Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Ji Lian Yap

26 Reform of the Law Relating to Personal Property Security

Authors: Ji Lian Yap


This paper will critically consider developments in 2014 in relation to the law relating to security over personal property in Hong Kong. The rules governing the registration of charges under the Hong Kong Companies Ordinance will be examined. Case law relating to personal property security will also be discussed. The transplantation of the floating charge into China’s Property Law will also be considered.

Keywords: personal property, security law, reform of the law, law

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25 Mathematical Modeling of the Working Principle of Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Hua Mu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokun Cai, Hao Qin


Gravity field is of great significance in geoscience, national economy and national security, and gravitational gradient measurement has been extensively studied due to its higher accuracy than gravity measurement. Gravity gradient sensor, being one of core devices of the gravity gradient instrument, plays a key role in measuring accuracy. Therefore, this paper starts from analyzing the working principle of the gravity gradient sensor by Newton’s law, and then considers the relative motion between inertial and non-inertial systems to build a relatively adequate mathematical model, laying a foundation for the measurement error calibration, measurement accuracy improvement.

Keywords: gravity gradient, gravity gradient sensor, accelerometer, single-axis rotation modulation

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24 A Prediction Model of Tornado and Its Impact on Architecture Design

Authors: Jialin Wu, Zhiwei Lian, Jieyu Tang, Jingyun Shen


Tornado is a serious and unpredictable natural disaster, which has an important impact on people's production and life. The probability of being hit by tornadoes in China was analyzed considering the principles of tornado formation. Then some suggestions on layout and shapes for newly-built buildings were provided combined with the characteristics of tornado wind fields. Fuzzy clustering and inverse closeness methods were used to evaluate the probability levels of tornado risks in various provinces based on classification and ranking. GIS was adopted to display the results. Finally, wind field single-vortex tornado was studied to discuss the optimized design of rural low-rise houses in Yancheng, Jiangsu as an example. This paper may provide enough data to support building and urban design in some specific regions.

Keywords: tornado probability, computational fluid dynamics, fuzzy mathematics, optimal design

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23 Calibration of the Radical Installation Limit Error of the Accelerometer in the Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokuncai, Hao Qin


Gravity gradient instrument (GGI) is the core of the gravity gradiometer, so the structural error of the sensor has a great impact on the measurement results. In order not to affect the aimed measurement accuracy, limit error is required in the installation of the accelerometer. In this paper, based on the established measuring principle model, the radial installation limit error is calibrated, which is taken as an example to provide a method to calculate the other limit error of the installation under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the measurement result. This method provides the idea for deriving the limit error of the geometry structure of the sensor, laying the foundation for the mechanical precision design and physical design.

Keywords: gravity gradient sensor, radial installation limit error, accelerometer, uniaxial rotational modulation

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22 Understanding the Nature of Student Conceptions of Mathematics: A Study of Mathematics Students in Higher Education

Authors: Priscilla Eng Lian Murphy


This study examines the nature of student conceptions of mathematics in higher education using quantitative research methods. This study validates the Short Form of Conception of Mathematics survey as well as reveals the epistemological nature of student conceptions of mathematics. Using a random sample of mathematics students in Australia and New Zealand (N=274), this paper highlighted three key findings, of relevance to lecturers in higher education. Firstly, descriptive data shows that mathematics students in Australia and New Zealand reported that mathematics is about numbers and components, models and life. Secondly, models conceptions of mathematics predicted strong examination performances using regression analyses; and thirdly, there is a positive correlation between high mathematics examination scores and cohesive conceptions of mathematics.

Keywords: higher education, learning mathematics, mathematics performances, student conceptions of mathematics

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21 Optimum Dispatching Rule in Solar Ingot-Wafer Manufacturing System

Authors: Wheyming Song, Hung-Hsiang Lin, Scott Lian


In this research, we investigate the optimal dispatching rule for machines and manpower allocation in the solar ingot-wafer systems. The performance of the method is measured by the sales profit for each dollar paid to the operators in a one week at steady-state. The decision variables are identification-number of machines and operators when each job is required to be served in each process. We propose a rule which is a function of operator’s ability, corresponding salary, and standing location while in the factory. The rule is named ‘Multi-nominal distribution dispatch rule’. The proposed rule performs better than many traditional rules including generic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. Simulation results show that the proposed Multi-nominal distribution dispatch rule improvement on the sales profit dramatically.

