstract:

Growing dependency of mankind on software technology increases the need for thorough testing of the software applications and automated testing techniques that support testing activities. We have outlined our testing strategy for performing various types of automated testing of Java applications using AspectJ which has become the de-facto standard for Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP). Likewise JUnit, a unit testing framework is the most popular Java testing tool. In this paper, we have evaluated our proposed AOP approach for automated testing and JUnit on various parameters. First we have provided the similarity between the two approaches and then we have done a detailed comparison of the two testing techniques on factors like lines of testing code, learning curve, testing of private members etc. We established that our AOP testing approach using AspectJ has got several advantages and is thus particularly more effective than JUnit.

Keywords: aspect oriented programming, AspectJ, aspects, JU-nit, software testing

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2660 The Effect of Health Program on the Fitness Ability of Abnormal BMI University Students

Authors: Hui-Fang Lee, Meng-Chu Liu, Wen-Chi Lu, Hsuan-Jung Hsieh

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of health program on the fitness ability of abnormal BMI students of Ching-Yun University of Science and Technology. In order to achieve this purpose, self-regulation theory and dietary education were applied, and the effect of 10-week sports activities and three-day diet records on pre-test and post-test of fitness activities was analyzed. There were 40 original participants. Then, nine people who were with normal BMI, low attendance or unfinished fitness test were eliminated from this research. The valid samples were 31 (77.5%) participants. The fitness activities included sit-bending, one minute sit-up, standing long jump, and three-minute stage boarding. The averages of three-day diet records were compared, and differences of pre-test and post-test of the four fitness activities were analyzed with paired-samples t test. The results showed that there was a significant difference between pre-test and post of male students’ BMI and one minute sit-up. Females’ sit-bending and one minute sit-up had the same effect. Females had high fat intake in three-day diet records. The research showed that the use of self-regulation theory and dietary education, the implementation of sports activities and three-day diet records could significantly enhance the physical fitness indicators or effects. While in the course of sports, we should guide students to think about the gap between self-behavior and ideal behavior, then realize the main reasons and improving methods, and finally go towards the goal and improve the effect of physical fitness.

Keywords: self-regulation theory, dietary education, three-day diet records, physical fitness

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
2659 A Practical and Efficient Evaluation Function for 3D Model Based Vehicle Matching

Authors: Yuan Zheng

Abstract:

3D model-based vehicle matching provides a new way for vehicle recognition, localization and tracking. Its key is to construct an evaluation function, also called fitness function, to measure the degree of vehicle matching. The existing fitness functions often poorly perform when the clutter and occlusion exist in traffic scenarios. In this paper, we present a practical and efficient fitness function. Unlike the existing evaluation functions, the proposed fitness function is to study the vehicle matching problem from both local and global perspectives, which exploits the pixel gradient information as well as the silhouette information. In view of the discrepancy between 3D vehicle model and real vehicle, a weighting strategy is introduced to differently treat the fitting of the model’s wireframes. Additionally, a normalization operation for the model’s projection is performed to improve the accuracy of the matching. Experimental results on real traffic videos reveal that the proposed fitness function is efficient and robust to the cluttered background and partial occlusion.

Keywords: 3D-2D matching, fitness function, 3D vehicle model, local image gradient, silhouette information

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2658 Typology of Customers in Fitness Centres

Authors: Josef Voracek, Jan Sima

Abstract:

The main purpose of our study is to state the basic types of fitness customers. This paper aims to create a specific customer typology in today’s fitness centres in the region of Prague. Our suggested typology of Prague fitness centres customers is based on answers to the questions: What are the customers like, what are their preferences, and what kinds of services do they use more often in Prague fitness centres? These are the main aspects of the presented typology. A survey was conducted on a sample of 1004 respondents from 48 fitness centres, which ran during May 2012. We used questionnaires and latent class analysis for the assessment and interpretation of data. Gender was especially the main filter criterion. In the population, there were 522 males and 482 females. Data were analysed using the LCA method. We identified 6 segments of typical customers, of which three are male and three are female. Each segment is influenced primarily by the age of customers, from which we can develop further characteristics, such as education, income, marital status, etc. Male segments use the main workout area above all, whilst female segments use a much wider range of services offered, for example, group exercises, personal training, and cardio theatres. LCA method was found to be the most suitable tool, because cluster analysis is very limited in the forms and numbers of variables and indicators. Models of 3 latent classes for each gender are optimal, as it is demonstrated by entropy indices and matrices of the likelihood of the membership to the classes. A probable weak point of the survey is the selection of fitness centres, because of the market in Prague is really specific.

