Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: petrol quadcopter

39 A Quadcopter Stability Analysis: A Case Study Using Simulation

Authors: C. S. Bianca Sabrina, N. Egidio Raimundo, L. Alexandre Baratella, C. H. João Paulo


This paper aims to present a study, with the theoretical concepts and applications of the Quadcopter, using the MATLAB simulator. In order to use this tool, the study of the stability of the drone through a Proportional - Integral - Derivative (PID) controller will be presented. After the stability study, some tests are done on the simulator and its results will be presented. From the mathematical model, it is possible to find the Newton-Euler angles, so that it is possible to stabilize the quadcopter in a certain position in the air, starting from the ground. In order to understand the impact of the controllers gain values on the stabilization of the Euler-Newton angles, three conditions will be tested with different controller gain values.

Keywords: controllers, drones, quadcopter, stability

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38 Feasibility Study of the Quadcopter Propeller Vibrations for the Energy Production

Authors: Nneka Osuchukwu, Leonid Shpanin


The concept of converting the kinetic energy of quadcopter propellers into electrical energy is considered in this contribution following the feasibility study of the propeller vibrations, theoretical energy conversion, and simulation techniques. Analysis of the propeller vibration performance is presented via graphical representation of calculated and simulated parameters, in order to demonstrate the possibility of recovering the harvested energy from the propeller vibrations of the quadcopter while the quadcopter is in operation. Consideration of using piezoelectric materials in such concept, converting the mechanical energy of the propeller into the electrical energy, is given. Photographic evidence of the propeller in operation is presented and discussed together with experimental results to validate the theoretical concept.

Keywords: energy harvesting, piezoelectric material, propeller vibration, unmanned aerial vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
37 Reliability Analysis of a Fuel Supply System in Automobile Engine

Authors: Chitaranjan Sharma


The present paper deals with the analysis of a fuel supply system in an automobile engine of a four wheeler which is having both the option of fuel i.e. PETROL and CNG. Since CNG is cheaper than petrol so the priority is given to consume CNG as compared to petrol. An automatic switch is used to start petrol supply at the time of failure of CNG supply. Using regenerative point technique with Markov renewal process, the reliability characteristics which are useful to system designers are obtained.

Keywords: reliability, redundancy, repair time, transition, probability, regenerative points, markov renewal, process

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36 An Image Based Visual Servoing (IBVS) Approach Using a Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for Quadcopters

Authors: C. Gebauer, C. Henke, R. Vossen


Within the Mohamed Bin Zayed International Robotics Challenge (MBZIRC) 2020, a team of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is used to capture intruder drones by physical interaction. The challenge is motivated by UAV safety. The purpose of this work is to investigate the agility of a quadcopter being controlled visually. The aim is to track and follow a highly dynamic target, e.g., an intruder quadcopter. The following is realized in close range and the opponent has a velocity of up to 10 m/s. Additional limitations are given by the hardware itself, where only monocular vision is present, and no additional knowledge about the targets state is available. An image based visual servoing (IBVS) approach is applied in combination with a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). The IBVS is integrated into the LQR and an optimal trajectory is computed within the projected three-dimensional image-space. The approach has been evaluated on real quadcopter systems in different flight scenarios to demonstrate the system's stability.

Keywords: image based visual servoing, quadcopter, dynamic object tracking, linear-quadratic regulator

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35 Dynamic Modeling of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Petro-Engine

Authors: Khaled A. Alsaif, Mosaad A. Foda


In the following article, we present the dynamic simulation of an unmanned aerial vehicle with main fuel engine in the middle to carry most of the weight. This configuration will increase the flight time of the vehicle for a given payload size as opposed to the traditional quad rotor, where only DC motors are used. A parametric study to investigate the effect of the propellers ratio (main rotor propeller diameter to secondary rotor propeller diameter), the angle of incidence of the main rotor and the twist angle of the main rotor blades on selected performance criteria is presented.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), quadrotor, petrol quadcopter, flying robot

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34 The Impact of Ultrasonicator on the Vertical and Horizontal Mixing Profile of Petrol-Bioethanol

Authors: D. Nkazi, S. E. Iyuke, J. Mulopo


Increasing global energy demand as well as air quality concerns have in recent years led to the search for alternative clean fuels to replace fossil fuels. One such alternative is the blending of petrol with ethanol, which has numerous advantages such ethanol’s ability to act as oxygenate thus reducing the carbon monoxide emissions from the exhaust of internal combustion engines of vehicles. However, the hygroscopic nature of ethanol is a major concern in obtaining a perfectly homogenized petrol-ethanol fuel. This problem has led to the study of ways of homogenizing the petrol-ethanol mixtures. During the blending process, volumes fraction of ethanol and petrol were studied with respect to the depth within the storage container to confirm homogenization of the blend and time of storage. The results reveal that the density of the mixture was constant. The binodal curve of the ternary diagram shows an increase of homogeneous region, indicating an improved of interaction between water and petrol. The concentration distribution in the reactor showed proof of cavitation formation since in both directions, the variation of concentration with both time and distance was found to be oscillatory. On comparing the profiles in both directions, the concentration gradient, diffusion flux, and energy and diffusion rates were found to be higher in the vertical direction compared to the horizontal direction. It was therefore concluded that ultrasonication creates cavitation in the mixture which enhances mass transfer and mixing of ethanol and petrol. The horizontal direction was found to be the diffusion rate limiting step which proposed that the blender should have a larger height to diameter ratio. It is, however, recommended that further studies be done on the rate-limiting step so as to have actual dimensions of the reactor.