Keywords: dispatching, solar ingot, simulation, flexsim

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20 Damage Localization of Deterministic-Stochastic Systems

Authors: Yen-Po Wang, Ming-Chih Huang, Ming-Lian Chang


A scheme integrated with deterministic–stochastic subspace system identification and the method of damage localization vector is proposed in this study for damage detection of structures based on seismic response data. A series of shaking table tests using a five-storey steel frame has been conducted in National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE), Taiwan. Damage condition is simulated by reducing the cross-sectional area of some of the columns at the bottom. Both single and combinations of multiple damage conditions at various locations have been considered. In the system identification analysis, either full or partial observation conditions have been taken into account. It has been shown that the damaged stories can be identified from global responses of the structure to earthquakes if sufficiently observed. In addition to detecting damage(s) with respect to the intact structure, identification of new or extended damages of the as-damaged (ill-conditioned) counterpart has also been studied. The proposed scheme proves to be effective.

Keywords: damage locating vectors, deterministic-stochastic subspace system, shaking table tests, system identification

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19 Seismic Behavior of Concrete Filled Steel Tube Reinforced Concrete Column

Authors: Raghabendra Yadav, Baochun Chen, Huihui Yuan, Zhibin Lian


Pseudo-dynamic test (PDT) method is an advanced seismic test method that combines loading technology with computer technology. Large-scale models or full scale seismic tests can be carried out by using this method. CFST-RC columns are used in civil engineering structures because of their better seismic performance. A CFST-RC column is composed of four CFST limbs which are connected with RC web in longitudinal direction and with steel tube in transverse direction. For this study, a CFST-RC pier is tested under Four different earthquake time histories having scaled PGA of 0.05g. From the experiment acceleration, velocity, displacement and load time histories are observed. The dynamic magnification factors for acceleration due to Elcentro, Chi-Chi, Imperial Valley and Kobe ground motions are observed as 15, 12, 17 and 14 respectively. The natural frequency of the pier is found to be 1.40 Hz. The result shows that this type of pier has excellent static and earthquake resistant properties.

Keywords: bridge pier, CFST-RC pier, pseudo dynamic test, seismic performance, time history

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18 Seismic Behaviour of CFST-RC Columns

Authors: Raghabendra Yadav, Baochun Chen, Huihui Yuan, Zhibin Lian


Concrete Filled Steel Tube (CFST) columns are widely used in Civil Engineering Structures due to their abundant properties. CFST-RC column is a built up column in which CFST members are connected with RC web. The CFST-RC column has excellent static and earthquake resistant properties, such as high strength, high ductility and large energy absorption capacity. CFST-RC columns have been adopted as piers in Ganhaizi Bridge in high seismic risk zone with a highest pier of 107m. The experimental investigation on scaled models of similar type of the CFST-RC pier are carried out. The experimental investigation on scaled models of similar type of the CFST-RC pier are carried out. Under cyclic loading, the hysteretic performance of CFST-RC columns, such as failure modes, ductility, load displacement hysteretic curves, energy absorption capacity, strength and stiffness degradation are studied in this paper.

Keywords: CFST, cyclic load, Ganhaizi bridge, seismic performance

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17 Data-Driven Approach to Predict Inpatient's Estimated Discharge Date

Authors: Ayliana Dharmawan, Heng Yong Sheng, Zhang Xiaojin, Tan Thai Lian


To facilitate discharge planning, doctors are presently required to assign an Estimated Discharge Date (EDD) for each patient admitted to the hospital. This assignment of the EDD is largely based on the doctor’s judgment. This can be difficult for cases which are complex or relatively new to the doctor. It is hypothesized that a data-driven approach would be able to facilitate the doctors to make accurate estimations of the discharge date. Making use of routinely collected data on inpatient discharges between January 2013 and May 2016, a predictive model was developed using machine learning techniques to predict the Length of Stay (and hence the EDD) of inpatients, at the point of admission. The predictive performance of the model was compared to that of the clinicians using accuracy measures. Overall, the best performing model was found to be able to predict EDD with an accuracy improvement in Average Squared Error (ASE) by -38% as compared to the first EDD determined by the present method. It was found that important predictors of the EDD include the provisional diagnosis code, patient’s age, attending doctor at admission, medical specialty at admission, accommodation type, and the mean length of stay of the patient in the past year. The predictive model can be used as a tool to accurately predict the EDD.

Keywords: inpatient, estimated discharge date, EDD, prediction, data-driven

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16 Dynamic Mode Decomposition and Wake Flow Modelling of a Wind Turbine

Authors: Nor Mazlin Zahari, Lian Gan, Xuerui Mao


The power production in wind farms and the mechanical loads on the turbines are strongly impacted by the wake of the wind turbine. Thus, there is a need for understanding and modelling the turbine wake dynamic in the wind farm and the layout optimization. Having a good wake model is important in predicting plant performance and understanding fatigue loads. In this paper, the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) was applied to the simulation data generated by a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of flow around a turbine, perturbed by upstream inflow noise. This technique is useful in analyzing the wake flow, to predict its future states and to reflect flow dynamics associated with the coherent structures behind wind turbine wake flow. DMD was employed to describe the dynamic of the flow around turbine from the DNS data. Since the DNS data comes with the unstructured meshes and non-uniform grid, the interpolation of each occurring within each element in the data to obtain an evenly spaced mesh was performed before the DMD was applied. DMD analyses were able to tell us characteristics of the travelling waves behind the turbine, e.g. the dominant helical flow structures and the corresponding frequencies. As the result, the dominant frequency will be detected, and the associated spatial structure will be identified. The dynamic mode which represented the coherent structure will be presented.