Keywords: customer, fitness, latent class analysis, typology

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2657 The Relationship between Body Composition and Physical Fitness of Primary School Learners from a Pre-Dominantly Rural Province in South Africa

Authors: Howard Gomwe, Eunice Seekoe, Philemon Lyoka, Chioneso Show Marange, Dennyford Mafa

Abstract:

There is arguably a lack of literature regarding body physical fitness and body composition amongst primary school learners in South Africa. For this reason, the study is aimed at investigating and accessing how body composition relates to physical fitness amongst primary school learners in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In order to achieve this, a school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out among 876 primary school learners aged 9 to 14 years. Body composition indicators were measured and/or calculated, whilst physical fitness was evaluated according to the EUROFIT fitness standards by a 20 m shuttle run, push-ups, sit and reach as well as sit-ups. Out of 876 participants, a total of 870 were retained. Of these, 351 (40.34%) were boys, and 519 (59.66%) were girls. The average age of learners was 11.04 ± 1.50 years, with boys having a significantly (p = 0.002) higher mean age (M = 11.24; SD = 1.51 years) as compared to that of girls (M = 10.91; SD = 1.48 years). The non-parametric Spearman Rho correlation coefficients revealed several significant and negative relationships between body composition measurements with physical fitness characteristics, which were stronger in girls than in boys. The findings advocate for policymakers and responsible authorities to initiate the development of policies and interventions targeted at encouraging physical activity and health promotion among primary school learners in South Africa, especially in girls.

Keywords: BMI, body composition, body fat, children, physical fitness, primary school

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2656 Theoretical Literature Review on Lack of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Its Effects on Children

Authors: E. Abdi

Abstract:

The purpose of this theoretical literature review is to study the relevant academic literature on lack of cardiorespiratory fitness and its effects on children. The total of thirty eight relevant documents were identified and considered for this review which nineteen of those were original research articles published in peer reviewed journals. The other nineteen articles were statistical documents. This document is structured to examine 4 effects in deficiency of cardiorespiratory fitness in school aged children: (a) obesity, (b) inadequate fitness level, (c) unhealthy life style, and (d) academics. The categories provide a theoretical framework for future studies. The results are broken down into 6 sections: (a) academics,( b) healthy life style, (c) low cost, (d) obesity, (e) Relative Age Effect (RAE), and (f) race/poverty. The study discusses that regular physical fitness assists children and adolescents to develop healthy physical activity behaviors which can be sustained throughout adult life. Conclusion suggests that advocacy for increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary behaviors at school and home are necessary.

Keywords: cardiorespiratory, endurance, physical activity, physical fitness

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2655 The Impact of the Fitness Center Ownership Structure on the Service Quality Perception in the Fitness in Serbia

Authors: Dragan Zivotic, Mirjana Ilic, Aleksandra Perovic, Predrag Gavrilovic

Abstract:

As with the provision of other services, the service quality perception is one of the key factors that the modern manager must pay attention to. Countries in which the state regulation is in transition also have specific features in providing fitness services. Identification of the dimensions in which the most significant different service quality perception between different types of fitness centers, enables managers to profile the offer according to the wishes and expectations of users. The aim of the paper was the comparison of the quality of services perception in the field of fitness in Serbia between three categories of fitness centers: the privately owned centers, the publicly owned centers, and the Public-private partnership centers. For this research 350 respondents of both genders (174 men and 176 women) were interviewed, aged between 18 and 68 years, being beneficiaries of fitness services for at least 1 year. Administered questionnaire with 100 items provided information about the 15 basic areas in which they expressed the service quality perception in the gym. The core sample was composed of 212 service users in private fitness centers, 69 service users in public fitness centers and 69 service users in the public-private partnership. Sub-samples were equal in representation of women and men, as well as by age and length of use of fitness services. The obtained results were subject of univariate analysis with the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric analysis of variance. Significant differences between the analyzed sub-samples were not found solely in the areas of rapid response and quality outcomes. In the multivariate model, the results were processed by backward stepwise discriminant analysis that extracted 3 areas that maximize the differences between sub-samples: material and technical basis, secondary facilities and coaches. By applying the classification function 93.87% of private centers services users, 62.32% of public centers services users and 85.51% of the public-private partnership centers users of services were correctly classified (total 86.00%). These results allow optimizing the allocation of the necessary resources in profiling offers of a fitness center in order to optimally adjust it to the user’s needs and expectations.