Keywords: ultrasonication, petrol, ethanol, concentration

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33 Control of a Quadcopter Using Genetic Algorithm Methods

Authors: Mostafa Mjahed


This paper concerns the control of a nonlinear system using two different methods, reference model and genetic algorithm. The quadcopter is a nonlinear unstable system, which is a part of aerial robots. It is constituted by four rotors placed at the end of a cross. The center of this cross is occupied by the control circuit. Its motions are governed by six degrees of freedom: three rotations around 3 axes (roll, pitch and yaw) and the three spatial translations. The control of such system is complex, because of nonlinearity of its dynamic representation and the number of parameters, which it involves. Numerous studies have been developed to model and stabilize such systems. The classical PID and LQ correction methods are widely used. If the latter represent the advantage to be simple because they are linear, they reveal the drawback to require the presence of a linear model to synthesize. It also implies the complexity of the established laws of command because the latter must be widened on all the domain of flight of these quadcopter. Note that, if the classical design methods are widely used to control aeronautical systems, the Artificial Intelligence methods as genetic algorithms technique receives little attention. In this paper, we suggest comparing two PID design methods. Firstly, the parameters of the PID are calculated according to the reference model. In a second phase, these parameters are established using genetic algorithms. By reference model, we mean that the corrected system behaves according to a reference system, imposed by some specifications: settling time, zero overshoot etc. Inspired from the natural evolution of Darwin's theory advocating the survival of the best, John Holland developed this evolutionary algorithm. Genetic algorithm (GA) possesses three basic operators: selection, crossover and mutation. We start iterations with an initial population. Each member of this population is evaluated through a fitness function. Our purpose is to correct the behavior of the quadcopter around three axes (roll, pitch and yaw) with 3 PD controllers. For the altitude, we adopt a PID controller.

Keywords: quadcopter, genetic algorithm, PID, fitness, model, control, nonlinear system

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32 Determination of Yield and Some Quality Characteristics of Winter Canola (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L.) Cultivars

Authors: B. Coşgun, O. Ozturk


Canola is a specific edible type of rapeseed, developed in the 1970s, which contains about 40 percent oil. This research was carried out to determine the yield and some quality characteristics of some winter canola cultivars during the 2010-2011 vegetation period in Central Anatolia of Turkey. In this research; Oase, Dante, Californium, Excalibur, Elvis, ES Hydromel, Licord, Orkan, Vectra, Nelson, Champlain and NK Petrol winter canola varieties were used as material. The field experiment was set up in a “Randomized Complete Block Design” with three replications on 21 September 2010. In this research; seed yield, oil content, protein content, oil yield and protein yield were examined. As a result of this research; seed yield, oil content, oil yield and protein yield (except protein content) were significant differences between the cultivars. The highest seed yield (6348 kg ha-1) was obtained from the NK Petrol, while the lowest seed yield (3949 kg ha-1) was determined from the Champlain cultivar was obtained. The highest oil content (46.73%) was observed from Oase and the lowest value was obtained from Vectra (41.87%) cultivar. The highest oil yield (2950 kg ha-1) was determined from NK Petrol while the least value (1681 kg ha-1) was determined from Champlain cultivar. The highest protein yield (1539.3 kg ha-1) was obtained from NK Petrol and the lowest protein yield (976.5 kg ha-1) was obtained from Champlain cultivar. The main purpose of the cultivation of oil crops, to increase the yield of oil per unit area. According the result of this research, NK Petrol cultivar which ranks first with regard to both seed yield and oil yield between cultivars as the most suitable winter canola cultivar of local conditions.

Keywords: rapeseed, cultivar, seed yield, crude oil ratio, crude protein ratio, crude oil yield, crude protein yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
31 Thermal Cracking Approach Investigation to Improve Biodiesel Properties

Authors: Roghaieh Parvizsedghy, Seyyed Mojtaba Sadrameli


Biodiesel as an alternative diesel fuel is steadily gaining more attention and significance. However, there are some drawbacks while using biodiesel regarding its properties that requires it to be blended with petrol based diesel and/or additives to improve the fuel characteristics. This study analyses thermal cracking as an alternative technology to improve biodiesel characteristics in which, FAME based biodiesel produced by transesterification of castor oil is fed into a continuous thermal cracking reactor at temperatures range of 450-500°C and flowrate range of 20-40 g/hr. Experiments designed by response surface methodology and subsequent statistical studies show that temperature and feed flowrate significantly affect the products yield. Response surfaces were used to study the impact of temperature and flowrate on the product properties. After each experiment, the produced crude bio-oil was distilled and diesel cut was separated. As shorter chain molecules are produced through thermal cracking, the distillation curve of the diesel cut fitted more with petrol based diesel curve in comparison to the biodiesel. Moreover, the produced diesel cut properties adequately pose within property ranges defined by the related standard of petrol based diesel. Cold flow properties, high heating value as the main drawbacks of the biodiesel are improved by this technology. Thermal cracking decreases kinematic viscosity, Flash point and cetane number.