Keywords: coherent structure, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), dominant frequency, Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD)

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15 The Influence of C Element on the Phase Transformation in Weldment of Complex Stainless Steels 2507/316/316L

Authors: LIN Dong-Yih, Yang S.-M., Huang B.-W., Lian J.-A.


Super duplex stainless steel has excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. It becomes important structural material as its application has been extended to the fields such as renewable energy and the chemical industry because of its excellent properties. As examples are offshore wind power, solar cell machinery, and pipes in the chemical industry. The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steel can be eliminated by welding due to the precipitation of the hard and brittle σ phase, which is rich of chromium, and molybdenum elements. This paper studies the influence of carbon element on the phase transformation of -ferrite and σ phase in 2507 super duplex stainless steel. The 2507 will be under argon gas protection welded with 316 and 316L extra low carbon stainless steel separately. The microstructural phases of stainless steels before and after welding, in fusion, heat affected zones, and base material will be studied via X-ray, OM, SEM, EPMA i.e. their quantity, size, distribution, and morphology. The influences of diffusion by carbon element will be compared according to the microstructures, hardness, and corrosion tests.

Keywords: complex stainless steel, welding, phase formation, carbon element, sigma phase, delta ferrite

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14 UEMG-FHR Coupling Analysis in Pregnancies Complicated by Pre-Eclampsia and Small for Gestational Age

Authors: Kun Chen, Yan Wang, Yangyu Zhao, Shufang Li, Lian Chen, Xiaoyue Guo, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang


The coupling strength between uterine electromyography (UEMG) and Fetal heart rate (FHR) signals during peripartum reflects the fetal biophysical activities. Therefore, UEMG-FHR coupling characterization is instructive in assessing placenta function. This study introduced a physiological marker named elevated frequency of UEMG-FHR coupling (E-UFC) and explored its predictive value for pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA). Placental insufficiency patients (n=12) and healthy volunteers (n=24) were recruited and participated. UEMG and FHR were recorded non-invasively by a trans-abdominal device in women at term with singleton pregnancy (32-37 weeks) from 10:00 pm to 8:00 am. The product of the wavelet coherence and the wavelet cross-spectral power between UEMG and FHR was used to weight these two effects in order to quantify the degree of the UEMG-FHR coupling. E-UFC was exacted from the resultant spectrogram by calculating the mean value of the high-coherence (r > 0.5) frequency band. Results showed the high-coherence between UEMG and FHR was observed in the frequency band (1/512-1/16Hz). In addition, E-UFC in placental insufficiency patients was weaker compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001) at group level. These findings suggested the proposed approach could be used to quantitatively characterize the fetal biophysical activities, which is beneficial for early detection of placental insufficiency and reduces the occurrence of adverse pregnancy.

Keywords: uterine electromyography, fetal heart rate, coupling analysis, wavelet analysis

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13 Clara Cell Secretory Protein 16 Serum Level Decreases in Patients with Non-Smoking-Related Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)

Authors: Lian Wu, Mervyn Merrilees


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a worldwide problem, characterized by irreversible and progressive airflow obstruction. In New Zealand, it is currently the 4th commonest cause of death and exacerbations of COPD are a frequent cause of admission to hospital. Serum levels of Clara cell secretory protein-16 (CC-16) are believed to represent Clara cell toxicity. More recently, CC-16 has been found to be associated with smoker COPD. It is produced almost exclusively by non-ciliated Clara cells in the airways, and its primary function is to protect the lungs against oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. After acute exposure to cigarette smoke, serum levels of CC-16 become elevated. CC16 is a potent natural immune-suppressor and anti-inflammatory agent. In vitro, CC16 inhibits both monocyte and polymorphonuclear neutrophils chemotaxis and phagocytosis. CC16 also inhibits fibroblast chemotaxis. However, the role of CC-16 in non-smoking related COPD is still not clear. In this study, we investigated serum CC-16 levels in non-smoking related COPD. Methods: We compared non-smoker patients with COPD (FEV1<60% of predicted, FEV1/FVC <0.7, n=100) and individuals with normal lung function FEV1≥ 80% of predicted and FEV1/FVC≥ 0.7, n=80). All subjects had no smoking history. CC-16 was measured by ELISA. Results and conclusion: Serum CC-16 levels are reduced in individuals with non-smoking related COPD, and there is a weak correlation with disease severity in non-smoking related COPD group compared to non-smoker controls.