Keywords: fitness, quality perception, management, public ownership, private ownership, public-private partnership, discriminative analysis

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2654 The Visually Impaired Jogger: Enhancing Interaction and Fitness through the Fun Run

Authors: Zasha Romero, Joe Paschall

Abstract:

This poster will detail the importance of physical activity for the Visually Impaired students and how to promote inclusion in fitness through way of social gatherings and jogging. Furthermore, it will demonstrate how a Health & Kinesiology University Club cooperated in the journey of visually impaired students from participating in physical activity to completing their first 10K fun run. Purpose: The poster will detail how a university’s Health & Kinesiology Club developed a program to promote participation in fitness activities for visually impaired individuals. Also, it will detail their journey from participation in physical activity to completing a 10K fun run. Methods: In an effort to promote inclusion of all into physical activity, a university’s Health & Kinesiology Club developed a non-profit program to challenge visually impaired students to train and complete a 10 kilometer fun run in a South Texas town. The idea was to promote physical fitness through way of social interaction. In order to maintain runners interested, Club students developed training plans and strategies to be able to navigate in a race that was attended by over 18,000 runners. The idea was to promote interaction and life-long fitness amongst participants. Implications: This strategy was done in collaboration with different non-profit institutions to create awareness and provide opportunities for physical fitness, social interaction and life-long fitness skills associated with the jogging. The workshop provided collaboration amongst different entities and novel ideas to create opportunities for a typically underserved population.

Keywords: inclusion, participation, management, disability, fitness

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2653 Comparison of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses Following In-Water and On-Land Jump in Postmenopausal Women

Authors: Kuei-Yu Chien, Nai-Wen Kan, Wan-Chun Wu, Guo-Dong Ma, Shu-Chen Chen

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and lactate following continued high-intensity interval exercise in water and on land. The results of studies can be an exercise program design reference for health care and fitness professionals. Method: A total of 20 volunteer postmenopausal women was included in this study. The inclusion criteria were: duration of menopause > 1 year; and sedentary lifestyle, defined as engaging in moderate-intensity exercise less than three times per week, or less than 20 minutes per day. Participants need to visit experimental place three times. The first time visiting, body composition was performed and participant filled out the questionnaire. Participants were assigned randomly to the exercise environment (water or land) in second and third time visiting. Water exercise testing was under water of trochanter level. In continuing jump testing, each movement consisted 10-second maximum volunteer jump for two sets. 50% heart rate reserve dynamic resting (walking or running) for one minute was within each set. SBP, DBP, HR, RPE of whole body/thigh (RPEW/RPET) and lactate were performed at pre and post testing. HR, RPEW, and RPET were monitored after 1, 2, and 10 min of exercise testing. SBP and DBP were performed after 10 and 30 min of exercise testing. Results: The responses of SBP and DBP after exercise testing in water were higher than those on land. Lactate levels after exercise testing in water were lower than those on land. The responses of RPET were lower than those on land post exercise 1 and 2 minutes. The heart rate recovery in water was faster than those on land at post exercise 5 minutes. Conclusion: This study showed water interval jump exercise induces higher cardiovascular responses with lower RPE responses and lactate levels than on-land jumps exercise in postmenopausal women. Fatigue is one of the major reasons to obstruct exercise behavior. Jump exercise could enhance cardiorespiratory fitness, the lower-extremity power, strength, and bone mass. There are several health benefits to the middle to older adults. This study showed that water interval jumping could be more relaxed and not tried to reach the same land-based cardiorespiratory exercise intensity.

Keywords: interval exercise, power, recovery, fatigue

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