Keywords: biodiesel, castor oil, fuel properties, thermal cracking

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30 Application of Exhaust Gas-Air Brake System in Petrol and Diesel Engine

Authors: Gurlal Singh, Rupinder Singh


The possible role of the engine brake is to convert a power-producing engine into a power-absorbing retarding mechanism. In this braking system, exhaust gas (EG) from the internal combustion (IC) engines is used to operate air brake in the automobiles. Airbrake is most used braking system in vehicles. In the proposed model, instead of air brake, EG is used to operate the brake lever and stored in a specially designed tank. This pressure of EG is used to operate the pneumatic cylinder and brake lever. Filters used to remove the impurities from the EG, then it is allowed to store in the tank. Pressure relief valve is used to achieve a specific pressure in the tank and helps to avoid further damage to the tank as well as in an engine. The petrol engine is used in the proposed EG braking system. The petrol engine is chosen initially because it produces less impurity in the exhaust than diesel engines. Moreover, exhaust brake system (EBS) for the Diesel engines is composed of gate valve, pneumatic cylinder and exhaust brake valve with the on-off solenoid. Exhaust brake valve which is core component of EBS should have characteristics such as high reliability and long life. In a diesel engine, there is butterfly valve in exhaust manifold connected with solenoid switch which is used to on and off the butterfly valve. When butterfly valve closed partially, then the pressure starts built up inside the exhaust manifold and cylinder that actually resist the movement of piston leads to crankshaft getting stops resulting stopping of the flywheel. It creates breaking effect in a diesel engine. The exhaust brake is a supplementary breaking system to the service brake. It is noted that exhaust brake increased 2-3 fold the life of service brake may be due to the creation of negative torque which retards the speed of the engine. More study may also be warranted for the best suitable design of exhaust brake in a diesel engine.

Keywords: exhaust gas, automobiles, solenoid, airbrake

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29 Production of Alcohol from Sweet Potato

Authors: Abhishek S. Shete


There is nothing new in the use of alcohol made from root crops as a motor fuel. Alcohol is an excellent alternative motor fuel for petrol engines. The reason alcohol fuel has not been fully exploited is that, up until now; gasoline has been cheap, available, and easy to produce. However, nowadays, crude oil is getting scarce, and the historic price difference between alcohol and gasoline is getting narrower. Alcohol fuel can be an important part of the solution for Rwanda because there is tremendous scope to use bulk production of sweet potato into alcohol. The total sweet potato production in both seasons is found to be 1.607.296 tones/year. The average productivity of sweet potato in the country irrespective of seasons is found to be 8.9 tones/ha. If all of the available agricultural surplus were converted to ethanol, alcohol would supply less than 5% of motor fuel needs.

Keywords: root crops, sweet potato, surplus, alcohol

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28 Smart Speed Bump

Authors: Mohammad Rahmani Rezaiyeh, Mojtaba Rahmani Rezaiyeh, Mehrdad Rahmani Rezaiyeh


Smart speed bump is a new invention and I am invented it. Smart speed bump is a system that can change the position of speed bumps either active or passive in necessary situations. The basic system of smart speed bumps is based on a robotic system which includes mechanic, electronic and artificial intelligence. The smart speed bump is capable of smart decision making and can change its position by anticipating the peak of terrific hours. It can be noted to the advantages of this system such as preventing the waste of petrol while crossing speed bumps, traffic management, accelerating, flowing and securing traffic, reducing accidents and judicial records.

Keywords: invention, smart, robotic system, speed bump, traffic, management

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
27 Finite State Markov Chain Model of Pollutants from Service Stations

Authors: Amina Boukelkoul, Rahil Boukelkoul, Leila Maachia


The cumulative vapors emitted from the service stations may represent a hazard to the environment and the population. Besides fuel spill and their penetration into deep soil layers are the main contributors to soil and ground-water contamination in the vicinity of the petrol stations. The amount of the effluents from the service stations depends on strategy of maintenance and the policy adopted by the management to reduce the pollution. One key of the proposed approach is the idea of managing the effluents from the service stations which can be captured via use of a finite state Markov chain. Such a model can be embedded within a probabilistic operation and maintenance simulation reflecting the action to be done. In this paper, an approach of estimating a probabilistic percentage of the amount of emitted pollutants is presented. The finite state Markov model is used for decision problems with number of determined periods (life cycle) to predict the amount according to various options of operation.