Keywords: COPD, CC-16, ELISA, non-smoking-related COPD

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12 Time Effective Structural Frequency Response Testing with Oblique Impact

Authors: Khoo Shin Yee, Lian Yee Cheng, Ong Zhi Chao, Zubaidah Ismail, Siamak Noroozi


Structural frequency response testing is accurate in identifying the dynamic characteristic of a machinery structure. In practical perspective, conventional structural frequency response testing such as experimental modal analysis with impulse technique (also known as “impulse testing”) has limitation especially on its long acquisition time. The high acquisition time is mainly due to the redundancy procedure where the engineer has to repeatedly perform the test in 3 directions, namely the axial-, horizontal- and vertical-axis, in order to comprehensively define the dynamic behavior of a 3D structure. This is unfavorable to numerous industries where the downtime cost is high. This study proposes to reduce the testing time by using oblique impact. Theoretically, a single oblique impact can induce significant vibration responses and vibration modes in all the 3 directions. Hence, the acquisition time with the implementation of the oblique impulse technique can be reduced by a factor of three (i.e. for a 3D dynamic system). This study initiates an experimental investigation of impulse testing with oblique excitation. A motor-driven test rig has been used for the testing purpose. Its dynamic characteristic has been identified using the impulse testing with the conventional normal impact and the proposed oblique impact respectively. The results show that the proposed oblique impulse testing is able to obtain all the desired natural frequencies in all 3 directions and thus providing a feasible solution for a fast and time effective way of conducting the impulse testing.

Keywords: frequency response function, impact testing, modal analysis, oblique angle, oblique impact

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11 An Adaptive Back-Propagation Network and Kalman Filter Based Multi-Sensor Fusion Method for Train Location System

Authors: Yu-ding Du, Qi-lian Bao, Nassim Bessaad, Lin Liu


The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is regarded as an effective approach for the purpose of replacing the large amount used track-side balises in modern train localization systems. This paper describes a method based on the data fusion of a GNSS receiver sensor and an odometer sensor that can significantly improve the positioning accuracy. A digital track map is needed as another sensor to project two-dimensional GNSS position to one-dimensional along-track distance due to the fact that the train’s position can only be constrained on the track. A model trained by BP neural network is used to estimate the trend positioning error which is related to the specific location and proximate processing of the digital track map. Considering that in some conditions the satellite signal failure will lead to the increase of GNSS positioning error, a detection step for GNSS signal is applied. An adaptive weighted fusion algorithm is presented to reduce the standard deviation of train speed measurement. Finally an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used for the fusion of the projected 1-D GNSS positioning data and the 1-D train speed data to get the estimate position. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well, which can reduce positioning error notably.

Keywords: multi-sensor data fusion, train positioning, GNSS, odometer, digital track map, map matching, BP neural network, adaptive weighted fusion, Kalman filter

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10 Adding a Few Language-Level Constructs to Improve OOP Verifiability of Semantic Correctness

Authors: Lian Yang


Object-oriented programming (OOP) is the dominant programming paradigm in today’s software industry and it has literally enabled average software developers to develop millions of commercial strength software applications in the era of INTERNET revolution over the past three decades. On the other hand, the lack of strict mathematical model and domain constraint features at the language level has long perplexed the computer science academia and OOP engineering community. This situation resulted in inconsistent system qualities and hard-to-understand designs in some OOP projects. The difficulties with regards to fix the current situation are also well known. Although the power of OOP lies in its unbridled flexibility and enormously rich data modeling capability, we argue that the ambiguity and the implicit facade surrounding the conceptual model of a class and an object should be eliminated as much as possible. We listed the five major usage of class and propose to separate them by proposing new language constructs. By using well-established theories of set and FSM, we propose to apply certain simple, generic, and yet effective constraints at OOP language level in an attempt to find a possible solution to the above-mentioned issues regarding OOP. The goal is to make OOP more theoretically sound as well as to aid programmers uncover warning signs of irregularities and domain-specific issues in applications early on the development stage and catch semantic mistakes at runtime, improving correctness verifiability of software programs. On the other hand, the aim of this paper is more practical than theoretical.

Keywords: new language constructs, set theory, FSM theory, user defined value type, function groups, membership qualification attribute (MQA), check-constraint (CC)

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9 Knowledge and Attitude towards Helicobacter pylori: Awareness about Health Impacts of H. pylori Gastric Ulcer and Its Carcinogenic Potential among Adults in Sharjah

Authors: Abdullah Malek, Muzn Al Khaldi, Lian Odeh, Atheer Tariq, Mohammad Al Fardan, Hiba Barqawi


H. pylori bacterium is a known underlying agent for gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer and is believed to infect half of the world’s population. Even with the ubiquity of H. pylori bacterium, there is lack of knowledge regarding its modes of transmission, associated diseases, carcinogenic effect and means of prevention; especially in the UAE. A cross sectional study of 500 participants, of which 58% (n= 289) of the respondents were female, and 42% (n=210) were male, was conducted in Sharjah to assess the knowledge, and explore the attitudes and practices among UAE residents towards Helicobacter Pylori and its associated PUD as well as its carcinogenic nature. A structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the target population to establish their demographic background and selected aspects of their lifestyle. General knowledge about H. Pylori was poor, only 24.6% stated they have heard of H. pylori. Attitudes towards prevention and practices were relatively poor as well. Subjects who suffered from severe symptoms (ALARM symptoms) had significantly lower habit scores than those with mild and moderate symptoms (p=0.0078**). To the authours’ knowledge, no previous studies were conducted in the United Arab Emirates regarding the epidemiology of the infection to detect the extent of H. Pylori’s impact on the public health. The results of this study can be used to draw conclusions about the average knowledge of the UAE population regarding H. pylori. It can also be a starting point to devise new education programs and campaigns that raise awareness of this health issue which could be easily avoided with early diagnosis and antibiotic treatment.

Keywords: chronic gastritis, community health, gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori, peptic ulcers

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8 The Moderating Roles of Bedtime Activities and Anxiety and Depression in the Relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Sleep Problems in Children

Authors: Lian Tong, Yan Ye, Qiong Yan


Background: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience sleep problems, but the comorbidity mechanism has not been sufficiently studied. This study aimed to determine the comorbidity of ADHD and sleep problems as well as the moderating effects of bedtime activities and depression/anxiety symptoms on the relationship between ADHD and sleep problems. Methods: We recruited 934 primary students from third to fifth grade and their parents by stratified random sampling from three primary schools in Shanghai, China. This study used parent-reported versions of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV, Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist. We used hierarchical linear regression analysis to clarify the moderating effects of bedtime activities and depression/anxiety symptoms. Results: We found that children with more ADHD symptoms had shorter sleep durations and more sleep problems on weekdays. Screen time before bedtime strengthened the relationship between ADHD and sleep-disordered breathing. Children with more screen time were more likely to have sleep onset delay, while those with less screen time had more sleep onset problems with increasing ADHD symptoms. The high bedtime eating group experienced more night waking with increasing ADHD symptoms compared with the low bedtime eating group. Anxiety/depression exacerbated total sleep problems and further interacted with ADHD symptoms to predict sleep length and sleep duration problems. Conclusions: Bedtime activities and emotional problems had important moderating effects on the relationship between ADHD and sleep problems. These findings indicate that appropriate bedtime management and emotional management may reduce sleep problems and improve sleep duration for children with ADHD symptoms.

Keywords: ADHD, sleep problems, anxiety/depression, bedtime activities, children

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7 Collapse Analysis of Planar Composite Frame under Impact Loads

Authors: Lian Song, Shao-Bo Kang, Bo Yang


Concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) structure has been widely used in construction practices due to its superior performances under various loading conditions. However, limited studies are available when this type of structure is subjected to impact or explosive loads. Current methods in relevant design codes are not specific for preventing progressive collapse of CFST structures. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out numerical simulations on CFST structure under impact loads. In this study, finite element analyses are conducted on the mechanical behaviour of composite frames which composed of CFST columns and steel beams subject to impact loading. In the model, CFST columns are simulated using finite element software ABAQUS. The model is verified by test results of solid and hollow CFST columns under lateral impacts, and reasonably good agreement is obtained through comparisons. Thereafter, a multi-scale finite element modelling technique is developed to evaluate the behaviour of a five-storey three-span planar composite frame. Alternate path method and direct simulation method are adopted to perform the dynamic response of the frame when a supporting column is removed suddenly. In the former method, the reason for column removal is not considered and only the remaining frame is simulated, whereas in the latter, a specific impact load is applied to the frame to take account of the column failure induced by vehicle impact. Comparisons are made between these two methods in terms of displacement history and internal force redistribution, and design recommendations are provided for the design of CFST structures under impact loads.