Keywords: environment, markov modeling, pollution, service station

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26 Solar Seawater Desalination Still with Seawater Preheater Using Efficient Heat Transfer Oil: Numerical Investigation and Data Verification

Authors: Ahmed N. Shmroukh, Gamal Tag Abdel-Jaber, Rashed D. Aldughpassi


The feasibility of improving the performance of the proposed solar still unit which operated in very hot climate is investigated numerically and verified with experimental data. This solar desalination unit with proposed auxiliary device as seawater preheating system using petrol based textherm oil was used to produce pure fresh water from seawater. The effective evaporation area of basin is about 1 m2. The unit was tested in two main operation modes which are normal and with seawater preheating system. The results showed that, there is good agreement between the theoretical data and the experimental data; this means that the numerical model can be accurately dependable for predicting the proposed solar still performance and design parameters. The results also showed that the fresh water productivity of the solar still in the modified preheating case which is higher than normal case, leads to an increase in productivity of 42%.

Keywords: improving productivity, seawater desalination, solar stills, theoretical model

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25 Object Recognition System Operating from Different Type Vehicles Using Raspberry and OpenCV

Authors: Maria Pavlova


In our days, it is possible to put the camera on different vehicles like quadcopter, train, airplane and etc. The camera also can be the input sensor in many different systems. That means the object recognition like non separate part of monitoring control can be key part of the most intelligent systems. The aim of this paper is to focus of the object recognition process during vehicles movement. During the vehicle’s movement the camera takes pictures from the environment without storage in Data Base. In case the camera detects a special object (for example human or animal), the system saves the picture and sends it to the work station in real time. This functionality will be very useful in emergency or security situations where is necessary to find a specific object. In another application, the camera can be mounted on crossroad where do not have many people and if one or more persons come on the road, the traffic lights became the green and they can cross the road. In this papers is presented the system has solved the aforementioned problems. It is presented architecture of the object recognition system includes the camera, Raspberry platform, GPS system, neural network, software and Data Base. The camera in the system takes the pictures. The object recognition is done in real time using the OpenCV library and Raspberry microcontroller. An additional feature of this library is the ability to display the GPS coordinates of the captured objects position. The results from this processes will be sent to remote station. So, in this case, we can know the location of the specific object. By neural network, we can learn the module to solve the problems using incoming data and to be part in bigger intelligent system. The present paper focuses on the design and integration of the image recognition like a part of smart systems.

Keywords: camera, object recognition, OpenCV, Raspberry

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24 Investments in Petroleum Industry Abnormally Normal: A Case Study Based on Petroleum and Natural Gas Companies in India

Authors: Radhika Ramanchi


The oil market during 2014-2015 in India with large price fluctuations is very confusing to individual investor. The drop in oil prices supported stocks of some oil marketing companies (OMCs) like Bharat Petroleum Corporation, Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) and Indian Oil Corporation etc their shares rose 84.74%, 128.63% and 59.16%, respectively. Lower oil prices, and lower current account, a smaller subsidy burden are the reasons for outperformance. On the other hand, lower crude prices giving downward pressure on upstream companies like Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd (ONGC) and Reliance Petroleum (RIL) Oil India Ltd (OIL). Not having clarity on a subsidy sharing mechanism is the reason for downward trend on these stocks. Shares of ONGC and RIL have underperformed so far in 2015. When the oil price fall profits of the companies will effect, generate less money and may cut their dividends in Long run. In this situation this paper objective is to study investment strategies in oil marketing companies, by applying CAPM and Security Market Line.

Keywords: petrol industry, price fluctuations, sharp single index model, SML, Markowitz model

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23 Composite Forecasts Accuracy for Automobile Sales in Thailand

Authors: Watchareeporn Chaimongkol


In this paper, we compare the statistical measures accuracy of composite forecasting model to estimate automobile customer demand in Thailand. A modified simple exponential smoothing and autoregressive integrate moving average (ARIMA) forecasting model is built to estimate customer demand of passenger cars, instead of using information of historical sales data. Our model takes into account special characteristic of the Thai automobile market such as sales promotion, advertising and publicity, petrol price, and interest rate for loan. We evaluate our forecasting model by comparing forecasts with actual data using six accuracy measurements, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), geometric mean absolute error (GMAE), symmetric mean absolute percentage error (sMAPE), mean absolute scaled error (MASE), median relative absolute error (MdRAE), and geometric mean relative absolute error (GMRAE).

Keywords: composite forecasting, simple exponential smoothing model, autoregressive integrate moving average model selection, accuracy measurements

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22 Isolation and Identification of Biosurfactant Producing Microorganism for Bioaugmentation

Authors: Karthick Gopalan, Selvamohan Thankiah


Biosurfactants are lipid compounds produced by microbes, which are amphipathic molecules consisting of hydrophophic and hydrophilic domains. In the present investigation, ten bacterial strains were isolated from petroleum oil contaminated sites near petrol bunk. Oil collapsing test, haemolytic activity were used as a criteria for primary isolation of biosurfactant producing bacteria. In this study, all the bacterial strains gave positive results. Among the ten strains, two were observed as good biosurfactant producers, they utilize the diesel as a sole carbon source. Optimization of biosurfactant producing bacteria isolated from petroleum oil contaminated sites was carried out using different parameters such as, temperature (20ºC, 25ºC, 30ºC, 37ºC and 45ºC), pH (5,6,7,8 & 9) and nitrogen sources (ammonium chloride, ammonium carbonate and sodium nitrate). Biosurfactants produced by bacteria were extracted, dried and quantified. As a result of optimization of parameters the suitable values for the production of more amount of biosurfactant by the isolated bacterial species was observed as 30ºC (0.543 gm/lt) in the pH 7 (0.537 gm/lt) with ammonium nitrate (0.431 gm/lt) as sole carbon source.