Keywords: planar composite frame, collapse analysis, impact loading, direct simulation method, alternate path method

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6 Tamukkana, Ancient Achaemenids City near the Persian Gulf

Authors: Ghulamhossein Nezami


Civilizations based in Iran, especially in the south, have always realized the all-around importance of the Persian Sea and for various reasons, have paid full attention to it. The first of these was the pre-Aryan government, Ilam in the coastal province of Sharihum and the city of Lian (now the port of Bushehr) in terms of trade, defense and religion. With the establishment of the Achaemenids on the entire plateau of Iran to the center of Persia, they created several communication routes from Parseh to the shores of the Persian Gulf, which ended in the present Bushehr province. This coastal area was extended by a road in the coastal plain to the more southern parts of the ports of Ausinze - according to Ptolemy the port of Siraf before the Sassanids - and Epstane and Hormozia in the present-day Strait of Hormuz. Meanwhile, the ancient city of Temukknana, whose new historical documents testify to its extraordinary importance in the Achaemenid period, especially Darius I of the Achaemenids, from a strategic position with the coastal areas, the coasts and on the other hand with the gamers, the political center. - Achaemenid administration, had. New archeological evidence, research, and excavations show that both the famous Achaemenid kings and courtiers paid special attention to Tamukknana. The discovery of a tomb and three Achaemenid palaces from before the reign of Cyrus to Xerxes in this region showed the importance of the strategic, security-defense and commercial position of this region, extraordinary for the Achaemenids. Therefore, the city of Temukkana in the Dashtestan region of present-day Bushehr province became an important Achaemenid center on the Persian Gulf coast and became the political-economic center of gravity of the Achaemenids and the regulator of communication networks on the Persian Gulf coast. This event showed that the Achaemenids attached importance to their economic goals and oversight of their vast territory by the Persian Gulf. Methods: Book resources and field study.

Keywords: Achaemenids, Bushehr, Persian Gulf, Tamukkana

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5 Liquid Unloading of Wells with Scaled Perforation via Batch Foamers

Authors: Erwin Chan, Aravind Subramaniyan, Siti Abdullah Fatehah, Steve Lian Kuling


Foam assisted lift technology is proven across the industry to provide efficient deliquification in gas wells. Such deliquification is typically achieved by delivering the foamer chemical downhole via capillary strings. In highly liquid loaded wells where capillary strings are not readily available, foamer can be delivered via batch injection or bull-heading. The latter techniques differ from the former in that cap strings allow for liquid to be unloaded continuously, whereas foamer batches require that periodic batching be conducted for the liquid to be unloaded. Although batch injection allows for liquid to be unloaded in wells with suitable water to gas (WGR) ratio and condensate to gas (CGR) ratio without well intervention for capillary string installation, this technique comes with its own set of challenges - for foamer to de-liquify liquids, the chemical needs to reach perforation locations where gas bubbling is observed. In highly scaled perforation zones in certain wells, foamer delivered in batches is unable to reach the gas bubbling zone, thus achieving poor lift efficiency. This paper aims to discuss the techniques and challenges for unloading liquid via batch injection in scaled perforation wells X and Y, whose WGR is 6bbl/MMscf, whose scale build-up is observed at the bottom of perforation interval, whose water column is 400 feet, and whose ‘bubbling zone’ is less than 100 feet. Variables such as foamer Z dosage, batching technique, and well flow control valve opening times are manipulated during the duration of the trial to achieve maximum liquid unloading and gas rates. During the field trial, the team has found optimal values between the three aforementioned parameters for best unloading results, in which each cycle’s gas and liquid rates are compared with baselines with similar flowing tubing head pressures (FTHP). It is discovered that amongst other factors, a good agitation technique is a primary determinant for efficient liquid unloading. An average increment of 2MMscf/d against an average production of 4MMscf/d at stable FTHP is recorded during the trial.

Keywords: foam, foamer, gas lift, liquid unloading, scale, batch injection

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4 A Conceptual Model of the Factors Affecting Saudi Citizens' Use of Social Media to Communicate with the Government

Authors: Reemiah Alotaibi, Muthu Ramachandran, Ah-Lian Kor, Amin Hosseinian-Far


In the past decade, developers of Web 2.0 technologies have shown increasing interest in the topic of e-government. There has been a rapid growth in social media technology because of its significant role in backing up some essential social needs. Its importance and power is derived from its capacity to support two-way communication. Governments are curious to get engaged in these websites, hoping to benefit from the new forms of communication and interaction offered by such technology. Greater participation by the public can be viewed as a chief indicator of effective government communication. Yet, the level of public participation in government 2.0 is not quite satisfactory. In general, it is still at the early stage in most developing countries, including Saudi Arabia. Although it is a fact that Saudi people are among the most active in using social media, the number of people who use social media to communicate with the public institutions is not high. Furthermore, most of the governmental organisations are not using social media tools to communicate with the public. They use these platforms to disseminate information. Our study focuses on the factors affecting citizens’ adoption of social media in Saudi Arabia. Our research question is: what are the factors affecting Saudi citizens’ use of social media to communicate with the government? To answer this research question, the research aims to validate the UTAUT model for examining social media tools from the citizen perspective. An amendment will be proposed to fit the adoption of social media platforms as a communication channel in government by using a developed conceptual model which integrates constructs from the UTAUT model and others external variables based on the literature review. The set of potential factors that affect these citizens' decisions to adopt social media to communicate with their government has been identified as perceived encouragement, trust and cultural influence. The connection between the above-mentioned constructs from the basis for the research hypothesis will be examined in the light of a quantitative methodology. Data collection will be performed through a survey targeting a number of Saudi citizens who are social media users. The data collected from the primary survey will later be analysed by using statistical methods. The outcomes of this research project are argued to have potential contributions to the fields of social media and e-Government adoption, both on the theoretical and practical levels. It is believed that this research project is the first of its type that attempts to identify the factors that affect citizens’ adoption of social media to communicate with the government. The importance of identifying these factors stems from the potential use of them to enhance the government’s implementation of social media and help in making more accurate decisions and strategies based on comprehending the most important factors that affect citizens’ decisions.

Keywords: social media, adoption, citizen, UTAUT model

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3 Nigerian Football System: Examining Meso-Level Practices against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and Elite Sport

Authors: I. Derek Kaka’an, P. Smolianov, D. Koh Choon Lian, S. Dion, C. Schoen, J. Norberg


This study was designed to examine mass participation and elite football performance in Nigeria with reference to advance international football management practices. Over 200 sources of literature on sport delivery systems were analyzed to construct a globally applicable model of elite football integrated with mass participation, comprising of the following three levels: macro- (socio-economic, cultural, legislative, and organizational), meso- (infrastructures, personnel, and services enabling sport programs) and micro-level (operations, processes, and methodologies for development of individual athletes). The model has received scholarly validation and showed to be a framework for program analysis that is not culturally bound. The Smolianov and Zakus model has been employed for further understanding of sport systems such as US soccer, US Rugby, swimming, tennis, and volleyball as well as Russian and Dutch swimming. A questionnaire was developed using the above-mentioned model. Survey questions were validated by 12 experts including academicians, executives from sport governing bodies, football coaches, and administrators. To identify best practices and determine areas for improvement of football in Nigeria, 120 coaches completed the questionnaire. Useful exemplars and possible improvements were further identified through semi-structured discussions with 10 Nigerian football administrators and experts. Finally, content analysis of Nigeria Football Federation’s website and organizational documentation was conducted. This paper focuses on the meso-level of Nigerian football delivery, particularly infrastructures, personnel, and services enabling sport programs. This includes training centers, competition systems, and intellectual services. Results identified remarkable achievements coupled with great potential to further develop football in different types of public and private organizations in Nigeria. These include: assimilating football competitions with other cultural and educational activities, providing favorable conditions for employees of all possible organizations to partake and help in managing football programs and events, providing football coaching integrated with counseling for prevention of antisocial conduct, and improving cooperation between football programs and organizations for peace-making and advancement of international relations, tourism, and socio-economic development. Accurate reporting of the sports programs from the media should be encouraged through staff training for better awareness of various events. The systematic integration of these meso-level practices into the balanced development of mass and high-performance football will contribute to international sport success as well as national health, education, and social harmony.

Keywords: football, high performance, mass participation, Nigeria, sport development

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2 Comparative Evaluation of High Pure Mn3O4 Preparation Technique between the Conventional Process from Electrolytic Manganese and a Sustainable Approach Directly from Low-Grade Rhodochrosite