Keywords: isolation and identification, biosurfactant, microorganism, bioaugmentation

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21 Evaluation of Gasoline Engine Piston with Various Coating Materials Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Nouby Ghazaly, Gamal Fouad, Ali Abd-El-Tawwab, K. A. Abd El-Gwwad


The purpose of this paper is to examine the piston stress distribution using several thicknesses of the coating materials to achieve higher gasoline engine performance. First of all, finite element structure analysis is used to uncoated petrol piston made of aluminum alloy. Then, steel and cast-iron piston materials are conducted and compared with the aluminum piston. After that, investigation of four coating materials namely, yttria-stabilized zirconia, magnesia-stabilized zirconia, alumina, and mullite are studied for each piston materials. Next, influence of various thickness coating layers on the structure stresses of the top surfaces is examined. Comparison between simulated results for aluminum, steel, and cast-iron materials is reported. Moreover, the influences of different coating thickness on the Von Mises stresses of four coating materials are investigated. From the simulation results, it can report that the maximum Von Mises stresses and deformations for the piston materials are decreasing with increasing the coating thickness for magnesia-stabilized zirconia, yttria-stabilized zirconia, mullite and alumina coated materials.

Keywords: structure analysis, aluminum piston, MgZrO₃, YTZ, mullite and alumina

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20 Experimental Investigation on Variable Compression Ratio of Single Cylinder Four Stroke SI Engine Working under Ethanol – Gasoline Blend

Authors: B. V. Lande, Suhas Kongare


Fuel blend of alcohol and conventional hydrocarbon fuels for a spark ignition engine can increase the fuel octane rating and the power for a given engine displacement and compression ratio. The greatest advantage of ethanol as a fuel in SI Engines is its high octane number. The efficiency of an SI engine that is the ability to convert fuel energy to mechanical energy, mainly depends on the compression ratio. It is, therefore, an advantage to increase this as much as possible. The major restraint is the fuel octane number – high octane fuels can be used with high compression ratios, thus yielding higher energy efficiency. This work investigates to suggest suitable ethanol gasoline blend and compression ratio for single cylinder four strokes SI Engine on the basis of performance and exhaust emissions. A single cylinder four stroke SI Engine was tested with different blend of ethanol – gasoline like E5 (5% ethanol +95% gasoline), E10 (10% ethanol + 90% gasoline) E15 (15% ethanol + 85% petrol) and E20 ( 20% + 80% gasoline) with Variable compression ratio. The performance parameter evaluated BSFC, Brake thermal efficiency and also exhaust emission CO2, Co & HC%. The result showed that higher compression ratio improved engine Performance and reduction in exhaust emission.

Keywords: blend, compression ratio, ethanol, performance, blend

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19 Vehicular Emission Estimation of Islamabad by Using Copert-5 Model

Authors: Muhammad Jahanzaib, Muhammad Z. A. Khan, Junaid Khayyam


Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan with the population of 1.365 million people and with a vehicular fleet size of 0.75 million. The vehicular fleet size is growing annually by the rate of 11%. Vehicular emissions are major source of Black carbon (BC). In developing countries like Pakistan, most of the vehicles consume conventional fuels like Petrol, Diesel, and CNG. These fuels are the major emitters of pollutants like CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, VOCs, and particulate matter (PM10). Carbon dioxide and methane are the leading contributor to the global warming with a global share of 9-26% and 4-9% respectively. NOx is the precursor of nitrates which ultimately form aerosols that are noxious to human health. In this study, COPERT (Computer program to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport) was used for vehicular emission estimation in Islamabad. COPERT is a windows based program which is developed for the calculation of emissions from the road transport sector. The emissions were calculated for the year of 2016 include pollutants like CO, NOx, VOC, and PM and energy consumption. The different variable was input to the model for emission estimation including meteorological parameters, average vehicular trip length and respective time duration, fleet configuration, activity data, degradation factor, and fuel effect. The estimated emissions for CO, CH4, CO2, NOx, and PM10 were found to be 9814.2, 44.9, 279196.7, 3744.2 and 304.5 tons respectively.