Authors: Fang Lian, Zefang Chenli, Laijun Ma, Lei Mao


Up to now, electrolytic process is a popular way to prepare Mn and MnO2 (EMD) with high purity. However, the conventional preparation process of manganese oxide such as Mn3O4 with high purity from electrolytic manganese metal is characterized by long production-cycle, high-pollution discharge and high energy consumption especially initially from low-grade rhodochrosite, the main resources for exploitation and applications in China. Moreover, Mn3O4 prepared from electrolytic manganese shows large particles, single morphology beyond the control and weak chemical activity. On the other hand, hydrometallurgical method combined with thermal decomposition, hydrothermal synthesis and sol-gel processes has been widely studied because of its high efficiency, low consumption and low cost. But the key problem in direct preparation of manganese oxide series from low-grade rhodochrosite is to remove completely the multiple impurities such as iron, silicon, calcium and magnesium. It is urgent to develop a sustainable approach to high pure manganese oxide series with character of short process, high efficiency, environmentally friendly and economical benefit. In our work, the preparation technique of high pure Mn3O4 directly from low-grade rhodochrosite ore (13.86%) was studied and improved intensively, including the effective leaching process and the short purifying process. Based on the same ion effect, the repeated leaching of rhodochrosite with sulfuric acid is proposed to improve the solubility of Mn2+ and inhibit the dissolution of the impurities Ca2+ and Mg2+. Moreover, the repeated leaching process could make full use of sulfuric acid and lower the cost of the raw material. With the aid of theoretical calculation, Ba(OH)2 was chosen to adjust the pH value of manganese sulfate solution and BaF2 to remove Ca2+ and Mg2+ completely in the process of purifying. Herein, the recovery ratio of manganese and removal ratio of the impurity were evaluated via chemical titration and ICP analysis, respectively. Comparison between conventional preparation technique from electrolytic manganese and a sustainable approach directly from low-grade rhodochrosite have also been done herein. The results demonstrate that the extraction ratio and the recovery ratio of manganese reached 94.3% and 92.7%, respectively. The heavy metal impurities has been decreased to less than 1ppm, and the content of calcium, magnesium and sodium has been decreased to less than 20ppm, which meet standards of high pure reagent for energy and electronic materials. In compare with conventional technique from electrolytic manganese, the power consumption has been reduced to ≤2000 kWh/t(product) in our short-process approach. Moreover, comprehensive recovery rate of manganese increases significantly, and the wastewater generated from our short-process approach contains low content of ammonia/ nitrogen about 500 mg/t(product) and no toxic emissions. Our study contributes to the sustainable application of low-grade manganese ore. Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to the National Science and Technology Support Program of China (No.2015BAB01B02) for financial support to the work.

Keywords: leaching, high purity, low-grade rhodochrosite, manganese oxide, purifying process, recovery ratio

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1 Impact of Interdisciplinary Therapy Allied to Online Health Education on Cardiometabolic Parameters and Inflammation Factor Rating in Obese Adolescents

Authors: Yasmin A. M. Ferreira, Ana C. K. Pelissari, Sofia De C. F. Vicente, Raquel M. Da S. Campos, Deborah C. L. Masquio, Lian Tock, Lila M. Oyama, Flavia C. Corgosinho, Valter T. Boldarine, Ana R. Dâmaso


The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing around the world and currently considered a global epidemic. Food and nutrition are essential requirements for promoting health and protecting non-communicable chronic diseases, such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Specific dietary components may modulate the inflammation and oxidative stress in obese individuals. Few studies have investigated the dietary Inflammation Factor Rating (IFR) in obese adolescents. The IFR was developed to characterize an individual´s diet on anti- to pro-inflammatory score. This evaluation contributes to investigate the effects of inflammatory diet in metabolic profile in several individual conditions. Objectives: The present study aims to investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary weight loss therapy on inflammation factor rating and cardiometabolic risk in obese adolescents. Methods: A total of 26 volunteers (14-19 y.o) were recruited and submitted to 20 weeks interdisciplinary therapy allied to health education website- Ciclo do Emagrecimento®, including clinical, nutritional, psychological counseling and exercise training. The body weight was monitored weekly by self-report and photo. The adolescents answered a test to evaluate the knowledge of the topics covered in the videos. A 24h dietary record was applied at the baseline and after 20 weeks to assess the food intake and to calculate IFR. A negative IFR suggests that diet may have inflammatory effects and a positive IFR indicates an anti-inflammatory effect. Statistical analysis was performed using the program STATISTICA version 12.5 for Windows. The adopted significant value was α ≤ 5 %. Data normality was verified with the Kolmogorov Smirnov test. Data were expressed as mean±SD values. To analyze the effects of intervention it was applied test t. Pearson´s correlations test was performed. Results: After 20 weeks of treatment, body mass index (BMI), body weight, body fat (kg and %), abdominal and waist circumferences decreased significantly. The mean of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) increased after the therapy. Moreover, it was found an improvement of inflammation factor rating from -427,27±322,47 to -297,15±240,01, suggesting beneficial effects of nutritional counselling. Considering the correlations analysis, it was found that pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increase in the BMI, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), triglycerides, insulin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR); while an anti-inflammatory diet is associated with improvement of HDL-c and insulin sensitivity Check index (QUICKI). Conclusion: The 20-week blended multidisciplinary therapy was effective to reduce body weight, anthropometric circumferences and improve inflammatory markers in obese adolescents. In addition, our results showed that an increase in inflammatory profile diet is associated with cardiometabolic parameters, suggesting the relevance to stimulate anti-inflammatory diet habits as an effective strategy to treat and control of obesity and related comorbidities. Financial Support: FAPESP (2017/07372-1) and CNPq (409943/2016-9)

Keywords: cardiometabolic risk, inflammatory diet, multidisciplinary therapy, obesity

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