Keywords: COPERT Model, emission estimation, PM10, vehicular emission

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18 Valuation of Cultural Heritage: A Hedonic Pricing Analysis of Housing via GIS-based Data

Authors: Dai-Ling Li, Jung-Fa Cheng, Min-Lang Huang, Yun-Yao Chi


The hedonic pricing model has been popularly applied to describe the economic value of environmental amenities in urban housing, but the results for cultural heritage variables remain relatively ambiguous. In this paper, integrated variables extending by GIS-based data and an existing typology of communities used to examine how cultural heritage and environmental amenities and disamenities affect housing prices across urban communities in Tainan, Taiwan. The developed models suggest that, although a sophisticated variable for central services is selected, the centrality of location is not fully controlled in the price models and thus picked up by correlated peripheral and central amenities such as cultural heritage, open space or parks. Analysis of these correlations permits us to qualify results and present a revised set of relatively reliable estimates. Positive effects on housing prices are identified for views, various types of recreational infrastructure and vicinity of nationally cultural sites and significant landscapes. Negative effects are found for several disamenities including wasteyards, refuse incinerators, petrol stations and industries. The results suggest that systematic hypothesis testing and reporting of correlations may contribute to consistent explanatory patterns in hedonic pricing estimates for cultural heritage and landscape amenities in urban.

Keywords: hedonic pricing model, cultural heritage, landscape amenities, housing

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17 Biomass and Lipid Enhancement by Response Surface Methodology in High Lipid Accumulating Indigenous Strain Rhodococcus opacus and Biodiesel Study

Authors: Kulvinder Bajwa, Narsi R. Bishnoi


Finding a sustainable alternative for today’s petrochemical industry is a major challenge facing by researchers, scientists, chemical engineers, and society at the global level. Microorganisms are considered to be sustainable feedstock for 3rd generation biofuel production. In this study, we have investigated the potential of a native bacterial strain isolated from a petrol contaminated site for the production of biodiesel. The bacterium was identified to be Rhodococcus opacus by biochemical test and 16S rRNA. Compositional analysis of bacterial biomass has been carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in order to confirm lipid profile. Lipid and biomass were optimized by combination with Box Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology. The factors selected for the optimization of growth condition were glucose, yeast extract, and ammonium nitrate concentration. The experimental model developed through RSM in terms of effective operational factors (BBD) was found to be suitable to describe the lipid and biomass production, which indicated higher lipid and biomass with a minimum concentration of ammonium nitrate, yeast extract, and quite higher dose of glucose supplementation. Optimum results of the experiments were found to be 2.88 gL⁻¹ biomass and lipid content 38.75% at glucose 20 gL⁻¹, ammonium nitrate 0.5 gL⁻¹ and yeast extract 1.25 gL⁻¹. Furthermore, GCMS study revealed that Rhodococcus opacus has favorable fatty acid profile for biodiesel production.

Keywords: biofuel, Oleaginious bacteria, Rhodococcus opacus, FTIR, BBD, free fatty acids

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16 Environmental Protection by Optimum Utilization of Car Air Conditioners

Authors: Sanchita Abrol, Kunal Rana, Ankit Dhir, S. K. Gupta


According to N.R.E.L.’s findings, 700 crore gallons of petrol is used annually to run the air conditioners of passenger vehicles (nearly 6% of total fuel consumption in the USA). Beyond fuel use, the Environmental Protection Agency reported that refrigerant leaks from auto air conditioning units add an additional 5 crore metric tons of carbon emissions to the atmosphere each year. The objective of our project is to deal with this vital issue by carefully modifying the interiors of a car thereby increasing its mileage and the efficiency of its engine. This would consequently result in a decrease in tail emission and generated pollution along with improved car performance. An automatic mechanism, deployed between the front and the rear seats, consisting of transparent thermal insulating sheet/curtain, would roll down as per the requirement of the driver in order to optimize the volume for effective air conditioning, when travelling alone or with a person. The reduction in effective volume will yield favourable results. Even on a mild sunny day, the temperature inside a parked car can quickly spike to life-threatening levels. For a stationary parked car, insulation would be provided beneath its metal body so as to reduce the rate of heat transfer and increase the transmissivity. As a result, the car would not require a large amount of air conditioning for maintaining lower temperature, which would provide us similar benefits. Authors established the feasibility studies, system engineering and primarily theoretical and experimental results confirming the idea and motivation to fabricate and test the actual product.

Keywords: automation, car, cooling insulating curtains, heat optimization, insulation, reduction in tail emission, mileage

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15 Comparison between Photogrammetric and Structure from Motion Techniques in Processing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Imageries

Authors: Ahmed Elaksher


Over the last few years, significant progresses have been made and new approaches have been proposed for efficient collection of 3D spatial data from Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with reduced costs compared to imagery from satellite or manned aircraft. In these systems, a low-cost GPS unit provides the position, velocity of the vehicle, a low-quality inertial measurement unit (IMU) determines its orientation, and off-the-shelf cameras capture the images. Structure from Motion (SfM) and photogrammetry are the main tools for 3D surface reconstruction from images collected by these systems. Unlike traditional techniques, SfM allows the computation of calibration parameters using point correspondences across images without performing a rigorous laboratory or field calibration process and it is more flexible in that it does not require consistent image overlap or same rotation angles between successive photos. These benefits make SfM ideal for UAVs aerial mapping. In this paper, a direct comparison between SfM Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and those generated through traditional photogrammetric techniques was performed. Data was collected by a 3DR IRIS+ Quadcopter with a Canon PowerShot S100 digital camera. Twenty ground control points were randomly distributed on the ground and surveyed with a total station in a local coordinate system. Images were collected from an altitude of 30 meters with a ground resolution of nine mm/pixel. Data was processed with PhotoScan, VisualSFM, Imagine Photogrammetry, and a photogrammetric algorithm developed by the author. The algorithm starts with performing a laboratory camera calibration then the acquired imagery undergoes an orientation procedure to determine the cameras’ positions and orientations. After the orientation is attained, correlation based image matching is conducted to automatically generate three-dimensional surface models followed by a refining step using sub-pixel image information for high matching accuracy. Tests with different number and configurations of the control points were conducted. Camera calibration parameters estimated from commercial software and those obtained with laboratory procedures were comparable. Exposure station positions were within less than few centimeters and insignificant differences, within less than three seconds, among orientation angles were found. DEM differencing was performed between generated DEMs and few centimeters vertical shifts were found.

Keywords: UAV, photogrammetry, SfM, DEM

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14 Hydrogen Production at the Forecourt from Off-Peak Electricity and Its Role in Balancing the Grid

Authors: Abdulla Rahil, Rupert Gammon, Neil Brown


The rapid growth of renewable energy sources and their integration into the grid have been motivated by the depletion of fossil fuels and environmental issues. Unfortunately, the grid is unable to cope with the predicted growth of renewable energy which would lead to its instability. To solve this problem, energy storage devices could be used. Electrolytic hydrogen production from an electrolyser is considered a promising option since it is a clean energy source (zero emissions). Choosing flexible operation of an electrolyser (producing hydrogen during the off-peak electricity period and stopping at other times) could bring about many benefits like reducing the cost of hydrogen and helping to balance the electric systems. This paper investigates the price of hydrogen during flexible operation compared with continuous operation, while serving the customer (hydrogen filling station) without interruption. The optimization algorithm is applied to investigate the hydrogen station in both cases (flexible and continuous operation). Three different scenarios are tested to see whether the off-peak electricity price could enhance the reduction of the hydrogen cost. These scenarios are: Standard tariff (1 tier system) during the day (assumed 12 p/kWh) while still satisfying the demand for hydrogen; using off-peak electricity at a lower price (assumed 5 p/kWh) and shutting down the electrolyser at other times; using lower price electricity at off-peak times and high price electricity at other times. This study looks at Derna city, which is located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (32° 46′ 0 N, 22° 38′ 0 E) with a high potential for wind resource. Hourly wind speed data which were collected over 24½ years from 1990 to 2014 were in addition to data on hourly radiation and hourly electricity demand collected over a one-year period, together with the petrol station data.

Keywords: hydrogen filling station off-peak electricity, renewable energy, off-peak electricity, electrolytic hydrogen

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13 In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery of an I. C. Engine Using Water Injection

Authors: Jayakrishnan U.


A concept of adding two strokes to a four stroke Otto or Diesel engine cycle presented here for the waste heat recovery in a four stroke internal combustion engine. Four stroke Diesel cycle and Otto cycle engines have very low thermal efficiency due to high amount of energy loss in exhaust and also on the cooling of the engine. It is estimated about 35 percent of fuel energy is lost in exhaust of engine and 30 percent in cooling of engine. So by modifying a four-stroke Otto or Diesel engine by adding two-stroke heat recovery steam cycle is presented here. Water injection is used to get an additional power stroke by partial compression of the exhaust gases at the end of third stroke in a four stroke I.C.Engine. It is the conversion of a four-stroke cycle to a six-stroke cycle. By taking a four stroke petrol engine of known dimensions, an ideal thermodynamic model is used to analyse and calculate the events of exhaust gas compression and following two strokes of water injection. By changing the exhaust valve closing timing during exhaust stroke and analysing it on various points, an optimum amount of exhaust gas re-compression and amount of water injection can be found for maximizing efficiency and fuel economy. It is achieved by changing the exhaust valve timing and finding an optimum amount of exhaust re-compression, maximizing the net mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). Specific fuel consumption of the engine also decreases increasing the fuel economy. The valve closing timings for maximum MEPsteam is limited by either 1 bar or dew point temperature of expansion gas or moisture mixture to avoid moisture formation. By modifying the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle by adding two water injection stroke has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, engine efficiency, six-stroke cycle, water injection, specific fuel consumption

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12 Estimation of Service Quality and Its Impact on Market Share Using Business Analytics

Authors: Haritha Saranga


Service quality has become an important driver of competition in manufacturing industries of late, as many products are being sold in conjunction with service offerings. With increase in computational power and data capture capabilities, it has become possible to analyze and estimate various aspects of service quality at the granular level and determine their impact on business performance. In the current study context, dealer level, model-wise warranty data from one of the top two-wheeler manufacturers in India is used to estimate service quality of individual dealers and its impact on warranty related costs and sales performance. We collected primary data on warranty costs, number of complaints, monthly sales, type of quality upgrades, etc. from the two-wheeler automaker. In addition, we gathered secondary data on various regions in India, such as petrol and diesel prices, geographic and climatic conditions of various regions where the dealers are located, to control for customer usage patterns. We analyze this primary and secondary data with the help of a variety of analytics tools such as Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), Seasonal ARIMA and ARIMAX. Study results, after controlling for a variety of factors, such as size, age, region of the dealership, and customer usage pattern, show that service quality does influence sales of the products in a significant manner. A more nuanced analysis reveals the dynamics between product quality and service quality, and how their interaction affects sales performance in the Indian two-wheeler industry context. We also provide various managerial insights using descriptive analytics and build a model that can provide sales projections using a variety of forecasting techniques.

Keywords: service quality, product quality, automobile industry, business analytics, auto-regressive integrated moving average

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11 The Potential of Potato and Maize Based Snacks as Fire Accelerants

Authors: E. Duffin, L. Brownlow


Arson is a crime which can provide exceptional problems to forensic specialists. Its destructive nature makes evidence much harder to find, especially when used to cover up another crime. There is a consistent potential threat of arsonists seeking new and easier ways to set fires. Existing research in this field primarily focuses on the use of accelerants such as petrol, with less attention to other more accessible and harder to detect materials. This includes the growing speculation of potato and maize-based snacks being used as fire accelerants. It was hypothesized that all ‘crisp-type’ snacks in foil packaging had the potential to act as accelerants and would burn readily in the various experiments. To test this hypothesis, a series of small lab-based experiments were undertaken, igniting samples of the snacks. Factors such as ingredients, shape, packaging and calorific value were all taken into consideration. The time (in seconds) spent on fire by the individual snacks was recorded. It was found that all of the snacks tested burnt for statistically similar amounts of time with a p-value of 0.0157. This was followed with a large mock real-life scenario using packets of crisps on fire and car seats to investigate as to the possibility of these snacks being verifiable tools to the arsonist. Here, three full packets of crisps were selected based on variations in burning during the lab experiments. They were each lit with a lighter to initiate burning, then placed onto a car seat to be timed and observed with video cameras. In all three cases, the fire was significant and sustained by the 200-second mark. On the basis of this data, it was concluded that potato and maize-based snacks were viable accelerants of fire. They remain an effective method of starting fires whilst being cheap, accessible, non-suspicious and non-detectable. The results produced supported the hypothesis that all ‘crisp-type’ snacks in foil packaging (that had been tested) had the potential to act as accelerants and would burn readily in the various experiments. This study serves to raise awareness and provide a basis for research and prevention of arson regarding maize and potato-based snacks as fire accelerants.

Keywords: arson, crisps, fires, food

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10 Association between a Forward Lag of Historical Total Accumulated Gasoline Lead Emissions and Contemporary Autism Prevalence Trends in California, USA

Authors: Mark A. S. Laidlaw, Howard W. Mielke


In California between the late 1920’s and 1986 the lead concentrations in urban soils and dust climbed rapidly following the deposition of greater than 387,000 tonnes of lead emitted from gasoline. Previous research indicates that when children are lead exposed around 90% of the lead is retained in their bones and teeth due to the substitution of lead for calcium. Lead in children’s bones has been shown to accumulate over time and is highest in inner-city urban areas, lower in suburban areas and lowest in rural areas. It is also known that women’s bones demineralize during pregnancy due to the foetus's high demand for calcium. Lead accumulates in women’s bones during childhood and the accumulated lead is subsequently released during pregnancy – a lagged response. This results in calcium plus lead to enter the blood stream and cross the placenta to expose the foetus with lead. In 1970 in the United States, the average age of a first‐time mother was about 21. In 2008, the average age was 25.1. In this study, it is demonstrated that in California there is a forward lagged relationship between the accumulated emissions of lead from vehicle fuel additives and later autism prevalence trends between the 1990’s and current time period. Regression analysis between a 24 year forward lag of accumulated lead emissions and autism prevalence trends in California are associated strongly (R2=0.95, p=0.00000000127). It is hypothesized that autism in genetically susceptible children may stem from vehicle fuel lead emission exposures of their mothers during childhood and that the release of stored lead during subsequent pregnancy resulted in lead exposure of foetuses during a critical developmental period. It is furthermore hypothesized that the 24 years forward lag between lead exposures has occurred because that is time period is the average length for women to enter childbearing age. To test the hypothesis that lead in mothers bones is associated with autism, it is hypothesized that retrospective case-control studies would show an association between the lead in mother’s bones and autism. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that the forward lagged relationship between accumulated historical vehicle fuel lead emissions (or air lead concentrations) and autism prevalence trends will be similar in cities at the national and international scale. If further epidemiological studies indicate a strong relationship between accumulated vehicle fuel lead emissions (or accumulated air lead concentrations) and lead in mother’s bones and autism rates, then urban areas may require extensive soil intervention to prevent the development of autism in children.

Keywords: autism, bones, lead, gasoline, petrol, prevalence

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